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1194

Year 1194 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. January 1 – Raja Nooruddin Khan attacks the kingdom of Rajauri in Kashmir, captures it. February 4 – King Richard I of England is ransomed from Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. C. February 10 – Henry Marshal is nominated Bishop of Exeter in England. March 10 – Sultan Toghrul III is defeated and killed in battle with Ala ad-Din Tekish, near Rey in Persia, ending the Seljuq Dynasty of Hamedan. March 12–28 – King Richard returns to England and besieges Nottingham Castle, to reclaim it from his brother John. April 17 – Richard I is crowned for the second time at Winchester. May 2 – The port of Portsmouth in England is granted a Royal Charter. May 12 – After settling affairs in England, Richard I leaves for Barfleur in Normandy, to reclaim lands lost to Philip II of France. June 10 – A fire at Chartres Cathedral leads to the start of its rebuilding. July 3 – Battle of Fréteval: Richard I of England reconquers his French fiefdoms from Philip II.

July 5 – Emperor Guangzong of Song China is forced to give up his throne. November 20 – Palermo in Sicily falls to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. December 25 – Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily; the Danes attack Estonia. Ordinance of the Jewry in England: Strict records are to be kept of financial transactions by Jews in England, for taxation purposes; the Yellow River of China experiences a major course change, taking over the Huai River drainage system for the next 700 years. A three-year famine begins in Northern France, due to catastrophic rains and hail storms. Hunac Ceel drives the Itza out of Chichen Itza, forcing them to start the Itza Kingdom on Lake Peten Itza. July 16 – Clare of Assisi, Italian saint and nun, follower of Francis of Assisi December 26 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor February 20 – Tancred, King of Sicily May 5 – King Casimir II of Poland June 27 – Sancho VI, king of Navarre June 28 – Emperor Xiaozong of China July 18 – Guy of Lusignan, king consort of Jerusalem September 27 – Renaud de Courtenay, Anglo-Norman nobleman November 15 – Margaret I, Countess of Flanders December – Raymond V of Toulouse December 31 – Duke Leopold V of Austria Basil Vatatzes, Byzantine general Benedictus Abbas, English chronicler Sviatoslav III of Kiev

Saint-Mesmin, Vendée

Saint-Mesmin is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. This part of the Vendée is in the « High-Bocage » Vendée, close to the eastern limits of the territory called « Gâtine » in the Deux-Sèvres department; the altitude ranges from 142 meters to 248 meters on the granite massif of the municipality, the average altitude is 178 meters. The municipality's municipal area covers 646 hectares. Saint-Mesmin from the Latin « Sancti Maximini ». In 1179, the names of the churches of Saint-Mesmin-le-Vieux « ecclesiam Sancti Maximini veteris » and Saint-André-sur-Sèvre « ecclesiam Sancte Andree super separim » appear on a list among 127 other churches, possessions confirmed in a papal bull of Pope Alexander III to the abbey of Saint-Jouin-de-Marnes, the Diocese of Poitiers. On May 10, 1276, for the first time, mention is made of the De Montfaucon family as lord of Saint-Mesmin, « in the court of Jean de Montefalconis, domini Sancti Maximini » equals to « knight, Lord of St. Mesmin ».

The arms of the family De Montfaulcon are: « Vert a lion of gold ». The castle was built in the middle of the 13th century. In 1360, at the beginning of the century of conflict between the Plantagenets and the Capetians, which took place in Poitou and Aquitaine, during the Hundred Years' War which opposed the English and the French, Jehan de Montfaucon, on March 20, is said knight and lord of the land of Saint-Mesmin, Le Terrier, in the municipality of Mouilleron-en-Pareds, bailiwick of Vouvant and Mervent. A royal ordinance of 19 July 1367 prescribed to fortify the strongholds of Poitou; the castle, built in the middle of the 13th century stands on this stronghold to consolidate. Fortification for the war, but for the purpose of repelling the idle mercenaries, in times of peace, who plunder in the countryside and peddling diseases in organized gangs, waiting to be at the service of a military army. A king who would resume the conflict. Five underground refuges have been inventoried at the so-called places: Purchain, Montboisé, Audrière, La Grossière, La Limouzinière.

In 1370, Pierre de Montfaulcon, married Jeanne de Bazoges. Their daughter, Ide, is the wife of William II d'Appelvoisin, knight of the order of the Tiercelet, lord d'Appelvoisin and Bois Chapeleau which served in 1385 in the company of Guillaume L'Archeveque, sire of Parthenay. Following the Order of 1367, Pierre de Montfaucon would have undertaken important fortification work at the castle of Saint-Mesmin, between 1372 and 1375. In 1513 - Family Du Plessis de la Bourgognière. Louise de Montfaucon, daughter of Jacques de Montfaucon and Marie de Feschal, marries Charles Du Plessis de la Bourgognière. In 1575 - Family De Vaudrey de Saint-Phal; the seigneury goes through marriage in the family De Vaudrey de Saint-Phal, which will retain until 1650. In 1650 - Family Petit de la Guierche. On March 7, 1650, Gilbert Petit, councilor of the king, acquires the land Saint-Mesmin near Georges De Vaudrey de Saint-Phal. In 1705 - Hardy Petit de la Guierche is, without a doubt, the origin of the marquisate of the castle.

Alexis-Henry Petit is the only child of Hardy Petit. In a power of homage that he made to the Chamber of Accounts of Paris in 1717, he declared to possess the Marquisate of Saint-Mesmin. From 1755, until the French Revolution - Vasselot family. In 1755, Alexis-Françoise Petit married Messire Jacques-Rene-Francois-Marie de Vasselot and lord, marquess dAnne-Marie. In 1793, during the war in the Vendée: passage of the Infernal Columns to the castle of Saint-Mesmin; the castle burned, only an old lady de Vasselot who occupied during the Revolution is killed. During the month of January 1794, a detachment of the Infernal Columns under the orders of Brisset, burned the castle. Again, on February 20, 1796, a fight between the Republican armies and the Vendeans took place in Saint-Mesmin and in the castle of Saint-Mesmin. About forty Vendéens led by Louis Péault, gamekeeper of the Marquisate of Saint-Mesmin, attack a Republican detachment comprising 250 men commanded by Adjutant General Cortez. Following a counterattack, Cortez tries to surround the Vendeans who retreat to the castle of Saint-Mesmin where they lock themselves to resist.

From 21 to 24 February, the assaults of the Republican troops are without conclusive results. But for lack of food, the Vendeans agree to surrender, they are promised lives saved. The forty or so Vendeans were taken to la Chataigneraie, where the chief of staff ordered Bonnaire to assemble a military council to try them and shoot them, despite the promise of life saved. General Hoche, commander-in-chief of the Western troops, warned of the incident and obtained from his subordinates the respect of the terms of the surrender; the Vendeans were directed to Fontenay-le-Comte to Noirmoutier where they remained until the end of the war. Castle of Saint-Mesmin at the foot of which flows the river the Sevreau, less than 2 kilometers from Saint-Mesmin, is located on the town of Saint-André-sur-Sèvre, it is an old medieval fortress of the 13th century, equipped with a dungeon 28 meters high, built in the 15th century. The castle is open to the public in summer and medieval events are organized. Church Saint-Maximin.

Castle of Saint-Mesmin Town Hall of Saint-Mesmin Joseph Amand de Vasselot, naval officer during the Amer

Canfield–Wright House

The Canfield–Wright House, known alternatively as Wrightland and The Pink Lady, is a historic structure in Del Mar, California. The private home was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 14, 2004; the house was built in 1910 for Charles A. Canfield. Canfield, alongside business partner Edward L. Doheny, became an oil tycoon after drilling the first successful oil well in Los Angeles in 1892; the two would go on to drill the first oil well in Mexico, using the resulting asphalt to pave Mexican roads and standing as a precursor to Pemex. The partners' work became part of the basis of Upton Sinclair's Oil! and related film There Will Be Blood. Canfield convinced the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway to switch from coal to oil-burning locomotives, he invested his wealth in real estate. Forming the Rodeo Land and Water Company in Los Angeles with Burton E. Green and Max Whittier and the South Coast Land Company in Del Mar with Henry E. Huntington and other partners, he helped establish both Beverly Hills and Del Mar.

Intending the house as a second home, Canfield chose architect John C. Austin, who would design the Southern Land Company's Hotel Del Mar and go on to design major Southern California landmarks such as Los Angeles City Hall and the Griffith Observatory; the house was designed in the Mission and Spanish Revival styles with influences of an Italian villa and sited with a view of the Pacific Ocean. Canfield died in 1913; the house stayed in the Canfield family until 1923. The structure was only minimally altered: small additions were made to the main residence and outbuildings, a large retaining wall was added to the property. By the end of the twentieth century, the structure was being rented and had been painted a bright pink. In 2002, a developer requested permission to treat the property as a teardown to replace it with a contemporary structure; the proposal galvanized local residents to try to preserve the structure. Helped by groups such as the Save Our Heritage Organisation, citizens pressured the City of Del Mar, which had no preservation ordinances or incentives for preservation, in city council and design review board meetings, delaying the permit.

Within six months of the house's being threatened with demolition, a new owner stepped forward to purchase the property and restore it. The new owner, a developer who lived nearby, presented development plans that were judged to be in compliance with historic-preservation guidelines; the home was restored over a four-year period from 2004-08. It remains a private residence owned by Marc and Patty Brutten