112 (emergency telephone number)
112 is the common emergency telephone number that can be dialed free of charge from most mobile telephones and, in some countries, fixed telephones in order to reach emergency services. 112 is a part of the GSM standard and all GSM-compatible telephone handsets are able to dial 112 when locked or, in some countries, with no SIM card present. It is the common emergency number in India and in nearly all member states of the European Union as well as several other countries of Europe and the world. 112 is available alongside other numbers traditionally used in the given country to access emergency services. In some countries, calls to 112 are not connected directly but forwarded by the GSM network to local emergency numbers. 112 was first standardised by a recommendation by the CEPT in 1972 and by a decision of the EU Council in 1991 and subsequently reaffirmed in 2002 by article 26 of the Universal Service Directive and its subsequent amendments. This choice of number has been cited in logical terms as offering the following advantages: Different digits: with the numeric keypads used today, using at least two different digits instead of the same digit significantly reduces the risk of accidental calls.
Young children, defective keys and collisions with other objects are much more to press the same key than a particular sequence of different keys with a button-operated keypad. Accidental calls to emergency centres from mobile phones, which can dial emergency numbers with locked keypad, are a particular problem with same-digit numbers, such as the UK's 999. Low digits: on rotary dial telephones, using only those digits that require the least dial rotation permits a dial lock in hole 3 to disable unauthorised access to the telephone network without preventing access to the emergency number 112; the same choice maximises dialling speed. Additionally, with telephone systems using pulse dialling activating the hook once has the same effect as dialling "1", so pushing the hook might result in calling 1-1-1. For this reason, Germany's police emergency number was changed from 111 to 110. With numeric keypads, pressing only the first and second button on the keypad is marginally easier in a difficult situation than other keys.
The countries which use the 112 number for emergencies include: Azerbaijan Albania Andorra Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark. Alongside 114 for non-emergency police. Dominican Republic East Timor Egypt Estonia Finland France Germany Gibraltar Georgia Single emergency number in Georgia 112 Greece Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Ireland Israel. Italy Jordan Kazakhstan Kosovo Kuwait Ky
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
108 (emergency telephone number)
108 is a free telephone number for emergency services in India. It is coperational in two Union Territories; the 108 Emergency Response Service is a free emergency service providing integrated medical and fire emergency services. This system was introduced nationwide by former Union Health Minister, மருத்துவர்.அன்புமணி ராமதாஸ். In Madhya Pradesh, the 108 GVK Ambulance facility was implemented in July 2009 by Honorable Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chauhan, it was inaugurated by Health Minister Mr. Narottam Mishra; the service is a public-private partnership between private EMS providers. This 108 service was rolled out in Karnataka and in Andhra pradesh by Ramalinga Raju and his family. Dr. Y. S Rajashekar Reddy, the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, was the first Chief Minister to sign an agreement with EMRI to roll out the services in the state of Andhra Pradesh. With the life-saving service becoming so popular in the rural parts of combined Andhra Pradesh, the system was introduced by the Central government of India in other parts of India.
The system was designed by Satyam Infotech. As of November 2014, this service had handled over 540,000 emergency cases in India. On an iOS device, "Hey Siri, 108" command to Siri will place an emergency call; when an emergency is reported through 108, the call taker gathers the needed basic information and dispatches appropriate services. Basic information obtained includes:; the type of emergency. Number of people injured and the condition of the injured; the caller's contact number -- for location guidance if required. Emergency help dispatched through this process is expected to reach the site of the emergency in an average of 18 minutes. Pre-hospital care will be given to patients being transported to the nearest hospital. GVK EMRI operates Dial 108 in Emergency in public private partnership with state governments; the service is free to patients. ""Call'108' and save a life"". The Hindu. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2016.'108' Emergency Ambulance Services at Tamil Nadu Health Systems Projects VMEDO Emergency Ambulance Services App Indian Helpline
9-1-1 written 911, is an emergency telephone number for the North American Numbering Plan, one of eight N11 codes. Like other emergency numbers around the world, this number is intended for use in emergency circumstances only, using it for any other purpose is a crime in certain jurisdictions. In over 98% of locations in the United States and Canada, dialing "9-1-1" from any telephone will link the caller to an emergency dispatch office—called a public-safety answering point by the telecommunications industry—which can send emergency responders to the caller's location in an emergency. In 96 percent of the U. S. the enhanced 9-1-1 system automatically pairs caller numbers with a physical address. In the Philippines, the 9-1-1 emergency hotline has been available to the public since August 1, 2016, although it was first available in Davao City, it is the first of its kind in Asia-Pacific region. It replaces the previous emergency number 117 used outside Davao City; as of 2017, a 9-1-1 system is in use in Mexico, where implementation in different states and municipalities is being conducted.
999 is used in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and many British territories amongst other places. 112 is the equivalent emergency number used in the European Union and various other countries. In the US, some carriers, including AT&T, map the number 112 to the emergency number 9-1-1. 000 is used in Australia. 108 is used for general emergency in India. 1-0-0 is the police emergency number for India and police, general emergency number for Israel. 1-0-1 is for 1-0-2 for the fire department in India and Israel. In the earliest days of telephone technology, prior to the development of the rotary dial telephone, all telephone calls were operator-assisted. To place a call, the caller was required to pick up the telephone receiver, sometimes turn a magneto crank, wait for the telephone operator to answer; the caller would ask to be connected to the number they wished to call, the operator would make the required connection manually, by means of a switchboard. In an emergency, the caller might say "Get me the police", "I want to report a fire", or "I need an ambulance or doctor".
Until dial service came into use, one could not place calls without proper operator assistance. The first known use of a national emergency telephone number began in the United Kingdom in 1937-1938 using the number 999, which continues to this day. In the United States, the push for the development of a nationwide American emergency telephone number came in 1957 when the National Association of Fire Chiefs recommended that a single number be used for reporting fires; the first city in North America to use a central emergency number was the Canadian city of Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1959, which instituted the change at the urging of Stephen Juba, mayor of Winnipeg at the time. Winnipeg used 999 as the emergency number, but switched numbers when 9-1-1 was proposed by the United States. In 1967, the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice recommended the creation of a single number that could be used nationwide for reporting emergencies; the Federal Communications Commission met with AT&T in November 1967 in order to choose the number.
In 1968, the number was agreed upon. AT&T chose the number 9-1-1, simple, easy to remember and because of the middle 1, indicating a special number, worked well with the phone systems in place at the time. At the time, this announcement only affected the Bell System telephone companies. However, Bob Gallagher of the Alabama Telephone Company decided he wanted to implement it ahead of AT&T, the company chose Haleyville, Alabama, as the location. On February 16, 1968, Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite placed the first-ever 9-1-1 call from Haleyville City Hall, to Congressman Tom Bevill, at the city's police station. Bevill was accompanied by Gallagher and Alabama Public Service Commission director Eugene "Bull" Connor; the phone used to answer the first 9-1-1 call, a bright red model, is now in a museum in Haleyville, while a duplicate phone is still in use at the police station. AT&T made its first implementation in Huntington, the hometown of J. Edward Roush, who sponsored the federal legislation to establish the nationwide system, on March 1, 1968.
However, the spread of 9-1-1 implementation took many years. For example, although the City of Chicago, had access to 9-1-1 service as early as 1976, the Illinois Commerce Commission did not authorize telephone service provider Illinois Bell to offer 9-1-1 to the Chicago suburbs until 1981. Implementation was not immediate then; as late as 1989, at least 28 Chicago suburbs still lacked 9-1-1 service. By 1979, 26% of the U. S. population could dial the number. This increased to 50% by 1987 and 93% by 2000; as of December 2017, 98.9% of the U. S. population has access. Conversion to 9-1-1 in Canada began in 1972, as of 2018 all areas, except for some rural areas, such as the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, are using 9-1-1; as of 2008, each year Canadians make twelve million calls to 9-1-1. On September 15, 2010, AT&T announced that the State of Tennessee had approved a service to support a text to 9-1-1 trial statewide, where AT&T would be able to allow its users to send text messages to 9-1-1 PSAPs.
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Sri Lankan Civil War
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on 23 July 1983, there was an intermittent insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, which fought to create an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island. After a 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end. For over 25 years, the war caused significant hardships for the population and the economy of the country, with an initial estimated 80,000–100,000 people killed during its course. In 2013, the UN panel estimated additional deaths during the last phase of the war: "Around 40,000 died while other independent reports estimated the number of civilians dead to exceed 100,000." During the early part of the conflict, the Sri Lankan forces attempted to retake the areas captured by the LTTE. The tactics employed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against the actions of Government forces resulted in their listing as a terrorist organisation in 32 countries, including the United States, India and the member nations of the European Union.
The Sri Lankan government forces have been accused of human rights abuses, systematic impunity for serious human rights violations, lack of respect for habeas corpus in arbitrary detentions, forced disappearances. After two decades of fighting and four failed tries at peace talks, including the unsuccessful deployment of the Indian Army, the Indian Peace Keeping Force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002. However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE out of the entire Eastern province of the island; the LTTE declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood". In 2007, the government shifted its offensive to the north of the country, formally announced its withdrawal from the ceasefire agreement on 2 January 2008, alleging that the LTTE violated the agreement over 10,000 times.
Since aided by the destruction of a number of large arms smuggling vessels that belonged to the LTTE, an international crackdown on the funding for the Tamil Tigers, the government took control of the entire area controlled by the Tamil Tigers, including their de facto capital Kilinochchi, main military base Mullaitivu and the entire A9 highway, leading the LTTE to admit defeat on 17 May 2009. Following the LTTE's defeat, pro-LTTE Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution. In May 2010, Mahinda Rajapaksa, the president of Sri Lanka, appointed the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission to assess the conflict between the time of the ceasefire agreement in 2002 and the defeat of the LTTE in 2009; the origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils. The roots of the modern conflict lie in the British colonial rule when the country was known as Ceylon. There was little tension among Sri Lanka's two largest ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils, when Ponnambalam Arunachalam, a Tamil, was appointed representative of the Sinhalese as well the Tamils in the national legislative council.
In 1919 major Sinhalese and Tamil political organizations united to form the Ceylon National Congress, under the leadership of Arunachalam, to press the colonial government for more constitutional reforms. However, British Gov. William Manning encouraged the concept of "communal representation" and created the Colombo town seat in 1920, which dangled between the Tamils and the Sinhalese. After their election to the State Council in 1936, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party members N. M. Perera and Philip Gunawardena demanded the replacement of English as the official language by Sinhala and Tamil. In November 1936 a motion that "in the Municipal and Police Courts of the Island the proceedings should be in the vernacular" and that "entries in police stations should be recorded in the language in which they are stated" were passed by the State Council and referred to the Legal Secretary. However, in 1944 J. R. Jayawardene moved in the State Council that Sinhala should replace English as the official language.
In 1948 after independence, a controversial law was passed by the Ceylon Parliament called the Ceylon Citizenship Act, which deliberately discriminated against the Indian Tamil ethnic minority by making it impossible for them to obtain citizenship in the country. Over 700,000 Indian Tamils were made stateless. Over the next three decades more than 300,000 Indian Tamils were deported back to India, it wasn't until 2003–55 years after independence—that all Indian Tamils living in Sri Lanka were granted citizenship, but by this time they only made up 5% of the island's population. In 1956 Prime Minister S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike passed the "Sinhala Only Act", which replaced English with Sinhala as the only official language of the country; this was seen as a deliberate attempt to discourage the Sri Lankan Tamils from working in the Ceylon Civil Service and other public services. The Tamil-speaking minorities of Ceylon viewed the Act as linguistic and economic discrimination against them. Many Tamil-speaking civil servants/public servants were forced to resign because they weren't
GSM is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in Finland in December 1991; as of 2014, it has become the global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation analog cellular networks, the GSM standard described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport by packet data transport via GPRS and EDGE. Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation UMTS standards, followed by fourth-generation LTE Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard. "GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may refer to the most common voice codec used, Full Rate.
In 1983, work began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telecommunications when the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations set up the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee and provided a permanent technical-support group based in Paris. Five years in 1987, 15 representatives from 13 European countries signed a memorandum of understanding in Copenhagen to develop and deploy a common cellular telephone system across Europe, EU rules were passed to make GSM a mandatory standard; the decision to develop a continental standard resulted in a unified, standard-based network, larger than that in the United States. In February 1987 Europe produced the first agreed GSM Technical Specification. Ministers from the four big EU countries cemented their political support for GSM with the Bonn Declaration on Global Information Networks in May and the GSM MoU was tabled for signature in September; the MoU drew in mobile operators from across Europe to pledge to invest in new GSM networks to an ambitious common date.
In this short 38-week period the whole of Europe had been brought behind GSM in a rare unity and speed guided by four public officials: Armin Silberhorn, Stephen Temple, Philippe Dupuis, Renzo Failli. In 1989 the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. In parallel France and Germany signed a joint development agreement in 1984 and were joined by Italy and the UK in 1986. In 1986, the European Commission proposed reserving the 900 MHz spectrum band for GSM; the former Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri made the world's first GSM call on July 1, 1991, calling Kaarina Suonio using a network built by Telenokia and Siemens and operated by Radiolinja. The following year saw the sending of the first short messaging service message, Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the first international roaming agreement. Work began in 1991 to expand the GSM standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the first 1800 MHz network became operational in the UK by 1993, called and DCS 1800.
That year, Telecom Australia became the first network operator to deploy a GSM network outside Europe and the first practical hand-held GSM mobile phone became available. In 1995 fax, data and SMS messaging services were launched commercially, the first 1900 MHz GSM network became operational in the United States and GSM subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In the same year, the GSM Association formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM subscribers passed 100 million in 1998. In 2000 the first commercial GPRS services were launched and the first GPRS-compatible handsets became available for sale. In 2001, the first UMTS network was launched, a 3G technology, not part of GSM. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 500 million. In 2002, the first Multimedia Messaging Service was introduced and the first GSM network in the 800 MHz frequency band became operational. EDGE services first became operational in a network in 2003, the number of worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 1 billion in 2004.
By 2005 GSM networks accounted for more than 75% of the worldwide cellular network market, serving 1.5 billion subscribers. In 2005, the first HSDPA-capable network became operational; the first HSUPA network launched in 2007. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded three billion in 2008; the GSM Association estimated in 2010 that technologies defined in the GSM standard served 80% of the mobile market, encompassing more than 5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories, making GSM the most ubiquitous of the many standards for cellular networks. GSM is a second-generation standard employing time-division multiple-Access spectrum-sharing, issued by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute; the GSM standard does not include the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System code division multiple access technology nor the 4G LTE orthogonal frequency-division multiple access technology standards issued by the 3GPP. GSM, for the first time, set a common standard for Europe for wireless networks.
It was adopted by many countries outside Europe. This allowed subscribers to use other GSM networks; the common standard reduced research and development costs, since ha
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between