120 mm Italian naval gun

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Italian 120 millimetre naval guns were standard main armament on Italian destroyers and were widely used on various other ships and coastal artillery. The 50-calibre guns used a charge of 9.7 kilograms (21 lb) of smokeless powder to push a 23.49-kilogram (51.8 lb) projectile to a velocity of 950 metres (3,120 ft) per second. Velocity was later reduced to 920 metres (3,020 ft) per second, which gave a maximum range of 19.6 kilometres (12.2 mi) at 45°  elevation or 18.2 kilometres (11.3 mi) at 35°  elevation. Variants of similar designs were built by Ansaldo, OTO, Vickers, Schneider, Canet and Armstrong. Older and shorter-barreled guns have different ballistics as noted below.[1]

Closely mounting these twin 12-centimetre (4.7 in) guns in a common cradle tended to increase dispersion of fall of shot.

40-caliber Armstrong 1889 and 1891[edit]

These were British QF Mark I and III guns used as coastal artillery and as star shell guns aboard Littorio-class battleships.[1]

50-calibre M1909[edit]

These guns formed the original secondary battery of Andrea Doria and Conte di Cavour-class battleships and were later used for coastal artillery. They fired a 22.75-kilogram (50.2 lb) projectile at 840 metres (2,760 ft) per second.[1]

45-caliber Armstrong 1918[edit]

These guns were developed from the older 40-calibre models and installed as coastal artillery and aboard troopships and armed merchant cruisers. They fired a 51-pound (23 kg) projectile at 750 metres (2,460 ft) per second. Range was 12.6 kilometres (7.8 mi) at the maximum elevation of 30° .[1]

45-calibre Schneider-Canet-Armstrong 1918[edit]

These guns with a maximum elevation of 30°  were installed as coastal artillery and aboard auxiliary ships.[1]

45-calibre Schneider-Canet-Armstrong 1918/19[edit]

This gun was a twin mounting of the 1918 gun with maximum elevation increased to 32° . These guns were the main armament of Leone class destroyers and the sloop Eritrea.[1]

45-calibre Vickers Terni 1924[edit]

These guns were the main armament of Sauro-class destroyers. A charge of 7.6 kilograms (17 lb) of smokeless powder pushed 51-pound (23 kg) projectiles at 850 metres (2,790 ft) per second to a range of 15.5 kilometres (9.6 mi) at the maximum elevation of 33° ; but dispersion was increased by using a common cradle for the 16.6-ton twin mount.[1]

27-calibre OTO 1924[edit]

These were the original deck guns aboard Ettore Fieramosca and Balilla-class submarines. When replaced by the 45-caliber OTO 1931, these guns were installed as an anti-aircraft battery at Messina where they fired 42.7-pound (19.4 kg) projectiles at a velocity of 730 metres (2,400 ft) per second to a ceiling of 7.8 kilometres (26,000 ft).[1]

45-calibre OTO 1926[edit]

These guns were the OTO version of the Vickers Terni 1924 guns. Turbine-class destroyers were built with these guns as the main armament, and Sella-class destroyers were re-armed with these guns.[1]

50-calibre Ansaldo 1926[edit]

These horizontal sliding breech block guns in 20-tonne common-cradle twin mountings with maximum elevation of 45°  were the main armament of Navigatori, Freccia and Folgore-class destroyers.[1]

45-calibre OTO 1931[edit]

These 3.2-ton quick-firing guns with a horizontal sliding breech block were mounted aboard Ettore Fieramosca, Pietro Micca, Balilla-class and Calvi-class submarines. They fired a 22-kilogram (49 lb) projectile at 730 metres (2,400 ft) per second. Range was 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) at the maximum elevation of 32° .[1]

50-calibre OTO 1931[edit]

These horizontal sliding breech block guns in common-cradle twin mountings with maximum elevation of 33°  were the main armament of Maestrale-class destroyers.[1]

50-calibre OTO 1933[edit]

These horizontal sliding breech block guns in 34-tonne common-cradle twin turrets with maximum elevation of 42°  formed the secondary battery of the rebuilt Conte di Cavour-class battleships.[1]

15-calibre OTO 1933 and 1934[edit]

These were star shell howitzers installed aboard Zara-class cruisers and Maestrale, Oriani and Soldati-class destroyers. The guns elevated to 50°  to fire a 19.8-kilogram (44 lb) shell at 400 metres (1,300 ft) per second to an effective range of 4 kilometres (2.5 mi).[1]

50-calibre OTO 1936[edit]

These horizontal sliding breech block guns in common-cradle twin mountings weighing 22.8 tonnes with maximum elevation of 35°  were the main armament of Oriani-class destroyers.[1]

50-calibre Ansaldo 1936[edit]

These horizontal sliding breech block guns in common-cradle twin mountings weighing 21.6 tonnes with maximum elevation of 40°  were the main armament of some Soldati-class destroyers.[1]

50-caliber Ansaldo 1937[edit]

These horizontal sliding breech block guns in common-cradle twin mountings weighing 21.6 tonnes with maximum elevation of 42°  were the main armament of other Soldati-class destroyers.[1]

50-caliber Ansaldo 1940[edit]

These horizontal sliding breech block guns in 12-tonne single mounts with maximum elevation of 45°  replaced the star shell howitzer of Soldati-class destroyers Bombardiere, Camicia Nera, Carabiniere, Corsaro, Geniere, Lanciere, Legionario, and Mitragliere.[1]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 335–338. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.