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1205

Year 1205 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. General Muhammad al-Inti b. Abi Hafs establishes Almohad domination over the eastern parts of Ifriqiya, enters Tripoli. Theodore I Laskaris is proclaimed Byzantine Emperor, formally founding the Empire of Nicaea, after repelling the invasions of rivals David Komnenos and Manuel Maurozomes into his domains. January 6 – Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans. April 14 – Battle of Adrianople: The Bulgarians defeat the Latins. Anjou is conquered by Philip II of France. Fearing a French invasion of England itself, John of England requires every English male over 12 to enter an association "for the general defence of the realm and the preservation of peace". Othon de la Roche founds the Duchy of Athens. William of Wrotham, Lord Warden of the Stannaries of England, oversees a reform of English currency. In keeping with other high-ranking bureaucrats of his time and place, this is just one of Wrotham's many offices: he is Keeper of the King's Ports & Galleys, supervisor of the mints of Canterbury and London, ward of the vacant Diocese of Bath and Wells, an archdeacon of Taunton, a canon of Wells, will serve the following year as a circuit judge.

July 15 – Pope Innocent III lays down the principle that Jews are doomed to perpetual servitude, because they had crucified Jesus. January 26 – Emperor Lizong of Song July 10 – Hōjō Masamura, Japanese shōgun August – Razia Sultana, only female ruler of Sultanate of Delhi April 1 – King Amalric II of Jerusalem April 5 – Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem May 7 – Ladislaus III of Hungary June 14 – Walter III, Count of Brienne July 13 – Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury June – Alexios Aspietes, ruler of Philippopolis December – Alexios V Doukas, Byzantine Emperor date unknown Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice Žvelgaitis, Lithuanian duke Sibylla of Acerra, queen dowager regent of Sicily probable – Baldwin I of Constantinople

Casula railway station

Casula railway station is located on the Main South line, serving the Sydney suburb of Casula. It is served by T5 Cumberland line services. Casula station opened on 1 November 1894. In October 1993, a footbridge was installed. Due to its low patronage, Casula is unattended by staff; as part of the construction of the Southern Sydney Freight Line, which opened to the east of the station in January 2013, Casula received an easy access upgrade with lifts to the platforms and the existing footbridge extended. The level crossing was replaced in September 2012 with a new road constructed from the north; the Casula Powerhouse arts centre is located adjacent to the station's eastern side. Media related to Casula railway station at Wikimedia Commons Casula station details Transport for New South Wales

Constantin von Tischendorf

Lobegott Friedrich Constantin Tischendorf was a world-leading biblical scholar in his time. In 1844 he discovered the world's oldest and most complete Bible, dated to around the mid-4th century; this Bible is called Codex Sinaiticus, after the St. Catherine's Monastery at Mt. Sinai, where Tischendorf discovered it. Tischendorf was made an Honorary Doctor by Oxford University on 16 March 1865, an Honorary Doctor by Cambridge University on 9 March 1865 following this find of the century. While a student gaining his academic degree in the 1840s, he earned international recognition when he deciphered the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament; the Codex Sinaiticus contains a 4th-century manuscript of New Testament texts. Two other Bibles of similar age exist, though they are less complete: Codex Vaticanus in the Vatican Library and Codex Alexandrinus owned by the British Library; the Codex Sinaiticus is deemed by some to be the most important surviving New Testament manuscript, as no older document of its is as complete as the Codex.

The codex can be viewed as a digitized version on the Internet. Throughout his life Tischendorf sought old biblical manuscripts, as he saw it as his task to give theology a Greek New Testament, based on the oldest possible scriptures, he intended to be as close as possible to the original sources. Tischendorf's greatest discovery was in the monastery of Saint Catherine on the Sinai Peninsula, which he visited in May 1844, again in 1853 and 1859. In 1862 Tischendorf published the text of the Codex Sinaiticus for the 1000th Anniversary of the Russian Monarchy in both an illustrious four-volume facsimile edition and in a less costly text edition, to enable all scholars to have access to the Codex. Tischendorf pursued a constant course of editorial labours on the New Testament, until he was broken down by overwork in 1873, his motive, as explained in a publication on Tischendorf's Letter by Prof. Christfried Boettrich, was to prove scientifically that the words of the Bible were trustfully transmitted over centuries.

Tischendorf was born in Lengenfeld, near Plauen, the son of a physician. Beginning in 1834, he spent his scholarly career at the University of Leipzig where he was influenced by JGB Winer, he began to take special interest in New Testament criticism. Winer's influence gave him the desire to use the oldest manuscripts in order to compile the text of the New Testament as close to the original as possible. In 1838 he took the degree of Doctor of Philosophy became master at a school near Leipzig. After a journey through southern Germany and Switzerland, a visit to Strassburg, he returned to Leipzig, set to work upon a critical study of the New Testament text. In 1840 he qualified as university lecturer in theology with a dissertation on the recensions of the New Testament text – the main part of which reappeared the following year in the prolegomena to his first edition of the Greek New Testament, his critical apparatus included variant readings from earlier scholars – Elsevier, Georg Christian Knapp, Johann Martin Augustin Scholz, as recent as Karl Lachmann – whereby his researches were emboldened to depart from the received text as used in churches.

These early textual studies convinced him of the absolute necessity of new and more exact collations of manuscripts. From October 1840 until January 1843 he was in Paris, busy with the treasures of the Bibliothèque Nationale, eking out his scanty means by making collations for other scholars, producing for the publisher, Firmin Didot, several editions of the Greek New Testament – one of them exhibiting the form of the text corresponding most to the Vulgate, his second edition retracted the more precarious readings of the first, included a statement of critical principles, a landmark for evolving critical studies of Biblical texts. A great triumph of these laborious months was the decipherment of the palimpsest Codex Ephraemi Syri Rescriptus, of which the New Testament part was printed before he left Paris, the Old Testament in 1845, his success in dealing with a manuscript that, having been over-written with other works of Ephrem the Syrian, had been illegible to earlier collators, made him more well known, gained support for more extended critical expeditions.

He now became professor extraordinarius at Leipzig, where he was married in 1845. He began to publish Reise in den Orient, an account of his travels in the east. Though he was an expert in reading the text of a palimpsest, he was not able to identify the value or meaning of the Archimedes Palimpsest, a torn leaf of which he held and after his death was sold to the Cambridge University Library. From Paris, he had paid short visits to the England. In 1843 he visited Italy, after a stay of thirteen months, went on to Egypt and the Levant, returning via Vienna and Munich. In 1844 Tischendorf travelled the first time to Saint Catherine's Monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai in Egypt, where he found a portion of what would be hailed as the oldest complete known Bible. Of the many pages which were contained in an old wicker basket he was given 43 pages containing a part of the Old Testament as a present, he donated those 43 pages to King Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, to honour him and to recognise his patronage as the funder of Tischenforf's