The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians. In Song dynasty China an invasion by Jurchens caused a political schism of south; the Khmer Empire of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the Fatimids of Egypt were overtaken by the Ayyubid dynasty. China is under the Northern Song dynasty. Early in the century, Zhang Zeduan paints Along the River During the Qingming Festival, it will end up in the Palace Museum, Beijing. In southeast Asia, there is conflict between the Champa. Angkor Wat is built under the Hindu king Suryavarman II. By the end of the century the Buddhist Jayavarman VII becomes the ruler. Japan is in its Heian period; the Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga is made and attributed to Toba Sōjō. It ends up at the Kyoto. In Oceania, the Tuʻi Tonga Empire expands to a much greater area. Europe undergoes the Renaissance of the 12th century.
The blast furnace for the smelting of cast iron is imported from China, appearing around Lapphyttan, Sweden, as early as 1150. Alexander Neckam is the first European to document the mariner's compass, first documented by Shen Kuo during the previous century. Christian humanism becomes a self-conscious philosophical tendency in Europe. Christianity is introduced to Estonia and Karelia; the first medieval universities are founded. Pierre Abelard teaches. Middle English begins to develop, literacy begins to spread outside the Church throughout Europe. In addition, churchmen are willing to take on secular roles. By the end of the century, at least a third of England's bishops act as royal judges in secular matters; the Ars antiqua period in the history of the classical music of Western Europe begins. The earliest recorded miracle play is performed in England. Gothic architecture and trouvère music begin in France. During the middle of the century, the Cappella Palatina is built in Palermo and the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript illustrates the Synopsis of Histories by John Skylitzes.
Fire and plague insurance first become available in Iceland, the first documented outbreaks of influenza there happens. The medieval state of Serbia is formed by Stefan Nemanja and continued by the Nemanjić dynasty. By the end of the century, both the Capetian Dynasty and the House of Anjou are relying on mercenaries in their militaries. Paid soldiers are available year-round, unlike knights who expected certain periods off to maintain their manor lifestyles. In India, Hoysala architecture reaches a peak. In the Middle East, the icon of Theotokos of Vladimir is painted in Constantinople. Everything but the faces will be retouched, the icon will go to the Tretyakov Gallery of Moscow; the Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli composes his epic poem The Knight in the Panther's Skin. Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi founds his "school of illumination". In North Africa, the kasbah of Marrakesh is built, including the city gate Bab Agnaou and the Koutoubia mosque. In sub-Saharan Africa, Kente cloth is first woven. In France, the first piedfort coins in the history of numismatics were minted.
The city of Tula burns down, marking the end of the Toltec Empire List of 12th-century inventions 1104—The Venice Arsenal of Venice, Italy, is founded. It employed some 16,000 people for the mass production of sailing ships in large assembly lines, hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution. 1106—Finished building of Gelati. 1107—The Chinese engineer Wu Deren combines the mechanical compass vehicle of the south-pointing chariot with the distance-measuring odometer device. 1111—The Chinese Donglin Academy is founded. 1165—The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, is built. 1170—The Christian notion of Purgatory is defined. 1185—First record of windmills. 1100: On August 5, Henry I is crowned King of England. 1100: On December 25, Baldwin of Boulogne is crowned as the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. 1101: In July, the Treaty of Alton is signed between Henry I of England and his older brother Robert, Duke of Normandy in which Robert agrees to recognize Henry as king of England in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions.
The agreement temporarily ends a crisis in the succession of the Anglo-Norman kings. 1101–1103: David the Builder takes over Kakheti and Hereti. 1102: King Coloman unites Hungary and Croatia under the Hungarian Crown. 1102: Muslims conquer Señorio de Valencia 1103-1104: A church council is convened by King David the Builder in Urbnisi to reorganize the Georgian Orthodox Church. 1104: In the Battle of Ertsukhi, King David the Builder defeats an army of Seljuks. 1104: King Jayawarsa of Kadiri ascends to the throne. 1106: Battle of Tinchebray 1107–1111: Sigurd I of Norway becomes the first Norwegian king to embark on a crusade to the Holy Land. He fights in Lisbon and on various Mediterranean isles, helps the King of Jerusalem to take Sidon from the Muslims. 1108: By the Treaty of Devol, signed in September, Bohemond I of Antioch has to submit to the Byzantine Empire, becoming the vassal of Alexius I. 1109: On June 10, Bertrand of Toulouse captures the County of Tripoli. 1109: In the Battle of Nakło, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats the Pomeranians and re-establishes Polish access to the sea.
1109: On August 24, in the Battle of Hundsfeld, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats Emperor Henry V of Germany and stops German expansion eastward. 1111: On April 14, during Henry V's first expedition to Rome, he is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1113: Paramavishnulok is crowned as King Suryavarman II in Cambodia. He expands the Khmer Empire and builds Angkor Wat
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor; the lunisolar Chinese calendar was introduced to Japan via Korea in the middle of the sixth century. After that, Japan calculated its calendar using various Chinese calendar procedures, from 1685, using Japanese variations of the Chinese procedures, but in 1873, as part of Japan's Meiji period modernization, a calendar based on the solar Gregorian calendar was introduced. In Japan today, the old Chinese calendar is ignored. Japan has had more than one system for designating years. Including: The Chinese sexagenary cycle was introduced early into Japan, it was used together with era names, as in the 1729 Ise calendar shown above, for "the 14th year of Kyōhō, tsuchi-no-to no tori", i.e. 己酉. Now, the cycle is used except around New Year; the era name system was introduced from China, has been in continuous use since AD 701.
Since the Taishō Emperor's ascension in 1912, each emperor's reign has begun a new era. Nengō are the official means of dating years in Japan, all government business is conducted using that system, it is in general use in private and personal business. The Japanese imperial year is based on the date of the legendary founding of Japan by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC, it was first used in the official calendar in 1873. However, it never replaced era names, since World War II has been abandoned; the Western Common Era system has come into common use since the Meiji period. Now, most people know it, as well as era names; the official dating system known as nengō, has been in use since the late 7th century. Years are numbered within eras. Beginning with Meiji, each reign has been one era, but many earlier Emperors decreed a new era upon any major event; the nengō system remains in wide use on official documents and government forms. The imperial year system was used from 1872 to the Second World War. Imperial year 1 was the year when the legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan – 660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar.
Usage of kōki dating can be a nationalist signal, pointing out that the history of Japan's imperial family is longer than that of Christianity, the basis of the Anno Domini system. Kōki 2600 was a special year; the 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but were canceled due to the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese naval Zero Fighter was named after this year. After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, stopped the use of kōki by officials. Today, kōki is used, except in some judicial contexts; the 1898 law determining the placement of leap years is based on the kōki years, using a formula, equivalent to that of the Gregorian calendar: if the kōki year number is evenly divisible by four, it is a leap year, unless the number minus 660 is evenly divisible by 100 and not by 400. Thus, for example, the year Kōki 2560 is divisible by 4; the Japanese government has announced a new period of year on 2019 April Reiwa. The Heisei Period will end on 2019 April 30 and so the new period of year is expected to start on first of May 2019.
See "Seasonal days", below. The modern Japanese names for the months translate to "first month", "second month", so on; the corresponding number is combined with the suffix 月. The table below uses traditional numerals. In addition, every month has a traditional name, still used by some in fields such as poetry; the opening paragraph of a letter or the greeting in a speech might borrow one of these names to convey a sense of the season. Some, such as Yayoi and Satsuki, do double duty as given names; these month names appear from time to time on jidaigeki, contemporary television shows and movies set in the Edo period or earlier. The old Japanese calendar was an adjusted lunar calendar based on the Chinese calendar, the year—and with it the months—started anywhere from about 3 to 7 weeks than the modern year, so in historical contexts it is not accurate to equate the first month with January. Japan uses a seven-day week, aligned with the Western calendar; the seven-day week, with names for the days corresponding to the Latin system, was brought to Japan around AD 800 with the Buddhist calendar.
The system was used for astrological purposes and little else until 1876. The names of the days come from the five visible planets, which in turn are named after the five Chinese elements, from the moon and sun. On the origin of the names of the days of the week see East Asian Seven Luminaries. Sunday and Saturday are regarded as "Western style take-a-rest days". Since the late 19th century, Sunday has been regarded as a "full-time holiday", Saturday a half-time holiday; these holidays have no religious meaning. Many Japanese retailers
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon
Indian national calendar
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India; the Saka calendar is used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the "Day of Silence", is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. Nepal's Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. Prior to colonization, the Philippines used to apply the Saka calendar as well as suggested by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; the term may ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar. The historic Shalivahana era calendar is still used, it has years. The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac used with the Hindu calendar. Chaitra has 30 days and starts on March 22, except in leap years, when it has 31 days and starts on March 21; the months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.
The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. Years are counted in the Saka era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year – if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar the Saka year is a leap year as well, its structure is just like the Persian calendar. Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Other members of the Committee were: A. C. Banerjee, K. K. Daftari, J. S. Karandikar, Gorakh Prasad, R. V. Vaidya and N. C. Lahiri, it was Saha's effort. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, which could be adopted uniformly throughout India, it was a mammoth task. The Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. There were thirty different calendars.
The task was further complicated by the fact that religion and local sentiments were integral to those calendars. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee, published in 1955, wrote: “They represent past political divisions in the country.... Now that we have attained Independence, it is desirable that there should be a certain uniformity in the calendar for our civic and other purposes, this should be done on a scientific approach to this problem.” Usage started at 1 Chaitra 1879, Saka Era, or 22 March 1957. Report of the Calendar Reform Committee – online link. Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History by E. G. Richards, 1998, pp. 184–185. Calendars and their History Indian Calendars Positional astronomy in India Indian National Calendar abstract
Shōji was a Japanese era name after Kenkyū and before Kennin. This period spanned the years from April 1199 through February 1201; the reigning emperor was Tsuchimikado-tennō. 1199 Shōji gannen: The new era name was created to mark an event or a number of events. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Kenkyū 10, on the 27th day of the 4th month of 1199. January 29, 1199: Oyama Tomomasa was appointed to the shugo post of Harima Province and governor of Heian-kyō. 1200: Hōjō Tokimasa was created daimyō of Ōmi Province. Brown and Ichiro Ishida.. The Future and the Past: a translation and study of the'Gukanshō', an interpretative history of Japan written in 1219. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Tale of the Heike. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 9784130870245; the Kamakura Bakufu: A Study in Documents. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804709071. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran.
Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405.
Technics SL-1200 is a series of direct-drive turntables manufactured from October 1972 until 2010, resumed in 2016, by Matsushita under the brand name of Technics. S means "Stereo", L means "Player". Released as a high fidelity consumer record player, it became adopted among radio and disco club disc jockeys, thanks to the direct drive, high torque motor design, making it suitable for pushbutton cueing and starting of tracks on radio and in dance clubs, it is still popular with audiophiles. When the use of slip-mats for cueing and beat-mixing became popular in hip hop music, the quartz-controlled high torque motor system enabled records to be mixed with consistency and accuracy. A primary design goal was for hi-fidelity, but having good build quality, control over wow and flutter, minimized resonance made the equipment suitable for use in nightclubs and other public-address applications. Since its release in 1978, SL-1200MK2 and its successors were the most common turntable for DJing and scratching.
Producers, DJs and MCs refer to the Technics turntable as the "Tec 12's", "that record player" and the "Wheels of Steel". 1200s are used in recording studios and for non-electronic live music performance. More than 3 million units were sold, it is regarded as one of the most durable and reliable turntables produced. Many 1970s units are still in heavy use. In the autumn of 2010, Panasonic announced. However, at the 2016 Consumer Electronics Show, Panasonic announced that they would return in two models named "Grand Class": one a limited run of 1200 globally, the other a consumer product. A lighter and less expensive 1200GR model was announced. At the London Science Museum, a Technics SL-1210 is on display as one of the pieces of technology that have "shaped the world we live in". SL-1200 features include: direct drive mechanism. High torque, which means the platter spins at the desired speed immediately, reacquires the desired speed, without "overshooting", if the platter is dragged or nudged; this aids beatmatching.
High torque High torque High torque Low wow and flutter, implying that the platter stays within 1/100 of 1% of the desired speed. Heavy base, increased isolation of platter from base, reduced the likelihood of feedback or stylus jumping. Variable pitch control, allowing the rotational speed to be adjusted from -8% to +8%. Option to select -16% to +16% added. High reliability: many examples of SL-1200s lasting well over 15 years of heavy use and withstanding physical shock without functional impairment. S-shaped tone arm: No longer popular on high end hi-fi turntables. Dimensions MK1: 45.3 cm x 36.6 cm x 18 cm Dimensions MK2: 45.3 cm x 36 cm x 16.2 cm Weight MK2: 11 kg Weight G/GAE: 18 kg Weight GR: 11.5 kg Weight MK7: 7.6 kg Voltage: 220 V / 110 V Pitch Control: +/- 8% or +/- 16% Starting Time: 0.7s Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3 & 45 rpm Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3, 45 rpm & 78rpm The SL-1200 was the most influential turntable. It was developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972.
It was adopted by New York City hip hop DJs such as Grand Wizzard Theodore, Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash in the 1970s. As they experimented with the SL-1200 decks, they developed scratching techniques when they found that the motor would continue to spin at the correct RPM if the DJ wiggled the record back and forth on the platter; the SL-1200 was introduced in 1972 as an evolution to the popular SL-1100. It was dubbed "The Middle Class Player System", it was delivered in two different versions: The SL-1200 came with a tonearm section. The SL-120 came without a tonearm section. An SME tonearm was the usual choice for the audiophile; the SL-1200 Mark 2 was introduced in 1979 as an update to the SL-1200. It represented a culmination of Technics Turntable Innovations, it was dubbed as "The Middle Class Quartz Direct Drive". It soon found its way into discos as well as radio stations for airplay because of its vibration damping ability and resistance to feedback, it became popular with pioneering hip-hop DJs.
Model numbers indicated colour: the 1200 and 1210. This was the same in the US and Japan however the 1200 was available in both silver and matte black finishes. Since 1997, The Mk2 had the pitch slide potentiometer improved in order to remove the quartz lock conflict when beatmatching near the 0% mark. In order to do this, the SFDZ122N11-1 part number was replaced with an improved SFDZ122N11-2 part which had a +/- 0.5mm quartz travel lock, much shorter than previous versions. This meant that the null point on the centre voltage tap was bigger thus removing the quartz lock conflict; the difference can be seen in the following video demonstration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_rr01ssq8o Released in summer of 1978. This model matte black. Technics improved the motor and shock resistance and changed the rotary pitch control to a slider style; this became the base model and is the oldest whose production continued until 2010. The older version of this model, sold in the 1970s and 1980s has a large 4-inch-diameter plate where the RCA and ground wires enter the unit, while the newer version has a smaller 2-inch-diameter hole in the rubber where the RC
The Monkey is the ninth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Monkey is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 申. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Monkey", while bearing the following elemental sign: Peter So. Kaori Working House, ed. Your Fate in 2016 - The Year of the Monkey. Translated by Jay Lowe. Forms Publications. ISBN 978-988-8325-85-6. Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2016: What the Year of the Monkey holds in store for you. 2015-02-22. Thorsons/HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007588268. Suzanne White. 2016 New Astrology Horoscopes - Chinese and Western: Fire Monkey Year - Monthly Horoscopes for All Signs. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 360. ISBN 9781517127749