A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces. A field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from "army" in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the typical style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as "First Army". A field army may be given a geographical name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine, Army of the Niemen or Aegean Army; the Roman army was among the first to feature a formal field army, in the sense of a large, combined arms formation, namely the sacer comitatus, which may be translated as "sacred escort". The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, when they acted as field commanders. While the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as "field army", it may be translated as the more generic "field force" or "mobile force".
In some armed forces, an "army" has been equivalent to a corps-level unit. Prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an "area army". In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front, it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. It could be classified as either tank army. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, controls at least two corps, beneath which are a variable number of divisions. A battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are commanded by a general or lieutenant general.
Armeeoberkommando Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
Veles, North Macedonia
Veles is a city in the central part of the Republic of North Macedonia on the Vardar river. The city of Veles is the seat of Veles Municipality. Vilazora was the Paeonian city Bylazora from the period of early Classical Antiquity; the city's name was Βελισσός Velissos in Ancient Greek. Under Turkish rule it became. From 1877 to 1912 the sandjak was part of the Kosovo vilayet. From 1929 to 1941, Veles was part of the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II, the city was known as Titov Veles after Yugoslavian president Josip Broz Tito, but the'Titov' was removed in 1996. Cars registered in Veles were identified by the code TV, changed as late as 2000 to VE; the area of present-day Veles has been inhabited for over a millennium. In antiquity, it was a Paionian city called Bylazora, contained a substantial population of Thracians and Illyrians, it was part of the Byzantine Empire, at times the First and Second Bulgarian Empire. It became part of the Kingdom of Serbia at the end of the 13th century, while during the Serbian Empire it was an estate of Jovan Oliver and subsequently the Mrnjavčević family until Ottoman annexation after the Battle of Rovine.
Before the Balkan Wars, it was a township with the name Köprülü, part of the Sanjak of Üsküp. Some identify Veles with the Velitza; the Annuario Pontificio identifies Veles instead with the Diocese of Bela, a suffragan of the Metropolitan Latin Archdiocese of Achrida in Bulgaria, lists it, as no longer a residential diocese, among the Latin titular bishoprics. It is in Bosnia and Hercegovina. Through Macedonia Veles is known as industrial center and as a leader in the implementing of IT in the local administration in Macedonia. Veles is a place of poetry, culture and tradition, as well as a city with plentiful and precious cultural heritage and centuries old churches. Veles is a municipality of 55,000 residents; the geographic location of the city of Veles makes it suitable for hiking and camping at the west side of the city. One such location is the tranquil village Bogomila. Nearby there is the man made lake Mladost, known as the city's recreational centre. Veles made international news in 2016 when it was revealed that a group of teenagers in the city were controlling over 100 websites producing fake news articles in support of U.
S. presidential candidate Donald Trump, which were publicised on the social media site Facebook. Two TV stations operate in Veles - Channel Zdravkin - and many radio stations. Veles has many sports teams, the most popular of which are: FK Borec, football RK Borec, handball BK Borec, wrestling KK Borec, basketball Veles is twinned with three other Balkanic towns: Samobor Slobozia Užice Sombor Niš Nowogard Other forms of partnership: Pula History and politicsKöprülü Fazıl Ahmed, Ottoman grand vizier Gheorghe Ghica, Prince of Moldavia Metodi Aleksiev, revolutionary Jovan Babunski, Chetnik vojvoda Panko Brashnarov, revolutionary Ilija Dimovski, member of Macedonian Parliament Vasil Glavinov, revolutionary Ivan Naumov, revolutionary Kole Nedelkovski, revolutionary Kazım Özalp, Turkish military office Faik Pasha, general of the Ottoman Army Jordan Popjordanov, revolutionary Mile Pop Yordanov, revolutionary Lazar Petrović, Serbian general and adjutant of King Aleksandar ObrenovićCultureBobby Stojanov Varga, painter Kočo Racin, writer Rayko Zhinzifov, poet Svetozar Ristovski, film director Yordan Hadzhikonstantinov-Dzhinot and publicist Zivko Prendzov, art graphicSportsEzgjan Alioski, footballer Panče Kumbev, footballer Safer Sali, Olympic wrestler Ljubomir Spasik, wildwater canoeist Official website of Veles
8th Army (German Empire)
The 8th Army was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from the I Army Inspectorate; the army was dissolved on 29 September 1915, but reformed on 30 December 1915. It was disbanded in 1919 during demobilization after the war. On mobilisation in August 1914, the 8th Army Headquarters was formed in Posen to command troops stationed in East Prussia to defend against the expected Russian attack, Plan XIX; the Army commanded the following formations: Concerned by the defeat at Gumbinnen and the continued advance of the Russian Second Army from the south, Prittwitz ordered a retreat to the Vistula abandoning East Prussia. When he heard of this, Helmuth von Moltke, the German Army Chief of Staff, recalled Prittwitz and his deputy to Berlin, they were replaced by Paul von Hindenburg, called out of retirement, with Erich Ludendorff as his chief of staff. Under its new command, the Army was responsible for the victories at the Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes.
The Army of the Niemen was formed on 26 May 1915 to control the troops in Courland. The commander of the 8th Army, General der Infanterie Otto von Below, along with his Chief of Staff, Generalmajor von Böckmann, assumed command. In the meantime, the 8th Army got a deputy commander, General der Artillerie Friedrich von Scholtz, commander of XX Corps. 8th Army was dissolved on 29 September 1915. On 30 December 1915 the Army of the Niemen was renamed as the 8th Army with von Below still in command; the original 8th Army had the following commanders from mobilisation until it was dissolved 29 September 1915. A "new" 8th Army was formed by renaming the Army of the Niemen on 30 December 1915, it was dissolved after the end of the war on 21 January 1919. Armee-Abteilung or Army Detachment in the sense of "something detached from an Army", it is not under the command of an Army so is in itself a small Army. Armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command formed as a temporary measure for a specific task.
Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander. 8th Army for the equivalent formation in World War II German Army order of battle Order of battle at Tannenberg Great Retreat Cron, Hermann. Imperial German Army 1914–18: Organisation, Orders-of-Battle. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1
The Vistula is the longest and largest river in Poland and the 9th longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2; the remainder is in Belarus and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, 1,220 meters above sea level in the Silesian Beskids, where it begins with the White Little Vistula and the Black Little Vistula, it flows over the biggest cities including Kraków, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches; the name was first recorded by Pliny in AD 77 in his Natural History. Mela names the river Vistula, Pliny uses Vistla; the root of the name Vistula is Indo-European *u̯eis-'to ooze, flow slowly' and is found in many European rivernames. The diminutive endings -ila, -ula, were used in many Indo-European languages, including Latin. In writing about the Vistula River and its peoples, Ptolemy uses the Greek spelling Ouistoula.
Other ancient sources spell it Istula. Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula. Jordanes uses Viscla. 12th-century Polish chronicler Wincenty Kadłubek Latinised the rivername as Vandalus, a form influenced by Lithuanian vanduõ'water', while Jan Długosz in his Annales seu cronicae incliti regni Poloniae called the Vistula'white waters' referring to the White Little Vistula: "a nationibus orientalibus Polonis vicinis, ob aquae candorem Alba aqua... nominatur." Over the course of history the river possessed several names in different languages such as Low German: Wießel, Dutch: Wijsel, Yiddish: ווייסל Yiddish pronunciation: and Russian: Висла. The Vistula river is formed in the southern Silesian Voivodeship of Poland from two sources, the Czarna Wisełka at an altitude of 1,107 m and the Biała Wisełka at an altitude of 1,080 m on the western slope of Barania Góra in the Silesian Beskids; the Vistula can be divided into three parts: upper, from its sources to Sandomierz. The Vistula river basin covers 194,424 square kilometres.
In addition, the majority of its river basin is 100 to 200 m above sea level. The highest point of the river basin is at 2,655 metres. One of the features of the river basin of the Vistula is its asymmetry—in great measure resulting from the tilting direction of the Central European Lowland toward the northwest, the direction of the flow of glacial waters, considerable predisposition of its older base; the asymmetry of the river basin is 73–27%. The most recent glaciation of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BC, is called the Vistulian glaciation or Weichselian glaciation in regard to north-central Europe; the river forms. The delta starts around Biała Góra near Sztum, about 50 km from the mouth, where the river Nogat splits off; the Nogat starts separately as a river named Alte Nogat south of Marienwerder, but further north it picks up water from a crosslink with the Vistula, becomes a distributary of the Vistula, flowing away northeast into the Vistula Lagoon with a small delta.
The Nogat formed part of the border between interwar Poland. The other channel of the Vistula below this point is sometimes called the Leniwka. Various causes have caused many severe floods of the Vistula down the centuries. Land in the area was sometimes depopulated by severe flooding, had to be resettled. See for a reconstruction map of the delta area as it was around year 1300: note much more water in the area, the west end of the Vistula Lagoon was bigger, nearly continuous with the Drausen See; as with some aggrading rivers, the lower Vistula has been subject to channel changing. Near the sea, the Vistula was diverted sideways by coastal sand as a result of longshore drift and split into an east-flowing branch and a west-flowing branch; until the 14th century, the Elbing Vistula was the bigger. 1242: The Stara Wisła cut an outlet to the sea through the barrier near Mikoszewo where the Vistula Cut is now. 1371: The Danzig Vistula became bigger than the Elbing Vistula. 1540 and 1543: Huge floods depopulated the delta area, afterwards the land was resettled by Mennonite Germans, economic development followed.
1553: By a plan made by Da
Max von Fabeck
Herrmann Gustav Karl Max von Fabeck was a Prussian military officer and a German General der Infantarie during World War I. He commanded the 13th Corps in the 5th Army and took part in the Race to the Sea on the Western Front and commanded the new 11th Army on the Eastern Front. Subsequently, he commanded several German armies during the war until his evacuation from the front due to illness in 1916 and died on 16 December. A competent and decorated commander, von Fabeck is a recipient of the Pour le Mérite, Prussia's and Germany's highest military honor. Fabeck was born in Berlin in 1854, he was wife Bertha, née von dem Borne. By the time he was 17 years old he was a second lieutenant in the 1st Footguards Regiment. From 1878 to 1879 he attended the Prussian Military Academy. In 1882 he was appointed to the German General Staff and was promoted to captain in 1884. From 1886 he served in the General Staff of the 28. Division in Karlsruhe. On 24 October 1887 married Helene von Seldeneck, the daughter of the Grand Duke of Baden, chamberlain of William and Julie Brandt Seldeneck of Lindau.
The couple had three daughters Ilse and Hildegard. He became a staff officer to the VI Army Corps in Breslau in 1889 and shortly thereafter was promoted to Major. From 1893 he served in the regiment Grenadier König Friedrich Wilhelm II. Nr. 10 in Schweidnitz. In 1896 he was a Lieutenant Colonel Chief of Staff of the XI. Army Corps in Kassel. In 1898 he was promoted to Colonel and received his first command: the Infanterie-Regiments „Herzog Friedrich Wilhelm von Braunschweig“ Nr. 78 in Osnabrück. From 1901 he led the 25th Infantry Brigade in the 13th Army Division in Münster, he was promoted to Major General that same year. In 1906 Fabeck was promoted to lieutenant general and commander of the 28th Army Division in Karlsruhe. In 1910 he was appointed general of the infantry and commanding general of the XV Army Corps in Strasbourg. In 1913 he assumed the same position at the XIII Army Corps in Stuttgart. At the beginning of World War, the XIII Army Corps commanded by von Fabeck was part of Germany's 5th Army, commanded by Crown Prince Wilhelm.
It participated in the mobile battles known as the Race to the First Battle of Ypres. In March 1915 von Fabeck commanded the newly formed 11th Army, transferred from the Western to the Eastern fronts with whom he fought in Lithuania. In April 1915 he replaced the injured Alexander von Kluck as commander of the 1st Army. In September 1915 von Fabeck got command of the 12th Army, with whom he transferred to the Eastern Front, he was attached à la suite to Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 129 on 27 January 1916. Before he fell ill in October 1916 von Fabeck was the commander of 8th Army for a few weeks. General von Fabeck was awarded the Pour le Mérite for outstanding military leadership during the 1914–15 campaigns in Flanders and northern France, as well as in recognition of successful operational planning in the battles at Mons, Le Cateau and the Ourcq river, he received a personal telegram from the Wilhelm II congratulating him on the award. In October 1916 von Fabeck became ill and he committed suicide on 16 December 1916 at Partenkirchen, Kingdom of Bavaria.
Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Württemberg Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion Bavarian Military Merit Order Grand Cross of the Order of Philip the Magnanimous Grand Cross of the Order of Red Eagle with Oak Leaves Order of the Crown of Prussia, 1st class Prussian Service Award Cross Grand Cross of the Albert Order with Gold Star Commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Romania Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd class Commander of the Military Merit Order of Württemberg on 1 November 1914 Pour le Mérite 23 August 1915 Fähnrich—1 October 1871 Leutnant—18 October 1871 Oberleutnant—18 October 1879 Hauptmann—12 July 1884 Major—19 November 1889 Oberstleutnant—27 January 1896 Oberst—24 May 1898 Generalmajor—14 November 1901 Generalleutnant—27 January 1906 General der Infanterie—13 January 1910 Holger Afflerbach: Kaiser Wilhelm II. Als oberster Kriegsherr im Ersten Weltkrieg. Quellen aus der militärischen Umgebung des Kaisers 1914–1918 Deutsche Geschichtsquellen des 19.
Und 20. Jahrhunderts, Band 64. ISBN 3-486-57581-3 Ian F. W. Beckett: Ypres; the First Battle, 1914. ISBN 0-582-50612-3 Robert T. Foley: German Strategy and the Path to Verdun. Erich Falkenhayn and the development of Attrition 1870–1916 ISBN 0-521-84193-3 Stammbaum Familiengeschichte mit Kurzbiografie und Foto Stollwerck-Sammelbild mit Kurzbiografie
Galicia (Eastern Europe)
Galicia is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine; the area, named after the medieval city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. In 1253 Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus or King of Ruthenia following the Mongol invasion in Ruthenia. In 1352 the Kingdom of Poland annexed the Kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia as the Ruthenian Voivodeship; the nucleus of historic Galicia lies within the modern regions of western Ukraine: the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk oblasts near Halych. In the 18th century, territories that became part of the modern Polish regions of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Subcarpathian Voivodeship and Silesian Voivodeship were added to Galicia, it covers much of such historic regions as Lesser Poland.
Galicia became contested ground between Poland and Ruthenia from medieval times, in the 20th century between Poland and Ukraine. In the 10th century, several cities were founded in Galicia, such as Volodymyr and Jaroslaw, whose names mark their connections with Grand Princes of Kiev. There is considerable overlap between Galicia and Podolia as well as between Galicia and south-west Ruthenia in a cross-border region inhabited by various nationalities. Andrew II, King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235, claimed the title Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae – a Latinised version of the Slavic names Halych and Volodymyr, the major cities of the principality of Halych-Volhynia, which the Hungarians ruled from 1214 to 1221. Halych-Volhynia had cut a swathe as a mighty principality under the rule of Prince Roman the Great in 1170–1205. After the expulsion of the Hungarians in 1221, Ruthenians took back rule of the area. Roman's son Daniel of Galicia was crowned king of Halych-Volhynia in 1253. About 1247 Daniel of Galicia founded Lviv, named in honour of his son Leo I, who moved the capital northwestwards from Halych to Lviv in 1272.
The Ukrainian name Halych comes from the Khwalis or Kaliz who occupied the area from the time of the Magyars. They were called Khalisioi in Greek, Khvalis in Ukrainian; some historians speculated that the name had to do with a group of people of Thracian origin who during the Iron Age moved into the area after Roman conquest of Dacia in 106 CE and may have formed the Lypytsia culture with the Venedi people who moved in the region at the end of Le Tène period. The Lypytsia culture replaced the existing Thracian Hallstatt and Vysotske cultures. Connection with Celtic peoples explains the relation of the name "Galicia" to many similar place names found across Europe and Asia Minor, such as ancient Gallia or Gaul, the Iberian Peninsula's Galicia, Romanian Galați; some other scholars assert that the name Halych has Slavic origins – from halytsa, meaning "a naked hill", or from halka which means "jackdaw". Although Ruthenians drove out the Hungarians from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles.
In 1349, in the course of the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, King Casimir III the Great of Poland conquered the major part of Galicia and put an end to the independence of this territory. Upon the conquest Casimir adopted the following title: Casimir by the grace of God king of Poland and Rus and heir of the land of Kraków, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Pomerania. [In Latin: Kazimirus, Dei gratia rex Polonie et Rusie, nec non Cracovie, Siradie, Cuiavie, et Pomeranieque Terrarum et Ducatuum Dominus et Heres. Following the death of Casimir in 1370, Poland entered into a personal union with Hungary and Ruthenia came under the rule of a Ruthenian lord, Vladislaus II of Opole, appointed by the King of Hungary. Galicia was ruled for short time by various Hungarian voivodes of Ruthenia. Under the Jagiellonian dynasty (Kings of Poland from 1386 to 1572, the Kingdom of Poland revived and reconstituted its territories. In place of historic Galicia there appeared the Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1526, after the death of Louis II of Hungary, the Habsburgs inherited the Hungarian claims to the titles of the Kingship of Galicia and Lodomeria, together with the Hungarian crown.
In 1772 the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, used those historical claims to justify her participation in the first partition of Poland. In fact, the territories acquired by Austria did not correspond to those of former Halych-Volhynia - the Russian Empire took control of Volhynia to the north-east, including the city of Volodymyr-Volynskyi – after which Lodomeria was named. On the other hand, much of Lesser Poland – Nowy S
Kassel is a city located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel and the district of the same name and had 200,507 inhabitants in December 2015; the former capital of the state of Hesse-Kassel has many palaces and parks, including the Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Kassel is known for the documenta exhibitions of contemporary art. Kassel has a public university with a multicultural population. Kassel was first mentioned in 913 AD, as the place where two deeds were signed by King Conrad I; the place was called Chasella or Chassalla and was a fortification at a bridge crossing the Fulda river. There are several - yet unproven - assumptions of the name's origin, it could be derived from the ancient Castellum Cattorum, a castle of the Chatti, a German tribe that had lived in the area since Roman times. Another assumption is a portmanteau from Frankonian "cas" - valley or recess and "sali" - hall or service building, which can be interpreted as hall in a valley.
A deed from 1189 certifies that Cassel had city rights, but the date when they were granted is not known. In 1567, the Landgraviate of Hesse, until centered in Marburg, was divided among four sons, with Hesse-Kassel becoming one of its successor states. Kassel became a centre of Calvinist Protestantism in Germany. Strong fortifications were built to protect the Protestant stronghold against Catholic enemies. Secret societies, such as Rosicrucianism flourished, with Christian Rosenkreutz’s work Fama Fraternitis first published in 1617. In 1685, Kassel became a refuge for 1,700 Huguenots who found shelter in the newly established borough of Oberneustadt. Landgrave Charles, responsible for this humanitarian act ordered the construction of the Oktagon and of the Orangerie. In the late 18th Century, Hesse-Kassel became infamous for selling mercenaries to the British crown to help suppress the American Revolution and to finance the construction of palaces and the Landgrave’s opulent lifestyle. In the early 19th century, the Brothers Grimm lived in Kassel.
They wrote most of their fairy tales there. At that time, around 1803, the Landgraviate was elevated to a Principality and its ruler to Prince-elector. Shortly after, it was annexed by Napoleon and in 1807 it became the capital of the short-lived Kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleon's brother Jérôme; the Electorate was restored in 1813. Having sided with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War to gain supremacy in Germany, the principality was annexed by Prussia in 1866; the Prussian administration united Nassau and Hesse-Kassel into the new Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. Kassel ceased to be a princely residence, but soon developed into a major industrial centre, as well as a major railway junction. Henschel & Son, the largest railway locomotive manufacturer in Germany at the end of the nineteenth century, was based in Kassel. In 1870, after the Battle of Sedan, Napoleon III was sent as a prisoner to the Wilhelmshöhe Palace above the city. During World War I the German military headquarters were located in the Wilhelmshöhe Palace.
In the late 1930s Nazis destroyed Heinrich Hübsch's Kassel Synagogue. During World War II, Kassel was the headquarters for Germany's Wehrkreis IX, a local subcamp of Dachau concentration camp provided forced labour for the Henschel facilities, which included tank production plants; the most severe bombing of Kassel in World War II destroyed 90% of the downtown area, some 10,000 people were killed, 150,000 were made homeless. Most of the casualties were civilians or wounded soldiers recuperating in local hospitals, whereas factories survived the attack undamaged. Karl Gerland replaced Karl Weinrich, soon after the raid; the Allied ground advance into Germany reached Kassel at the beginning of April 1945. The US 80th Infantry Division captured Kassel in bitter house-to-house fighting during 2–4 April 1945, which included numerous German panzer-grenadier counterattacks, resulted in further widespread devastation to bombed and unbombed structures alike. Post-war, most of the ancient buildings were not restored, large parts of the city area were rebuilt in the style of the 1950s.
A few historic buildings, such as the Museum Fridericianum, were restored. In 1949, the interim parliament eliminated Kassel in the first round as a city to become the provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1964, the town hosted the fourth Hessentag state festival. In 1972 the Chancellor of West Germany Willy Brandt and the Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic Willy Stoph met in Wilhelmshöhe Palace for negotiations between the two German states. In 1991 the central rail station moved from "Hauptbahnhof" to "Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe"; the city had a dynamic economic and social development in the recent years reducing the unemployement rate by half and attracting many new citizens so that the population has grown constantly. Several international operating companies have headquarters in the city; the city is home of several hospitals, the public Klinikum Kassel is one of the largest hospitals in the federal state offering a wide range of health services. In 1558, the first German observatory was built in Kassel, followed in 1604 by the Ottoneum, the first permanent German theatre building.
The old building is today th