120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892

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120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892
120 45 Canet Kuivasaari.JPG
120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892 gun on Kuivasaari Island.
Type Naval gun
Coastal artillery
Railway artillery
Place of origin France
Service history
In service 1897-1945
Used by Russian Empire
Soviet Union
Finland
Japan
Wars Boxer Rebellion
Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Russian Civil War
Winter War
World War II
Production history
Designer Canet
Designed 1891
Manufacturer Obukhov
Perm
Produced 1897
Specifications
Weight 2.95 t (3.25 short tons)
Length 5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)
Barrel length 4.2 m (13 ft 9 in)

Shell Fixed QF ammunition
Shell weight 20.4 kg (45 lb)
Caliber 120 mm (4.7 in) 45 caliber
Elevation -7° to +20°
Rate of fire 12-15 rpm
Muzzle velocity 823 m/s (2,700 ft/s)
Maximum firing range 11.8 km (7.3 mi) at +20°[1]

The 120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892 was a Russian naval gun developed in the years before the Russo-Japanese War that armed a variety of warships of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Guns salvaged from scrapped ships found a second life on river gunboats of the Soviet Navy during the Russian Civil War and as coastal artillery and railway artillery during World War II.[2] It was estimated that in 1941 there were 35 still in service.[2]

History[edit]

In 1891 a Russian naval delegation was shown three guns designed by the French designer Canet. One was a 75/50 gun, one was a 120/45 gun, and the last was a 152/45 gun. All three guns used fixed QF ammunition which produced a rate of fire of 15 rpm for the 75/50 gun, 12 rpm for the 120/45 gun and 10 rpm for the 152/45 gun, the Russians were impressed and in 1892 they negotiated a production license for all three guns.[1]

Construction[edit]

There were two main series of the 120/45 guns produced, the first series of 76 guns were built between 1897-1905 at the Obhukov factory.[1] During the Russo-Japanese war a number of barrels of the 152/45 guns burst in action and a strengthened series of 152/45 and 120/45 guns were ordered. 34 of the second series of strengthened guns were built between 1905-1915 at the Obhukov factory. Between 1914-1916 production switched to the Perm factory and a further 18 strengthened guns were produced there.[1]

Naval Use[edit]

120/45 guns armed a variety of ships such as armored cruisers, auxiliary cruisers, coastal defense ships, destroyers, gunboats, minesweepers, pre-dreadnought battleships, protected cruisers, seaplane tenders and unprotected cruisers of the Imperial Russian Navy built between 1890-1916.[3]

Armored Cruisers

  • Dmitriy Donskoi-class - The secondary armament of Dmitrii Donskoi consisted of ten, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1895 refit.[4] The secondary armament of Vladimir Monomakh consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1897 refit.[5]
  • Rurik - The tertiary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[6]

Auxiliary Cruisers

  • Angara - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Dnepr - The primary armament of this ship consisted of seven, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Don - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Lena - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Kuban - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Oryol - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.[7]
  • Rion - The primary armament of this ship consisted of eight, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Terek - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Ural - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.[8]

Coastal defense ships

Destroyers

Gunboats

  • Gilyak - The primary armament of this ship consisted of one, forward, shielded, 120/45 gun.[11]
  • Gilyak-class - The primary armament of this class of four ships consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns, in single mounts, fore and aft.[12]
  • Korietz-class - Four ships of this class the Donets, Kubanets, Terets and Uralets had a tertiary armament of one, 120/45 gun, after 1905-1921 refits.[13]
  • Vogul-class - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns, in single mounts, fore and aft.[14]

Minesweepers

  • Sofiya - This ships primary armament consisted of one, 120/45 gun, in a forward single mount.[15]
  • Amur-class - This class of two ships primary armament consisted of five,120/45 guns, in single mounts.[16]

Pre-dreadnought Battleships

  • Andrei Pervozvanny-class - This class of two ships tertiary armament consisted of twelve, casemated, 120/45 guns, in single mounts. Four guns were in the bow, four in the stern and four amidships.[17]
  • Sissoi Veliky - This ships tertiary armament consisted of four, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1904 refit.[18]
  • Tri Sviatitelia - This ships tertiary armament consisted of four, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[19]
  • Navarin - This ships tertiary armament consisted of four, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1904 refit.[20]

Protected Cruisers

  • Boyarin - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, shielded, 120/45 guns, in single mounts. One each at the bow and stern and four in sponsons amidships.[21]
  • Izumrud-class - This class of two ships primary armament consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[22]
  • Novik - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[23]

Seaplane Tenders

  • Imperator Aleksandr I - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.
  • Imperator Nikolay I - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[24]

Unprotected Cruisers

  • Almaz - The primary armament of this ship consisted of seven, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1915 refit.[25]

Ammunition[edit]

Ammunition was of fixed QF type. A complete round weighed 20.4 kg (45 lb).[1]

The gun was able to fire:

Photo gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. 
  2. ^ a b DiGiulian, Tony. "Russia / USSR 120 mm/45 (4.7") Pattern 1892 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  3. ^ "FR RU 4.7in 12cm 45cal 1892 QF Single". navalhistory.flixco.info. 
  4. ^ "DMITRIY DONSKOY semi-armoured frigate (1885) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  5. ^ "VLADIMIR MONOMAKH semi-armoured frigate (1883) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  6. ^ "RIURIK 1st class cruiser (1895) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  7. ^ "armed merchant cruisers of WWI - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  8. ^ "armed merchant cruisers of Russian-Japanese war 1904 - 1905 - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  9. ^ "ADMIRAL USHAKOV coast defence battleships (1897 - 1899) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  10. ^ "Лейтенант Шестаков <Leytenant Shestakov> destroyers (1909) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  11. ^ "GILYAK gunboat (1899) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  12. ^ "GILYAK gunboats (1907 - 1908) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  13. ^ "Кубанец <Kubanets> gunboats (1887 - 1889) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  14. ^ "Вогул <Vogul> river gunboats (1909) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  15. ^ "minesweepers of WWI - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  16. ^ "Амур <Amur> minelayers (1909) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-09. 
  17. ^ "Андрей Первозванный <Andrey Pervozvannyy> battleships (1912) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  18. ^ "SISOY VELIKIY battleship (1896) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  19. ^ "TRI SVYATITELYA turret ship (1897) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  20. ^ "NAVARIN turret ship (1896) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  21. ^ "BOYARIN 2nd class cruiser (1902) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  22. ^ "ZHEMCHUG 2nd class cruisers (1904) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  23. ^ "NOVIK 2nd class cruiser (1901) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  24. ^ "seaplane carriers of WWI - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  25. ^ "ALMAZ 2nd class cruiser (1903) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08. 

External links[edit]