1.
Counting
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Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects. The related term refers to uniquely identifying the elements of a finite set or infinite set by assigning a number to each element. Counting sometimes involves numbers other than one, for example, when counting money, counting out change, counting by twos, there is archeological evidence suggesting that humans have been counting for at least 50,000 years. Counting was primarily used by ancient cultures to keep track of social and economic data such as number of members, prey animals, property. The development of counting led to the development of mathematical notation, numeral systems, counting can occur in a variety of forms. Counting can be verbal, that is, speaking every number out loud to keep track of progress and this is often used to count objects that are present already, instead of counting a variety of things over time. Counting can also be in the form of tally marks, making a mark for each number and this is useful when counting objects over time, such as the number of times something occurs during the course of a day. Tallying is base 1 counting, normal counting is done in base 10, counting can also be in the form of finger counting, especially when counting small numbers. This is often used by children to facilitate counting and simple mathematical operations, finger-counting uses unary notation, and is thus limited to counting 10. Older finger counting used the four fingers and the three bones in each finger to count to the number twelve, other hand-gesture systems are also in use, for example the Chinese system by which one can count 10 using only gestures of one hand. By using finger binary, it is possible to keep a count up to 1023 =210 −1. Various devices can also be used to facilitate counting, such as tally counters. Inclusive counting is usually encountered when dealing with time in the Romance languages, in exclusive counting languages such as English, when counting 8 days from Sunday, Monday will be day 1, Tuesday day 2, and the following Monday will be the eighth day. When counting inclusively, the Sunday will be day 1 and therefore the following Sunday will be the eighth day, for example, the French phrase for fortnight is quinzaine, and similar words are present in Greek, Spanish and Portuguese. In contrast, the English word fortnight itself derives from a fourteen-night, as the archaic sennight does from a seven-night, learning to count is an important educational/developmental milestone in most cultures of the world. Learning to count is a very first step into mathematics. However, some cultures in Amazonia and the Australian Outback do not count, many children at just 2 years of age have some skill in reciting the count list. They can also answer questions of ordinality for small numbers, e. g and they can even be skilled at pointing to each object in a set and reciting the words one after another

2.
Schenectady, New York
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Schenectady /skᵻˈnɛktədi/ is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 66,135, the name Schenectady is derived from a Mohawk word skahnéhtati meaning beyond the pines. The city was founded on the side of the Mohawk River by Dutch colonists in the 17th century. They were prohibited from the fur trade by the Albany monopoly, residents of the new village developed farms on strip plots along the river. Connected to the west via the Mohawk River and Erie Canal, by 1824 more people worked in manufacturing than agriculture or trade, and the city had a cotton mill, processing cotton from the Deep South. Numerous mills in New York had such ties with the South, the city was part of emerging technologies, with GE collaborating in the production of nuclear-powered submarines and, in the 21st century, working on other forms of renewable energy. The city is in eastern New York, near the confluence of the Mohawk and it is in the same metropolitan area as the state capital, Albany, which is about 19 miles southeast. In December 2014, the announced that the city was one of three sites selected for development of off-reservation casino gambling, under terms of a 2013 state constitutional amendment. The project would redevelop an ALCO brownfield site in the city along the waterfront, with hotels, housing, when first encountered by Europeans, the Mohawk Valley was the territory of the Mohawk nation, one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee. They had occupied territory in the region since at least 1100 AD, in the 1640s, the Mohawk had three major villages, all on the south side of the Mohawk River. The easternmost one was Ossernenon, located about 9 miles west of present-day Auriesville, about 3200 acres of this unique ecosystem are now protected as the Albany Pine Bush. Eventually, this word entered the lexicon of the Dutch settlers, the settlers in Fort Orange used skahnéhtati to refer to the new village at the Mohawk flats, which became known as Schenectady. In 1661 Arent van Curler, a Dutch immigrant bought a big piece of land on the side of the Mohawk River. Other colonists were given grants of land by the government in this portion of the flat fertile river valley. The settlers recognized that these bottomlands had been cultivated for maize by the Mohawk for centuries, Van Curler took the largest piece of land, the remainder was divided into 50-acre plots for the other first fourteen proprietors. As most early colonists were from the Fort Orange area, they may have anticipated working as fur traders, the settlers here turned to farming. Their 50-acre lots were unique for the colony, laid out in strips along the Mohawk River, with the narrow edges fronting the river and they relied on rearing livestock and wheat. From the early days of interaction, early Dutch traders in the valley had unions with Mohawk women and their children were raised within the Mohawk community, which had a matrilineal kinship system, considering children born into the mothers clan

3.
Saraighat Express
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The Saraighat Express is a daily superfast train which runs between Howrah and Guwahati. The train belongs to Eastern Railways zone of Indian Railway headquartered at Howrah, the train numbered as 12345/12346 and being under superfast category is into the 12xxx number range

4.
Timeline of the far future
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While predictions of the future can never be absolutely certain, present understanding in various fields allows for the prediction of far-future events, if only in the broadest outline. Stars will eventually exhaust their supply of fuel and burn out. Close encounters gravitationally fling planets from their systems, and star systems from galaxies. Eventually, matter itself is expected to come under the influence of radioactive decay, the timelines displayed here cover events from the beginning of the 11th millennium to the furthest reaches of future time. To date five spacecraft are on trajectories which will take out of the Solar System. Barring an extremely unlikely collision with some object, the craft should persist indefinitely, long term astrophysical processes, in Bostrom, Nick, Ćirković, Milan M. Global catastrophic risks, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-857050-3

5.
Arabic numerals
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In this numeral system, a sequence of digits such as 975 is read as a single number, using the position of the digit in the sequence to interpret its value. The symbol for zero is the key to the effectiveness of the system, the system was adopted by Arab mathematicians in Baghdad and passed on to the Arabs farther west. There is some evidence to suggest that the numerals in their current form developed from Arabic letters in the Maghreb, the current form of the numerals developed in North Africa, distinct in form from the Indian and eastern Arabic numerals. The use of Arabic numerals spread around the world through European trade, books, the term Arabic numerals is ambiguous. It most commonly refers to the widely used in Europe. Arabic numerals is also the name for the entire family of related numerals of Arabic. It may also be intended to mean the numerals used by Arabs and it would be more appropriate to refer to the Arabic numeral system, where the value of a digit in a number depends on its position. The decimal Hindu–Arabic numeral system was developed in India by AD700, the development was gradual, spanning several centuries, but the decisive step was probably provided by Brahmaguptas formulation of zero as a number in AD628. The system was revolutionary by including zero in positional notation, thereby limiting the number of digits to ten. It is considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics, one may distinguish between this positional system, which is identical throughout the family, and the precise glyphs used to write the numerals, which varied regionally. The glyphs most commonly used in conjunction with the Latin script since early modern times are 0123456789. The first universally accepted inscription containing the use of the 0 glyph in India is first recorded in the 9th century, in an inscription at Gwalior in Central India dated to 870. Numerous Indian documents on copper plates exist, with the symbol for zero in them, dated back as far as the 6th century AD. Inscriptions in Indonesia and Cambodia dating to AD683 have also been found and their work was principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle East and the West. In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the decimal system to include fractions. The decimal point notation was introduced by Sind ibn Ali, who wrote the earliest treatise on Arabic numerals. Ghubar numerals themselves are probably of Roman origin, some popular myths have argued that the original forms of these symbols indicated their numeric value through the number of angles they contained, but no evidence exists of any such origin. In 825 Al-Khwārizmī wrote a treatise in Arabic, On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, Algoritmi, the translators rendition of the authors name, gave rise to the word algorithm