New Kingdom of Egypt
The New Kingdom referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, 20th dynasties of Egypt. Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570 BC and 1544 BC; the New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It marked the peak of its power; the part of this period, under the 19th and 20th Dynasties, is known as the Ramesside period. It is named after the 11 Pharaohs that took the name Ramesses, after Ramesses I, the founder of the 19th Dynasty; as a result of the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom saw Egypt attempt to create a buffer between the Levant and Egypt proper, during this time Egypt attained its greatest territorial extent. In response to successful 17th century attacks during the Second Intermediate Period by the powerful Kingdom of Kush, the rulers of the New Kingdom felt compelled to expand far south into Nubia and to hold wide territories in the Near East.
In the north, Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. The 18th Dynasty included some of Egypt's most famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun. Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on expanding Egypt's external trade by sending a commercial expedition to the land of Punt. Thutmose III expanded Egypt's army and wielded it with great success to consolidate the empire created by his predecessors; this resulted in a peak in Egypt's power and wealth during the reign of Amenhotep III. During the reign of Thutmose III, the term Pharaoh referring to the king's palace, became a form of address for the person, king. One of the best-known 18th Dynasty pharaohs is Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Aten, a representation of the Egyptian god, Ra, his exclusive worship of the Aten is interpreted as history's first instance of monotheism. Akhenaten's wife, contributed a great deal to his new take on the Egyptian religion.
Nefertiti was bold enough to perform rituals to Aten. Akhenaten's religious fervor is cited as the reason why he and his wife were subsequently written out of Egyptian history. Under his reign, in the 14th century BC, Egyptian art flourished in a distinctive new style. By the end of the 18th Dynasty, Egypt's status had changed radically. Aided by Akhenaten's apparent lack of interest in international affairs, the Hittites had extended their influence into Phoenicia and Canaan to become a major power in international politics — a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would confront during the 19th Dynasty; the Nineteenth Dynasty was founded by the Vizier Ramesses I, whom the last ruler of the 18th dynasty, Pharaoh Horemheb, had chosen as his successor. His brief reign marked a transition period between the reign of Horemheb and the powerful pharaohs of this dynasty, in particular, his son Seti I and grandson Ramesses II, who would bring Egypt to new heights of imperial power. Ramesses II sought to recover territories in the Levant, held by the 18th Dynasty.
His campaigns of reconquest culminated in the Battle of Kadesh, where he led Egyptian armies against those of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. Ramesses was caught in history's first recorded military ambush, although he was able to rally his troops and turn the tide of battle against the Hittites thanks to the arrival of the Ne'arin; the outcome of the battle was undecided, with both sides claiming victory at their home front, resulting in a peace treaty between the two nations. Egypt was able to obtain stability under Ramesses' rule of over half a century, his immediate successors continued the military campaigns, although an troubled court—which at one point put a usurper on the throne—made it difficult for a pharaoh to retain control of the territories. Ramesses II was famed for the huge number of children he sired by his various wives and concubines; the last "great" pharaoh from the New Kingdom is considered to be Ramesses III, a 20th Dynasty pharaoh who reigned several decades after Ramesses II.
In the eighth year of his reign the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt by sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles, he incorporated them as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan although there is evidence that they forced their way into Canaan. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states, such as Philistia, in this region after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire, he was compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his sixth year and eleventh year respectively. The heavy cost of this warfare drained Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia; the severity of the difficulties is indicated by the fact that the first known labor strike in recorded history occurred during the 29th year of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for Egypt's favored and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Deir el Medina could not be provisioned.
Air pollutants prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and arrested global tree growth for two full decades until 1140 BC. On
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. A monarch either inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch reigns for life or until abdication. If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy in different eras. A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess, emperor or empress, duke or grand duke, emir or sultan.
Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title in older texts. A king can be a queen's husband and a queen can be a king's wife. If both of the couple reign, neither person is considered to be a consort. Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, is associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have ruled, the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king; some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, appointed by the Conference of Rulers every five years or after the king's death, the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals. In recent centuries, many states have become republics. Advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of national leadership, as illustrated in the classic phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!". In cases where the monarch serves as a ceremonial figure real leadership does not depend on the monarch. A form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship. Monarchies take a wide variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel and the elected President of France.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time. Hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common, with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. In Europe, some peoples practiced equal division of land and regalian rights among sons or brothers, as in the Germanic states of the Holy Roman Empire, until after the medieval era and sometimes into the 19th century. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, his daughters or sons of daughters; the system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight to ability and merit. The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, stipulated that only men could inherit the crown. In most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed.
In most realms and sisters were eligible to succeed a ruling kinsman before more distant male relatives, but sometimes the husband of the heiress became the ruler, most also received the title, jure uxoris. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, outcomes were idiosyncratic; as the average life span increased, an eldest son was more to reach majority age before the death of his father, primogeniture became favoured over proximity, tanistry and election. In 19
The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the other Homeric epic; the Odyssey is fundamental to the modern Western canon. Scholars believe the Odyssey was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia; the poem focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus, king of Ithaca, his journey home after the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage; the Odyssey continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world. Many scholars believe the original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos a rhapsode, was more intended to be heard than read; the details of the ancient oral performance and the story's conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars.
The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter. Among the most noteworthy elements of the text are its non-linear plot, the influence on events of choices made by women and slaves, besides the actions of fighting men. In the English language as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage; the Odyssey has a lost sequel, the Telegony, not written by Homer. It was attributed in antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta. In one source, the Telegony was said to have been stolen from Musaeus of Athens by either Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene; the Odyssey begins after the end of the ten-year Trojan War, Odysseus has still not returned home from the war because he angered the god Poseidon. Odysseus' son Telemachus is about 20 years old and is sharing his absent father's house on the island of Ithaca with his mother Penelope and a crowd of 108 boisterous young men, "the Suitors", whose aim is to persuade Penelope to marry one of them, all the while reveling in Odysseus' palace and eating up his wealth.
Odysseus' protectress, the goddess Athena, requests to Zeus, king of the gods, to allow Odysseus to return home when Odysseus' enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus to accept a sacrifice in Ethiopia. Disguised as a Taphian chieftain named Mentes, she visits Telemachus to urge him to search for news of his father, he offers her hospitality. Penelope objects to Phemius' theme, the "Return from Troy", because it reminds her of her missing husband, but Telemachus rebuts her objections, asserting his role as head of the household; that night Athena, disguised as Telemachus, finds a crew for the true prince. The next morning, Telemachus calls an assembly of citizens of Ithaca to discuss what should be done with the suitors. Telemachus is scoffed by the insolent suitors by their leaders Antinous and Leiocritus. Accompanied by Athena, he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, who resided in Pylos after the war.
From there, Telemachus rides overland, accompanied by Nestor's son Peisistratus, to Sparta, where he finds Menelaus and Helen, who are now reconciled. While Helen laments the fit of lust brought on by Aphrodite that sent her to Troy with Paris, Menelaus recounts how she betrayed the Greeks by attempting to imitate the voices of the soldiers' wives while they were inside the Trojan Horse. Telemachus hears from Helen, the first to recognize him, that she pities him because Odysseus was not there for him in his childhood because he went to Troy to fight for her and about his exploit of stealing the Palladium, or the Luck of Troy, where she was the only one to recognize him. Menelaus, meanwhile praises Odysseus as an irreproachable comrade and friend, lamenting the fact that they were not only unable to return together from Troy but that Odysseus is yet to return. Both Helen and Menelaus say that they returned to Sparta after a long voyage by way of Egypt. There, on the island of Pharos, Menelaus encountered the old sea-god Proteus, who told him that Odysseus was a captive of the nymph Calypso.
Incidentally, Telemachus learns the fate of Menelaus' brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks at Troy: he was murdered on his return home by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. The story shifts to the suitors, who have only just now realized that Telemachus is gone. Angry, they kill him as he sails back home. Penelope overhears their plot and worries for her son's safety; the second part recounts the story of Odysseus. In the course of his seven years in captivity of Calypso on the island of Ogygia, she has fallen in love with him though he has spurned her offer of immortality as her husband and still mourns for home, she is ordered to release him by the messenger god Hermes, sent by Zeus in response to Athena's plea. Odysseus builds a raft and is given clothing and drink by Calypso; when Poseidon learns that Odysseus has escaped, he wrecks the raft but, helped by a veil given by the sea nymph Ino, Odysseus swims asho
Greek Dark Ages
The Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age or Geometric period, is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis in the 9th century BC. The archaeological evidence shows a widespread collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean world at the outset of the period, as the great palaces and cities of the Mycenaeans were destroyed or abandoned. At about the same time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Following the collapse and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation. In Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased; the decoration on Greek pottery after about 1100 BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler geometric styles. It was thought that all contact was lost between mainland Hellenes and foreign powers during this period, yielding little cultural progress or growth, but artifacts from excavations at Lefkandi on the Lelantine Plain in Euboea show that significant cultural and trade links with the east the Levant coast, developed from c. 900 BC onwards.
Additionally, evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al-Mina. The Mycenaean civilization started to collapse from 1200 BC. Archaeology suggests that, around 1100 BC, the palace centres and outlying settlements of the Mycenaeans' organized culture began to be abandoned or destroyed, by 1050 BC, the recognizable features of Mycenaean culture had disappeared, the population had decreased significantly. Many explanations attribute the fall of the Mycenaean civilization and the Bronze Age collapse to climatic or environmental catastrophe, combined with an invasion by Dorians or by the Sea Peoples, or to the widespread availability of edged weapons of iron, but no single explanation fits the available archaeological evidence. Around this time large-scale revolts took place in several parts of the eastern Mediterranean, attempts to overthrow existing kingdoms were made as a result of economic and political instability by surrounding people, who were plagued with famine and hardship.
Part of the Hittite kingdom was invaded and conquered by the so-called Sea Peoples, whose origins from different parts of the Mediterranean such as the Black Sea, the Aegean and Anatolian regions, remain obscured. The 13th- and 12th-century inscriptions and carvings at Karnak and Luxor are the only sources for "Sea Peoples", a term invented by the Egyptians themselves and recorded in boastful accounts of Egyptian military successes. For these so-called "Sea Peoples", there is little more evidence than these inscriptions; the foreign countries... made a conspiracy in their islands. All at once the lands were on the move, scattered in war. No country could stand before their arms…, their league was Peleset, Shekelesh and Weshesh. A similar assemblage of peoples may have attempted to invade Egypt twice, once during the reign of Merneptah, about 1208 BC, again during the reign of Ramesses III, about 1178 BC. With the collapse of the palatial centres, no more monumental stone buildings were built and the practice of wall painting may have ceased.
Writing in the Linear B script ceased because the redistributive economy had crashed, there was no longer a need to keep records in Linear B script. The population of Greece was reduced, the world of organized state armies, kings and redistributive systems disappeared. Most of the information about the period comes from burial sites and the grave goods contained within them; the fragmented and autonomous cultures of reduced complexity are noted for such diversity of their material cultures in pottery styles, burial practices and settlement structures. The pottery style, Protogeometric style signaled the loss of previous designs that were more complex; these newer designs were simpler, including only curves, signaling a simplified society. Generalizations about the "Dark Age Society" are considered false, because the various cultures throughout Greece cannot be grouped into a large "Dark Age Society" category. Tholos tombs are found in early Iron Age Thessaly and in Crete but not in general elsewhere, cremation is the dominant rite in Attica but nearby in the Argolid, it was inhumation.
Some former sites of Mycenaean palaces, such as Argos or Knossos, continued to be occupied. Some regions in Greece, such as Attica and central Crete, recovered economically from these events faster than others, but life for the poorest Greeks would have remained unchanged as it had done for centuries. There was still farming, weaving and pottery but at a lower level of output and for local use in local styles; some technical innovations were introduced around 1050 BC with the start of the Protogeometric style, such as the superior pottery technology that included a faster potter's wheel for superior vase shapes and the use of a compass to draw perfect circles and semicircles for decoration. Better glazes were achieved by higher temperature firing of clay. However
Usermaatre Ramesses III was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. He is thought to have reigned from 1186 to 1155 BC and is considered to be the last great monarch of the New Kingdom to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, his long reign saw the decline of Egyptian political and economic power, linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems that plagued pharaohs before him. He has been described as "warrior Pharaoh" due to his strong military strategies, he has lead the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea People" who have caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other Empires fell during the Late Bronze Age, however the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt. Ramesses III was the son of Queen Tiy-Merenese, he was assassinated in the Harem conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives, her son Pentawer, a group of high officials. Ramesses' two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw.
They are realised as Usermaatre-Meryamun Rameses-Heqaiunu, meaning "The Ma'at of Ra is strong, Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis". Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC; this is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days. Alternative dates for his reign are 1187–1156 BC. In a description of his coronation from Medinet Habu, four doves were said to be "dispatched to the four corners of the horizon to confirm that the living Horus, Ramses III, is in possession of his throne, that the order of Maat prevails in the cosmos and society". During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea.
Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile; the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated; the Harris Papyrus states: As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. As for those who came forward together on the seas, the full flame was in front of them at the Nile mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore, prostrated on the beach and made into heaps from head to tail. Ramesses III settled them in Southern Canaan, their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia.
Ramesses III was compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively. The heavy cost of these battles exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia; the severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labour strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset, could not be provisioned. Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and arrested global tree growth for two full decades until 1140 BC; the result in Egypt was a substantial increase in grain prices under the reigns of Ramesses VI–VII, whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant. Thus the cooldown affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workmen of the Deir el-Medina community.
These difficult realities are ignored in Ramesses' official monuments, many of which seek to emulate those of his famous predecessor, Ramesses II, which present an image of continuity and stability. He built important additions to the temples at Luxor and Karnak, his funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu is amongst the largest and best-preserved in Egypt. No temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses' reign had needed to be protected in such a manner. Thanks to the discovery of papyrus trial transcripts, it is now known that there was a plot against his life as a result of a royal harem conspiracy during a celebration at Medinet Habu; the conspiracy was instigated by Tiye, one of his three known wives, over whose son would inherit the throne. Tyti's son, Ramesses Amenherkhepshef, was the eldest and the successor chosen by Ramesses III in preference to Tiye's son Pentaweret; the trial documents show. Chief among them were Queen Tiye and her son Pentaweret, Ramesses' chief of the chamber, seven royal butlers, two Treasury overseers
Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazkale, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River. Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986; the landscape surrounding the city included rich agricultural fields and hill lands for pasture as well as woods. Smaller woods are still found outside the city; this meant the inhabitants had an excellent supply of timber when building their houses and other structures. The fields provided the people with a subsistence crop of wheat and lentils. Flax was harvested, but their primary source for clothing was sheep wool, they hunted deer in the forest, but this was only a luxury reserved for the nobility. Domestic animals provided meat. There were several other settlements in the vicinity, such as the rock shrine at Yazılıkaya and the town at Alacahöyük. Since the rivers in the area are unsuitable for major ships, all transport to and from Hattusa had to go by land. Before 2000 BC, the indigenous Hattian people established a settlement on sites, occupied earlier and referred to the site as Hattush.
The Hattians built their initial settlement on the high ridge of Büyükkale. The earliest traces of settlement on the site are from the sixth millennium BC. In the 19th and 18th centuries BC, merchants from Assur in Assyria established a trading post there, setting up in their own separate quarter of the city; the center of their trade network was located in Kanesh. Business dealings required record-keeping: the trade network from Assur introduced writing to Hattusa, in the form of cuneiform. A carbonized layer apparent in excavations attests to the burning and ruin of the city of Hattusa around 1700 BC; the responsible party appears to have been King Anitta from Kussara, who took credit for the act and erected an inscribed curse for good measure: Whoever after me becomes king resettles Hattusas, let the Stormgod of the Sky strike him! Only a generation a Hittite-speaking king chose the site as his residence and capital; the Hittite language had been gaining speakers at the expense of Hattic for some time.
The Hattic Hattush now became the Hittite Hattusa, the king took the name of Hattusili, the "one from Hattusa". Hattusili marked the beginning of a non-Hattic-speaking "Hittite" state and of a royal line of Hittite Great Kings, 27 of whom are now known by name. After the Kaskas arrived to the kingdom's north, they twice attacked the city to the point where the kings had to move the royal seat to another city. Under Tudhaliya I, the Hittites moved north to Sapinuwa. Under Muwatalli II, they moved south to Tarhuntassa but assigned Hattusili III as governor over Hattusa. Mursili III returned the seat to Hattusa, where the kings remained until the end of the Hittite kingdom in the 12th century BC. At its peak, the city covered 1.8 km² and comprised an inner and outer portion, both surrounded by a massive and still visible course of walls erected during the reign of Suppiluliuma I. The inner city covered an area of some 0.8 km² and was occupied by a citadel with large administrative buildings and temples.
The royal residence, or acropolis, was built on a high ridge now known as Büyükkale. To the south lay an outer city of about 1 km2, with elaborate gateways decorated with reliefs showing warriors and sphinxes. Four temples were located here, each set around a porticoed courtyard, together with secular buildings and residential structures. Outside the walls are cemeteries, most of which contain cremation burials. Modern estimates put the population of the city between 50,000 at the peak; the dwelling houses that were built with timber and mud bricks have vanished from the site, leaving only the stone-built walls of temples and palaces. The city was destroyed, together with the Hittite state itself, around 1200 BC, as part of the Bronze Age collapse. Excavations suggest that Hattusa was abandoned over a period of several decades as the Hittite empire disintegrated; the site was subsequently abandoned until 800 BC, when a modest Phrygian settlement appeared in the area. In 1833, the French archaeologist Charles Texier was sent on an exploratory mission to Turkey, where in 1834 he discovered ruins of the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa.
Ernest Chantre opened some trial trenches at the village called Boğazköy, in 1893–94. Since 1906, the German Oriental Society has been excavating at Hattusa. Archaeological work is still carried out by the German Archaeological Institute. Hugo Winckler and Theodore Makridi Bey conducted the first excavations in 1906, 1907, 1911–13, which were resumed in 1931 under Kurt Bittel, followed by Peter Neve. One of the most important discoveries at the site has been the cuneiform royal archives of clay tablets, known as the Bogazköy Archive, consisting of official correspondence and contracts, as well as legal codes, procedures for cult ceremony, oracular prophecies and literature of the ancient Near East. One important tablet on display at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, details the terms of a peace settlement reached years after the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittites and the Egyptians under Ramesses II, in 1259 or 1258 BC. A copy is on display in the United Nations in New York City as an example of the earliest known international peace treaties
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education. Rockefeller is the oldest biomedical research institute in the United States; the 82-person faculty has 37 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 17 members of the National Academy of Medicine, seven Lasker Award recipients, five Nobel laureates. As of 2017, a total of 36 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Rockefeller University; the university is located on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, between 63rd and 68th streets on York Avenue. Richard P. Lifton became the university's eleventh president on September 1, 2016; the Rockefeller University Press publishes the Journal of Experimental Medicine, the Journal of Cell Biology, The Journal of General Physiology. The Rockefeller University was founded in June 1901 as The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research—often called The Rockefeller Institute—by John D. Rockefeller, who had founded the University of Chicago in 1889, upon advice by his adviser Frederick T. Gates and action taken in March 1901 by his son, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Greatly elevating the prestige of American science and medicine, it was America's first biomedical institute, like France's Pasteur Institute and Germany's Robert Koch Institute.
The Rockefeller Foundation, a philanthropic organization, founded in 1913, is a separate entity, but had close connections mediated by prominent figures holding dual positions. The first director of laboratories was Simon Flexner, who supervised the development of research capacity at the Institute, whose staff made major discoveries in basic research and medicine. While a student at Johns Hopkins University, Flexner had studied under the Institute's first scientific director, William H. Welch, first dean of Hopkins' medical school and known as the dean of American medicine. Flexner was succeeded by Herbert Gasser, he was succeeded in 1953 by Detlev Bronk, who broadened The Rockefeller Institute into a university that began awarding the PhD degree in 1954. In 1965 The Rockefeller Institute's name was changed to The Rockefeller University. For its first six decades, the Institute focused on basic research to develop basic science, on applied research as biomedical engineering, since 1910—when The Rockefeller Hospital opened on its campus as America's first facility for clinical research—on clinical science.
The Rockefeller Hospital's first director Rufus Cole retired in 1937 and was succeeded by Thomas Milton Rivers. As director of The Rockefeller Institute's virology laboratory, he established virology as an independent field apart from bacteriology. Notable figures to emerge from the institution include Alexis Carrel, Peyton Rous, Hideyo Noguchi, Thomas Milton Rivers, Richard Shope, Thomas Francis Jr, Oswald T. Avery, Rebecca Lancefield, Wendell Meredith Stanley, René Dubos, Ashton Carter, Cornelius P. Rhoads. Others attained eminence before being drawn to the university. Joshua Lederberg, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1958, served as president of the university from 1978 to 1990. Paul Nurse, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2001, was president from 2003 to 2010. In all, 36 Nobel Prize recipients have been associated with the University. In the mid-1970s, the University attracted a few prominent academicians in the humanities, such as Saul Kripke. Rockefeller Sr, urged by Rockefeller Jr, his only son, enthusiastic about the Institute, visited the University once.
Rockefeller Jr's youngest son David would visit with his father. David Rockefeller joined the board of trustees in 1940, was its chairman from 1950 to 1975, chaired the board's executive committee from 1975 to 1995, became honorary chairman and life trustee, remained active as a philanthropist until his death; the archives of Rockefeller University are at the Rockefeller Archive Center, established in 1974 as part of the university and organized as an independent foundation since 2008. Dr. Reginald Archibald, an endocrinologist at the university from 1948 to 1982 abused dozens of boys during his time at the University while studying growth problems in children, including molestation and photographing them naked. Officials at Rockefeller University knew of the legitimacy of the claims for years before notifying the public; the University and hospital has issued a statement confirming that he had "engaged in certain inappropriate conduct during patient examinations" and that they "deeply regret" any "pain and suffering" the former patients have felt.
Governor Andrew Cuomo has stated that he will sign a bill, passed in the New York congress that would null the statute of limitations for the civil suits of child victims, which will allow them to make cases against the University. More than 80 heads of laboratories 200 research and clinical scientists 350 postdoctoral investigators 1,050 clinicians, technicians and support staffTo foster an interdisciplinary atmosphere among its laboratories, faculty members are grouped into one or more of ten interconnecting research areas: biochemistry, chemical biology, structural biology cancer biology cell biology genetics and genomics immunology and microbiology mechanisms of human disease neurosciences and behavior organismal biology and evolution physical and computational biology stem cells, development and aging Rockefeller has a history of research breakthroughs including: First to culture the infectious agent associated with syphilis Showed that viruses can be oncogenic, enabled the field tumor biology Development of tissue culture technique