Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons. An assassination may be prompted by political or military motives, it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times; the word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Muslims. Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, expanded by capturing forts in Syria; the group killed members of the Abbasid, Seljuq and Christian Crusader elite for political and religious reasons. Although it is believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe in A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite, a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, it dates back at least as far as recorded history. In the Old Testament, King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra, his student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals and Philip. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later; the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.
Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir, dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks; this account is, contentious among historians, it being most asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.
In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, the French kings Henry III and Henry IV were all ended by assassins. In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister has been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11, 1812. In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke, the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait, carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents' lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator and a presidential candidate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in the United States. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents, is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid, knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral
The Merneptah Stele—also known as the Israel Stele or the Victory Stele of Merneptah—is an inscription by the ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1896 at Thebes, now housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The text is an account of Merneptah's victory over the Libyans and their allies, but the last 3 of the 28 lines deal with a separate campaign in Canaan part of Egypt's imperial possessions; the stele is sometimes referred to as the "Israel Stela" because a majority of scholars translate a set of hieroglyphs in line 27 as "Israel." Alternative translations have been advanced but are not accepted. The stela represents the earliest textual reference to Israel and the only reference from ancient Egypt, it is one of four known inscriptions, from the Iron Age, that date to the time of and mention ancient Israel, under this name, the others being the Mesha Stele, the Tel Dan Stele, the Kurkh Monolith. As a result, some consider the stele to be Flinders Petrie's most famous discovery, an opinion with which Petrie himself concurred.
The stele was discovered in 1896 by Flinders Petrie in the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes, first translated by Wilhelm Spiegelberg. In his "Inscriptions" chapter of Petrie's 1897 publication "Six Temples at Thebes", Spiegelberg described the stele as "engraved on the rough back of the stele of Amenhotep III, removed from his temple, placed back outward, against the wall, in the forecourt of the temple of Merneptah. Owing to the rough surface, the poor cutting, the readings in many places require careful examination... The scene at the top retains its original colouring of yellow and blue. Amun is shown giving a sword to the king, backed by Mut on one side and by Khonsu on the other". Now in the collection of the Egyptian Museum at Cairo, the stele is a black granite slab, over 3 meters high, the inscription says it was carved in the 5th year of Merneptah of the 19th dynasty. Most of the text glorifies Merneptah's victories over enemies from Libya and their Sea People allies, but the final two lines mention a campaign in Canaan, where Merneptah says he defeated and destroyed Ashkalon, Gezer and Israel.
Egypt was the dominant power in the region during the long reign of Merneptah's predecessor, Ramesses the Great, but Merneptah and one of his nearest successors, Ramesses III, faced major invasions. The problems began in Merneptah's 5th year, when a Libyan king invaded Egypt from the west in alliance with various northern peoples. Merneptah achieved a great victory in the summer of that year, the inscription is about this; the final lines deal with an separate campaign in the East, where it seems that some of the Canaanite cities had revolted. Traditionally the Egyptians had concerned themselves only with cities, so the problem presented by Israel must have been something new – attacks on Egypt's vassals in Canaan. Merneptah and Ramesses III fought off their enemies, but it was the beginning of the end of Egypt's control over Canaan – the last evidence of an Egyptian presence in the area is the name of Ramesses VI inscribed on a statue base from Megiddo; the bulk of the inscription deals with Merneptah's victory over the Libyans, but the last 3 of the 28 lines shift to Canaan: The "nine bows" is a term the Egyptians used to refer to their enemies.
Hatti and Ḫurru are Syro-Palestine and Israel are smaller units, Ashkelon and Yanoam are cities within the region. Petrie called upon Wilhelm Spiegelberg, a German philologist in his archaeological team, to translate the inscription. Spiegelberg was puzzled by one symbol towards the end, that of a people or tribe whom Merneptah had victoriously smitten—I.si.ri.ar? Petrie suggested that it read "Israel!" Spiegelberg agreed. "Won't the reverends be pleased?" Remarked Petrie. At dinner that evening, Petrie who realized the importance of the find said: "This stele will be better known in the world than anything else I have found." The news of its discovery made headlines. The line which refers to Israel is: While Ashkelon and Yanoam are given the determinative for a city – a throw stick plus three mountains – the hieroglyphs that refer to Israel instead employ the throw stick plus a sitting man and woman over three vertical lines: The determinatives "people" has been the subject of significant scholarly discussion.
As early as 1955, John A. Wilson wrote of the idea that this determinative means the "'ysrỉꜣr" were a people that: "The argument is good, but not conclusive, because of the notorious carelessness of Late- Egyptian scribes and several blunders of writing in this stela"; this sentiment was subsequently built upon by other scholars. According to The Oxford History of the biblical World, this "foreign people" "sign is used by the Egyptians to signify nomadic groups or peoples, without a fixed city-state home, thus implying a seminomadic or rural status for'Israel' at that time." The phrase "wasted, bare of seed" is formulaic, used of defeated nations – it implies that the grain-store of the nation in question has been destroyed, which would result in a famine the following year, incapacitating them as a military threat to Egypt. According to James Hoffmeier, "no Egyptologists would read the signs of a foreign ethnic entity as indicating a foreign land, but a people group.'In contrast to this apparent Israelite statelessness, the other
Ramesses II known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom, his successors and Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". He is known as Ozymandias in Greek sources, from the first part of Ramesses' regnal name, Usermaatre Setepenre, "The Maat of Ra is powerful, Chosen of Ra". Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan, he led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities and monuments, he established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. At fourteen, he was appointed prince regent by his father, Seti I, he is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 2 months.
Estimates of his age at death vary. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented fourteen Sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to restore possession of held territories lost to the Nubians and Hittites and to secure Egypt's borders, he was responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya. Although the Battle of Kadesh dominates the scholarly view of the military prowess and power of Ramesses II, he enjoyed more than a few outright victories over the enemies of Egypt. During Ramesses II's reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men. In his second year, Ramesses II decisively defeated the Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt; the Sherden people came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or also from the island of Sardinia.
Ramesses posted troops and ships at strategic points along the coast and patiently allowed the pirates to attack their perceived prey before skillfully catching them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all in a single action. A stele from Tanis speaks of their having come "in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, none were able to stand before them". There was a naval battle somewhere near the mouth of the Nile, as shortly afterward, many Sherden are seen among the pharaoh's body-guard where they are conspicuous by their horned helmets having a ball projecting from the middle, their round shields, the great Naue II swords with which they are depicted in inscriptions of the Battle of Kadesh. In that sea battle, together with the Sherden, the pharaoh defeated the Lukka, the Šqrsšw peoples; the immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. His first campaign seems to have taken place in the fourth year of his reign and was commemorated by the erection of what became the first of the Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb near what is now Beirut.
The inscription is totally illegible due to weathering. Additional records tell us that he was forced to fight a Canaanite prince, mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, whose army subsequently, was routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Canaan as live prisoners to Egypt. Ramesses plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of the Amurru during his campaign in Syria; the Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis. The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypt's frontiers into Syria, to emulate his father Seti I's triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier, he constructed his new capital, Pi-Ramesses. There he built factories to manufacture weapons and shields producing some 1,000 weapons in a week, about 250 chariots in two weeks, 1,000 shields in a week and a half.
After these preparations, Ramesses moved to attack territory in the Levant, which belonged to a more substantial enemy than any he had faced in war: the Hittite Empire. Ramesses's forces were caught in a Hittite ambush and outnumbered at Kadesh when they counterattacked and routed the Hittites, whose survivors abandoned their chariots and swam the Orontes river to reach the safe city walls. Ramesses, logistically unable to sustain a long siege, returned to Egypt. Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan. Canaanite princes encouraged by the Egyptian incapacity to impose their will and goaded on by the Hittites, began revolts against Egypt. In the seventh year o
Theseus was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens. Like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, Theseus battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order: “This was a major cultural transition, like the making of the new Olympia by Hercules”. Theseus was a founding hero for the Athenians in the same way that Heracles was the founding hero for the Dorians; the Athenians regarded Theseus as a great reformer. The myths surrounding Theseus – his journeys and friends – have provided material for fiction throughout the ages. Theseus was responsible for the synoikismos – the political unification of Attica under Athens – represented emblematically in his journey of labours, subduing ogres and monstrous beasts; because he was the unifying king, Theseus built and occupied a palace on the fortress of the Acropolis that may have been similar to the palace, excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after the synoikismos, Theseus established a cult of Aphrodite Pandemos and Peitho on the southern slope of the Acropolis.
Plutarch's Life of Theseus makes use of varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape, the love of Ariadne for Theseus. Plutarch's sources, not all of whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes, Demon and Cleidemus; as the subject of myth, the existence of Theseus as a real person has not been proven, but scholars believe that he may have been alive during the Late Bronze Age as a king in the 8th or 9th century BC. Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, was childless. Desiring an heir, he asked the Oracle of Delphi for advice, her cryptic words were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief." Aegeus was disappointed. He asked the advice of king of Troezen. Pittheus understood the prophecy, got Aegeus drunk, gave Aegeus his daughter Aethra, but following the instructions of Athena in a dream, Aethra left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen's shore.
There she poured a libation to Sphairos and Poseidon, was possessed by the sea god in the night. The mix gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his nature. After Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were heroic enough, take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne, had taken Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and consort together represented the old order in Athens, thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's tokens, his mother told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright. To journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy.
Young and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route and defeated a great many bandits along the way. At the first site, Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer Asclepius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, the Club Bearer, who beat his opponents into the Earth, taking from him the stout staff that identifies Theseus in vase-paintings. At the Isthmian entrance to the Underworld was a robber named Sinis called "Pityokamptes", he would capture travellers, tie them between two pine trees that were bent down to the ground, let the trees go, tearing his victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method, he became intimate with Sinis's daughter, fathering the child Melanippus. In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian Sow, bred by an old crone named Phaea; some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. The Bibliotheca by Pseudo-Apollodorus described the Crommyonian Sow as an offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
Near Megara, an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked them off the cliff behind them. Theseus pushed him off the cliff. Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of Eleusis, who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he had beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and killed him instead; the last bandit was Procrustes the Stretcher, who had two beds, one of which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He made them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Since he had two beds of different lengths, no one would fit. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, decapitating him with his own axe; when Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him
14th century BC
The 14th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 1400 BC until 1301 BC. 1397 BC: Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens. 1390 BC: In Mesopotamia, emergence of the Assyrians as an independent power. 1385 BC: Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt marries Tiy, his Chief Queen. 1380 BC: Amenhotep III connects the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal. 1372 BC: The Hittites conquer all of the Kingdom of Mitanni west of the Euphrates. 1357 BC: Danish Egtvedpigen is buried. 1347 BC: King Erechtheus II is killed by lightning after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his younger brother Cecrops II. 1346 BC: Pharaoh Amenhotep IV of Egypt begins his Cult of Aten and begins construction of Amarna intended to be his new capital. 1345 BC: Amenhotep IV renames himself Akhenaten. 1336 BC: Akhenaten names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler. C. 1334 BC: Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten and wife of his predecessor Akhenaton.
1331 BC: Tutankhaten renames himself to Tutankhamun and abandons Amarna, returning the capital to Thebes. 1324 BC: Pharaoh Ay is crowned king of Egypt 1320 BC: Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty. C. 1310 BC: The Bhagavad Gita is written, according to some Hindu traditions. 1309–1300 BC: Cecrops II, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion II. Pandion II was driven into exile from Athens by the sons of Cecrops II's brother Metion, so that Metion could take power. Pandion II fled to Megara, where he married the King's daughter and inherited the throne. After his death, Pandion II's sons drove out the sons of Metion. 1307 BC: Adad-nirari I becomes king of Assyria. 1300 BC: The legendary King Pan Geng moved the capital of Shang Dynasty to Yin. c. 1300 BC: Rise of the Urnfield culture. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical.
1398 BC—Birth of Tiy to Egyptian nobleman Yuya and his wife Tjuyu. She becomes the Chief Queen of Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt and the matriarch of the Amarna family..1391 BC—Possible Birth of Prophet Moses 1391 BC—Pharaoh Amenhotep III started to rule. 1368 BC—Death of Erichthonius, mythical King of Dardania. 1366 BC—Birth of Princess Tadukhipa to Tusratta, King of Mitanni and his Queen Juni. She will be married to Amenhotep III and after his death to his son and heir Amenhotep IV Akhenaton, she is variously identified with Kiya. 1365 BC—Ashur-uballit I rises to the throne of Assyria. 1362 BC—Birth of the Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton to Amenhotep III and his Queen Tiy. 1350 BC—Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to the throne of Egypt. 1341 BC/1340 BC—Birth of Tutankhaten Pharaoh of Egypt as Tutankhamun. 1338 BC—Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen of Amenhotep III and matriarch of the Amarna family, vanishes from the historical record. Presumed death. 1337 BC—Queen Nefertiti of Egypt vanishes from the historical record.
Presumed death. 1334 BC/1333 BC—Death of Smenkhkare, Pharaoh of Egypt and co-ruler with Akhenaton. 1334 BC/1333 BC—Death of Akhenaton, Pharaoh of Egypt. 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt. 1320 BC—Birth of Pharaoh Ramses II of Egypt. 1300s BC—Seti I of Egypt. 1300s BC—Pan Geng of China. Suppiluliuma I, king of the Hittites. See: List of sovereign states in the 14th century BC
Skyros is an island in Greece, the southernmost of the Sporades, an archipelago in the Aegean Sea. Around the 2nd millennium BC and later, the island was known as The Island of the Magnetes where the Magnetes used to live and Pelasgia and Dolopia and Skyros. At 209 square kilometres it is the largest island of the Sporades, has a population of about 3,000, it is part of the regional unit of Euvoia. The Hellenic Air Force has a major base in Skyros, because of the island's strategic location in the middle of the Aegean; the municipality Skyros is part of the regional unit of Euboea. Apart from the island Skyros it consists of the small inhabited island of Skyropoula and a few smaller uninhabited islands; the total area of the municipality is 223.10 square kilometres. The north of the island is covered by a forest, while the south, dominated by the highest mountain, called Kochila, is bare and rocky; the island's capital is called Skyros. The main port, on the west coast, is Linaria; the island has a castle that dates from the Venetian occupation, a Byzantine monastery, the grave of English poet Rupert Brooke in an olive grove by the road leading to Tris Boukes harbour.
There are many beaches on the coast. The island has its own breed of Skyrian ponies. One account associates the name Skyros with skyron or skiron, meaning "stone debris". According to Greek mythology, Theseus died on Skyros when the local king, threw him from a cliff; the island is famous in the myths as the place from where Achilles set sail for Troy after Odysseus discovered him in the court of Lycomedes. Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, was from Skyros, as told in the play by Philoctetes. A small bay named Achili on the east coast of the island is said to be the place from where Achilles left with the Greeks, or rather where Achilles landed during a squall that befell the Greek fleet following an abortive initial expedition landing astray in Mysia. In c. 475 BC, according to Thucydides, Cimon conquered the entire island. From that date, Athenian settlers colonized it became a part of the Athenian Empire; the island lay on the strategic trade route between the Black Sea. Cimon claimed to have found the remains of Theseus, returned them to Athens.
In 340 BC the Macedonians took over the island and dominated it until 192 BC, when King Philip V of Macedon and the Roman Republican forces restored it to Athens. After the Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204, the island became part of the domain of Geremia Ghisi. Rupert Brooke, the famous English poet, is buried on Skyros, having died on board a French hospital-ship moored off the island on 23 April 1915, during World War I. Present at Brooke's burial that same evening, were William Denis Browne. In 1941 Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Karl Shapiro wrote the World War II poem Scyros, which he set on the island Skyros "because it was a tribute to and irony upon Rupert Brooke."In 1963 the Archaeological Museum of Skyros was established, with the inauguration taking place 10 years in 1973. The Faltaits Folklore Museum was founded in 1964 - one of the first local folklore museums to operate in Greece. Skyros is home to a one-runway airport. Skyros Shipping Company operates the ferry service to Skyros. During holiday season the ferry runs twice daily from Kymi to Linaria on Skyros.
During the winter months the service operates daily.. The boat has a name: Achilleas SKYROS SHIPPING CO.. The Official website of the Greek National Tourism Organisation The official website of the Skyros Shipping Company
In Greek mythology, Aegeus or Aegeas, was an archaic figure in the founding myth of Athens. The "goat-man" who gave his name to the Aegean Sea was, next to Poseidon, the father of Theseus, the founder of Athenian institutions and one of the kings of Athens. Aegeus was the son of Pandion II, king of Athens and Pylia, daughter of King Pylas of Megara and thus, brother to Pallas and Lykos. But, in some accounts, he was regarded as the son of Scyrius or Phemius and was not of the stock of the Erechtheids, since he was only an adopted son of Pandion. Aegeus' first wife was Meta, daughter of Hoples and his second wife was Chalciope, daughter of Rhexenor, neither of whom bore him any children. Aegeus was born in Megara where his father Pandion had settled after being expelled from Athens by the sons of Metion who seized the throne. After the death of Pandion, now king of Megara, Aegeus in conjunction with his three brothers attacked Athens, took control over the government and expelled the usurpers, the Metionids.
They divide the power among themselves but Aegeus obtained the sovereignty of Attica, succeeding Pandion to the throne. It has been said that Megara was at the time a part of Attica, that Nisus received his part when he became king of that city. Lycus became king of Euboea. Aegeus, being the eldest of the brothers, received; the division of the land was explained further in the following text by the geographer Strabo: Later on, Lycus was driven from the territory by Aegeus himself, had to seek refuge in Arene, Messenia. Pallas and his fifty sons revolted at a time, being crushed by Aegeus' son Theseus. Still without a male heir with his previous marriages, Aegeus asked the oracle at Delphi for advice. According to Pausanias, Aegeus ascribed this misfortune to the anger of Aphrodite and in order to conciliate her introduced her worship as Aphrodite Urania in Athens; the cryptic words of the oracle were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief."
Aegeus was disappointed. This puzzling oracle forced Aegeus to visit Pittheus, king of Troezen, famous for his wisdom and skill at expounding oracles. Pittheus understood the prophecy and introduced Aegeus to his daughter, when Aegeus was drunk, they lay with each other, in some versions, Aethra waded to the island of Sphairia and bedded Poseidon. When Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, he buried his sandal and sword under a huge rock and told her that, when their son grew up, he should move the rock and bring the weapons to his father, who would acknowledge him. Upon his return to Athens, Aegeus married the wrath of Jason. Aegeus and Medea had one son named Medus. While visiting in Athens, King Minos' son, Androgeus managed to defeat Aegeus in every contest during the Panathenaic Games. Out of envy, Aegeus sent him to conquer the Marathonian Bull. Minos declared war on Athens, he offered the Athenians peace, under the condition that Athens would send seven young men and seven young women every nine years to Crete to be fed to the Minotaur, a vicious monster.
This continued until Theseus killed the Minotaur with the help of Minos' daughter. In Troezen, Theseus became a brave young man, he took his father's weapons. His mother told him the identity of his father and that he should take the weapons back to him at Athens and be acknowledged. Theseus decided to go to Athens and had the choice of going by sea, the safe way, or by land, following a dangerous path with thieves and bandits all the way. Young and ambitious, Theseus decided to go to Athens by land; when Theseus arrived, he did not reveal his true identity. He was welcomed by Aegeus, suspicious about the stranger who came to Athens. Medea tried to have Theseus killed by encouraging Aegeus to ask him to capture the Marathonian Bull, but Theseus succeeded, she tried to poison him, but at the last second, Aegeus recognized his son and knocked the poisoned cup out of Theseus' hand. Father and son were thus reunited, Medea was sent away to Asia. Theseus departed for Crete. Upon his departure, Aegeus told him to put up white sails when returning if he was successful in killing the Minotaur.
However, when Theseus returned, he forgot these instructions. When Aegeus saw the black sails coming into Athens, mistaken in his belief that his son had been slain, he killed himself by jumping from a height: according to some, from the Acropolis or another unnamed rock. Sophocles' tragedy Aegeus has been lost. At Athens, the traveller Pausanias was informed in the second-century CE that the cult of Aphrodite Urania above the Kerameikos was so ancient that it had been established by Aegeus, whose sisters were barren, he still childless himself. Catullus, LXIV. Plutarch, Theseus. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Aegeus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Theoi Project - Aegeus