10th century BC
The 10th century BC started the first day of 1000 BC and ended the last day of 901 BC. This period followed the Late Bronze Age collapse in the Near East, the century saw the Early Iron Age take hold there; the Greek Dark Ages which had come about in 1200 BC continued. The Neo-Assyrian Empire is established towards the end of the 10th century BC. In the Iron Age in India, the Vedic period is ongoing. In China, the Zhou dynasty is in power. Bronze Age Europe continued with Urnfield culture. Japan was inhabited by an evolving hunter-gatherer society during the Jōmon period. 1000 BC: India—Iron Age of India. Iron Age kingdoms rule India—Panchala, Kosala, Videha are Janapada states. 993 BC: Amenemope succeeds Psusennes I as king of Egypt. 993 BC: Archippus, Archon of Athens dies after a reign of 19 years and is succeeded by his son Thersippus. 984 BC: Osorkon the Elder succeeds Amenemope as king of Egypt. 982 BC: The end of first period by Sau Yung's concept of the I Ching and history. 978 BC: Siamun succeeds Osorkon the Elder as king of Egypt.
967 BC: Solomon becomes king of the Israelites, according to the Books of Kings. 967 BC: Tiglath-Pileser II becomes King of Assyria. 965 BC: David, king of the ancient Israelites, dies. 962 BC: Solomon becomes king of Israel, following the death of his father, King David. 959 BC: Psusennes II succeeds Siamun as king of Egypt. 957 BC: Solomon completes the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem. C. 953 BC: Alternative date to the founding of Rome. 952 BC: Thersippus, King of Athens dies after a reign of 41 years and is succeeded by his son Phorbas. 947 BC: Death of King Mo of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 946 BC: King Gong of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 945 BC: Egypt: Psusennes III dies, the last king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. Shoshenq I succeeds him, the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. 935 BC: Death of King Gong of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 935 BC: Death of Tiglath-Pileser II king of Assyria. 925 BC: Solomon, king of the ancient Israelites, dies.
C. 925 BC: Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel. 924 BC: Osorkon I succeeds his father Shoshenq I as king of Egypt. 922 BC: Phorbas, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 30 years and is succeeded by his son Megacles. 912 BC: Adad-nirari II succeeds his father Ashur-Dan II as king of Assyria. 911 BC: Abijah, king of Judah, dies. 910 BC: Kamil Xashi assassinates King Baraxow of the Gudaye dynasty bringing an end to the 2000 year old Kingdom of Punt 909 BC: Jeroboam, the first king of the northern Hebrew kingdom of Israel, dies and is succeeded by his son Nadab. 900s BC: India—Vedic India—Yajnavalkya writes the Shatapatha Brahmana, in which he describes the motions of the sun and the moon. C. 900 BC: the Villanovan culture emerges in northern Italy. C. 900 BC: Foundation of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. C. 900 BC — the [[Adichanallur relics, from Tamilnadu Culture, India is 2,900 yrs old 900 BC: Kingdom of Kush. Late 10th century BC: Centaur, from Lefkandi, Euboea is made.
It is now at the Archaeological Museum of Eretria in Greece. Foundation of Sparta; the kingdom of Ethiopia is founded by Menelik I, who according to legend was the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. First extant evidence of written Aramaic language; the earliest known settlement in Plymouth, England dates back to this era. Creation of ceremonial golden hats in Central Europe. David, king of the ancient Israelites Snake Spine Ajaw of Palenque, semi legendary (967 BC-? Solomon, king of the ancient Israelites Zoroaster, ancient Iranian prophet Kamil Xashi, ancestor of the Hashiyah clan See: List of sovereign states in the 10th century BC
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt
The Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt is the third and last dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1189 BC to 1077 BC. The 19th and 20th Dynasties furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. Upon the death of the last pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty, Queen Twosret, Egypt descended into a period of civil war, as attested by the Elephantine stela built by Setnakhte; the circumstances of Twosret's demise are uncertain, as she may have died peacefully during her reign or been overthrown by Setnakhte, already middle aged at the time. A consistent theme of this dynasty was the loss of pharaonic power to the High Priests of Amun. Horemheb, a pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, had restored the traditional Ancient Egyptian religion and the priesthood of Amun after their abandonment by Akhenaten. With the High Priests now acting as intermediaries between the gods and the people, rather than the pharaoh, the position of pharaoh no longer commanded the same kind of power as it had in the past.
Setnakhte stabilized the situation in Egypt, may have driven off an attempted invasion by the Sea Peoples. He ruled for about 4 years before being succeeded by his son Ramesses III. In Year 5 of his reign, Ramesses defeated a Libyan invasion of Egypt by the Libu and Seped people through Marmarica, who had unsuccessfully invaded during the reign of Merneptah. Ramesses III is most famous for decisively defeating a confederacy of the Sea Peoples, including the Denyen, Peleset and Weshesh in the Battle of the Delta and the Battle of Djahy during Year 8 of his reign. Within the Papyrus Harris I, which attests these events in detail, Ramesses is said to have settled the defeated Sea Peoples in "strongholds", most located in Canaan, as his subjects. In Year 11 of Ramesses' reign, another coalition of Libyan invaders was defeated in Egypt. Between regnal Year 12 and Year 29, a systematic program of reorganization of the varied cults of the Ancient Egyptian religion was undertaken, by creating and funding new cults and restoring temples.
In Year 29 of Ramesses' reign, the first recorded labor strike in human history took place, after food rations for the favored and elite royal tomb builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat, could not be provisioned. The reign of Ramesses III is known for a harem conspiracy in which Queen Tiye, one of his lesser wives, was implicated in an assassination attempt against the king, with the goal of putting her son Pentawer on the throne; the coup was unsuccessful, as while the king died from the attempt on his life, his legitimate heir and son Ramesses IV succeeded him to the throne and putting 30 conspirators to death. At the start of his reign Ramesses IV started an enormous building program on the scale of Ramesses the Great's own projects, he doubled the number of work gangs at Set Maat to a total of 120 men and dispatched numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai. One of the largest expeditions included 8,368 men. Ramesses expanded his father's Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and began his own mortuary temple at a site near the Temple of Hatshepsut.
Another smaller temple is associated with Ramesses north of Medinet Habu. Ramesses IV saw issues with the provision of food rations to his workmen, similar to the situation under his father. Ramessesnakht, the High Priest of Amun at the time, began to accompany state officials as they went to pay the workmen their rations, suggesting that, at least in part, it was the Temple of Amun and not the Egyptian state, responsible for their wages, he produced the Papyrus Harris I, the longest known papyrus from Ancient Egypt, measuring in at 41 meters long with 1,500 lines of text to celebrate the achievements of his father. Ramesses V reigned for no more than 4 years, dying of smallpox in 1143 BC; the only monument attested to him is a stela near Gebel el-Silsila. The Turin Papyrus Cat. 2044 attests that during his reign the workmen of Set Maat were forced to periodically stop working on Ramesses' KV9 tomb out of "fear of the enemy", suggesting increasing instability in Egypt and an inability to defend the country from what are presumed to be Libyan raiding parties.
The Wilbour Papyrus is thought to date from Ramesses V's reign. The document reveals that most of the land in Egypt by that point was controlled by the Temple of Amun, that the Temple had complete control over Egypt's finances. Ramesses VI is best known for his tomb which, when built, inadvertently buried the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun underneath, keeping it safe from grave robbing until its discovery by Howard Carter in 1922. Ramesses VII's only monument is his tomb, KV1. Nothing is known about Ramesses VIII's reign, which lasted for a single year, he is only attested through a few plaques. The only monument from his reign is his modest tomb, used for Mentuherkhepeshef, son of Ramesses IX, rather than Ramesses VIII himself. During Year 16 and Year 17 of Ramesses IX's reign famous tomb robbery trials took place, as attested by the Abbott Papyrus. A careful examination by a vizierial commission was undertaken of ten royal tombs, four tombs of the Chantresses of the Estate of the Divine Adoratrix, the tombs of the citizens of Thebes.
Many of these were found to have been broken into, like the tomb of Pharaoh Sobekemsaf II, whose mummy had been stolen. Ramesses IX's cartouche has been found at Gezer in Canaan, suggesting that Egypt at this time still had some degree of influence in the region. Most of the building projects during Ramesses IX's reign were at Heliopolis. Ramessex X's reign is poorly d
The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history; the military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years. During the Zhou Dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the Zhou Dynasty. In this period, the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC; the Zhou Dynasty had formally collapsed only 35 years earlier, although the dynasty had only nominal power at that point. This period of Chinese history produced; the Zhou dynasty spans the period in which the written script evolved into its almost-modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.
According to Chinese mythology, the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan, a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku, miraculously conceived a child, Qi "the Abandoned One", after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi. Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with improving Xia agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a posthumous name, Houji "Lord of Millet", by the Tang of Shang, he received sacrifice as a harvest god. The term Hòujì was a hereditary title attached to a lineage. Qi's son, or rather that of the Hòujì, Buzhu is said to have abandoned his position as Agrarian Master in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned agriculture living a nomadic life in the manner of the Xirong and Rongdi. Ju's son Liu, led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and settling them at a place called Bin, which his descendants ruled for generations. Tai led the clan from Bin to Zhou, an area in the Wei River valley of modern-day Qishan County.
The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor Jili, a warrior who conquered several Xirong tribes as a vassal of the Shang kings Wu Yi and Wen Ding before being treacherously killed. Taibo and Zhongyong had already fled to the Yangtze delta, where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there. Jili's son Wen moved the Zhou capital to Feng. Around 1046 BC, Wen's son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye, marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty; the Zhou enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of Song, held by descendants of the Shang royal family until its end. This practice was referred to Three Reverences. According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang. A recent study by David McCraw, using lexical statistics, reached the same conclusion.
The Zhou emulated extensively Shang cultural practices to legitimize their own rule, became the successors to Shang culture. At the same time, the Zhou may have been connected to the Xirong, a broadly defined cultural group to the west of the Shang, which the Shang regarded as tributaries. According to the historian Li Feng, the term "Rong" during the Western Zhou period was used to designate political and military adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic'others.' King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency. Though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans and several Dongyi tribes, the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east.
To maintain Zhou authority over its expanded territory and prevent other revolts, he set up the fengjian system. Furthermore, he countered Zhou's crisis of legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven while accommodating important Shang rituals at Wangcheng and Chengzhou. Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations. Peripheral territories developed local prestige on par with that of the Zhou; when King You demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner Bao Si, the disgraced queen's father the Marquis of Shen joined with Zeng and the Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC. Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion. With King You dead, a conclave of nobles declared the Marquis's grandson King Ping; the capital was moved eastward to Wangcheng, marking the end of the "Western Zhou" and the beginning of the "Eastern Zhou" dynasty.
The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over five more cent
Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible. This is traditionally dated between 1050 BCE and 930 BCE. On the succession of Solomon's son, around 930 BCE, the biblical account reports that the country split into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. In contemporary scholarship the united monarchy is held to be a literary construction and not a historical reality, pointing to the lack of archaeological evidence, it is accepted that a "House of David" existed, but many believe that David could have only been the monarch or chieftain of Judah, small, that the northern kingdom was a separate development. There are some dissenters to this view. According to standard source criticism, a number of distinct source texts were spliced together to produce the current Books of Samuel; the most prominent in the early parts of the first book are the pro-monarchical source and the anti-monarchical source.
In identifying these two sources, two separate accounts can be reconstructed. The anti-monarchical source describes Samuel as having routed the Philistines, yet begrudgingly accepting the people's demand for a ruler, subsequently appointing Saul by cleromancy; the pro-monarchical source describes the divinely appointed birth of Saul, his leading of an army to victory over the Ammonites, resulted in the clamouring of the people for him to lead them against the Philistines, whereupon he is appointed king. Textual critics point to disparities in the account of David's rise to power as indicative of separate threads being merged to create a Golden Age of a united monarchy. David is thought by scholars to have been a ruler in Judah, while Israel, comparatively immense and developed, continued unfettered. Modern archaeology supports this view. Most scholars believe the Books of Samuel exhibit too many anachronisms to have been a contemporary account. For example, there is mention of armor, use of camels and iron picks and axes.
The historicity of the conquest described in the Book of Samuel is not attested, many scholars regard this conquest as legendary in origin given the lack of evidence for the battles described involving the destruction of the Canaanite peoples. Most scholars believe that Samuel was compiled in the 8th century BCE based on both historical and legendary sources serving to fill the gap in Israelite history after the events described in Deuteronomy; this gap in the historical record is characteristic of the Late Bronze Age collapse. According to Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman, authors of The Bible Unearthed, ideas of a united monarchy are not accurate history but rather "creative expressions of a powerful religious reform movement," "based on certain historical kernels." Finkelstein and Silberman do accept that David and Solomon were real kings of Judah about the 10th century BCE, but they cite the fact that the earliest independent reference to the Kingdom of Israel dates to about 890 BCE, while that for the kingdom of Judah dates to about 750 BCE.
This is supported by Jonathan Tubb, who argues that the story of the united monarchy was fabricated as a Golden Age tale during the Exile. He accepts the historicity of David and Solomon but cautions that "hey must be seen... as local folk heroes and not as rulers of international status." Oded Lipschits wrote in the Jewish Study Bible that "the premonarchic period long ago became a literary description of the mythological roots, the early beginnings of the nation and the way to describe the right of Israel on its land. The archeological evidence does not support the existence of a united monarchy under David and Solomon as described in the Bible, so the rubric of "united monarchy" is best abandoned, although it remains useful for discussing how the Bible views the Israelite past". On the other hand, while Amélie Kuhrt does acknowledge that "there are no royal inscriptions from the time of the united monarchy, not a single contemporary reference to either David or Solomon," she concludes that "gainst this must be set the evidence for substantial development and growth at several sites, plausibly related to the tenth century."
Kenneth Kitchen reaches a similar conclusion, arguing that "the physical archaeology of tenth-century Canaan is consistent with the former existence of a unified state on its terrain." Excavations at Khirbet Qeiyafa, an Iron Age site located in Judah, found an urbanized settlement radiocarbon dated well before scholars such as Finklestein suggest urbanization began in Judah, supporting existence of a Judahite kingdom. The Israel Antiquities Authority stated: "The excavations at Khirbat Qeiyafa reveal an urban society that existed in Judah in the late eleventh century BCE, it can no longer be argued that the Kingdom of Judah developed only in the late eighth century BCE or at some other date." The techniques and interpretations used to reach some conclusions related to Khirbet Qeiyafa have been criticized by some scholars, among them Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin of Tel Aviv Un
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ
King Zhou of Shang
King Zhou was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin, the last king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China. He is called Zhou Xin, he may be referred to by adding "Shang" in front of any of his names. In Chinese, his name Zhòu refers to a horse crupper, the part of a saddle or harness, most to be soiled by the horse, it is not to be confused with the name of the succeeding dynasty which has a different character and pronunciation. In the Records of the Grand Historian, Sima Qian wrote that Di Xin, in the early part of his reign, had abilities which surpassed those of the ordinary man, was quick-witted and quick-tempered. According to legend, he was intelligent enough to win all of his arguments, he was strong enough to hunt wild beasts with his bare hands, he was father of Wu Geng. His father Di Yi had Ji Zi and Bi Gan. Di Xin added to the territory of Shang by battling the tribes surrounding it, including the Dongyi to the east. In his years, Di Xin gave himself over to drinking and abandoned morals, preferring these to the proper governance of the country, ignored all affairs of state.
According to Sima Qian, he hosted festive orgies where many people engaged in immoral things at the same time with his concubines and created songs with crude lyrics and poor rhythm. In legends, he is depicted as having come under the influence of his wicked wife Daji, committing all manner of evil and cruel deeds with her. In fictionalizations, including the novel Fengshen Yanyi, she was said to be possessed by a malevolent fox spirit. One of the most famous forms of entertainment Zhou enjoyed was the "Alcohol Pool and Meat Forest". A large pool, big enough for several canoes, was constructed on the Palace grounds, with inner linings of polished oval shaped stones from the seashores; this allowed for the entire pool to be filled with alcohol. A small island was constructed in the middle of the pool, where trees were planted, which had branches made of roasted meat skewers hanging over the pool; this allowed his friends and concubines to drift on canoes in the pool. When they thirsted, they drank the wine.
When they hungered, they reached up with their hands to eat the roasted meat. This was considered one of the most famous examples of decadence and corruption of a ruler in Chinese history. In order to please Daji, he created the "Cannon Burning Punishment". One large hollow bronze cylinder was stuffed with burning charcoal and allowed to burn until red-hot prisoners were made to hug the cylinder, which resulted in a painful and unsightly death. Zhou and Daji were known to get aroused after watching such torture. Victims ranged from ordinary prisoners to high government officials, such as Mei Bo. In order to fund Zhou's heavy daily expenses heavy taxes were implemented; the people suffered and lost all hope for the Shang dynasty. Zhou's brother Wei Zi was rebuked, his uncle Bi Gan remonstrated with him, but Di Xin had his heart ripped out so he could see what the heart of a sage looked like. When his other uncle Ji Zi heard this, he went to remonstrate with the kingly nephew and, feigning madness, was imprisoned.
When Zhou dynasty's army, led by the famous Jiang Ziya, defeated the Shang dynasty at the Battle of Muye in 1046 BC, Di Xin gathered all his treasures around himself in the Palace, set fire to his palace and committed suicide. The name "Zhou" appeared after the death of King Zhou, a posthumous name; this name was a representation of his actions, both cold-hearted. King Zhou would go down in history as one of the worst examples of a corrupted king in China. Zhou is mentioned in the Confucian Analects. Zhou is one of the main subjects of Fengshen Yanyi and its various derivations in popular media. Thus, Di Xin known as Zhou, has served as a exemplar of Confucian principles, as well as becoming an icon of popular culture; this makes for a biographically interesting figure, but one challenging a clear distinction between history and philosophical point-making. In Fengshen Yanyi, Zhou visited the Goddess Nüwa's temple and offended the Goddess with his lustful comments towards her beauty. In response, Nüwa decided that the Shang dynasty should end and sent her three subordinates to become three beautiful women to bewitch Zhou.
Under the influence of these women, Zhou becomes a ruthless king, losing the support of people and triggering his downfall. Until now, nobody knows most of his lifestyle from the reduced amount of artifacts found regarding to him. According to the Investiture of the Gods, Jiang Ziya recognized that King Zhou was a well-versed and well-trained individual that became an incapable ruler only because of having fallen victim to seduction. After his death, Jiang Ziya deified King Zhou as the Tianxi Xing; as the Tianxi Xing, he had the responsibility of managing the marriage affairs of humans. Wu, K. C.. The Chinese Heritage. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54475-X
Codrus was the last of the semi-mythical Kings of Athens. He was an ancient exemplar of self-sacrifice, he was succeeded by his son Medon, who it is claimed ruled not as king but as the first Archon of Athens. Aristotle, however, in the Constitution of the Athenians states an alternative view that Medon was King of Athens rather than first Archon; the earliest version of the story of Codrus comes from the 4th oration Against Leocrates by Lycurgus of Athens. During the time of the Dorian Invasion of Peloponnesus, the Dorians under Aletes, son of Hippotes had consulted the Delphic Oracle, who prophesied that their invasion would succeed as long as the king was not harmed; the news of this prophecy, that only the death of an Athenian king would ensure the safety of Athens found its way to the ears of Codrus. In devotion to his people, Codrus disguised himself as a peasant and made it to the vicinity of the Dorian encampment across the river, where he provoked a group of Dorian soldiers, he was put to death in the quarrel, the Dorians, realizing Codrus had been slain, decided to retreat in fear of their prophesied defeat.
In the aftermath of these events, it was claimed that no one thought himself worthy to succeed Codrus and so the title of king was abolished, that of archon substituted for it. Aristotle presented an alternative view that Codrus was succeeded as king by his sons Medon, Acastus