Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Modern architecture, or modernist architecture was based upon new and innovative technologies of construction the use of glass and reinforced concrete. It emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II until the 1980s, when it was replaced as the principal style for institutional and corporate buildings by postmodern architecture. Modern architecture emerged at the end of the 19th century from revolutions in technology and building materials, from a desire to break away from historical architectural styles and to invent something, purely functional and new; the revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, reinforced concrete, to build structures that were stronger and taller. The cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of large windows; the Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an early example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass and metal curtain wall.
These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 1884 by William Le Baron Jenney. The iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, that is, concrete strengthened with iron bars, as a technique for constructing buildings. In 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house in the suburbs of Paris. A further important step forward was the invention of the safety elevator by Elisha Otis, first demonstrated at the Crystal Palace exposition in 1852, which made tall office and apartment buildings practical. Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century; the debut of new materials and techniques inspired architects to break away from the neoclassical and eclectic models that dominated European and American architecture in the late 19th century, most notably eclecticism and Edwardian architecture, the Beaux-Arts architectural style.
This break with the past was urged by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur L'Architecture, he urged: "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture. For each function its material; this book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí. At the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States; the Glasgow School of Art designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large vertical bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France. In Barcelona, Antonio Gaudi conceived architecture as a form of sculpture. In 1903–1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete only used for industrial structures, to build apartment buildings.
Reinforced concrete, which could be molded into any shape, which could create enormous spaces without the need of supporting pillars, replaced stone and brick as the primary material for modernist architects. The first concrete apartment buildings by Perret and Sauvage were covered with ceramic tiles, but in 1905 Perret built the first concrete parking garage on 51 rue de Ponthieu in Paris. Henri Sauvage added another construction innovation in an apartment building on Rue Vavin in Paris. Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, a masterpiece of reinforced concrete construction, with Art Deco sculptural bas-reliefs on the facade by Antoine Bourdelle; because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectator's view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style. In his book Moderne Architektur he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on "modern life", he designed a stylized ornamental metro station at Karlsplatz in Vienna an ornamental Art Nouveau residence, Majolika House, before moving to a much more geometric and simplified style, without ornament, in the Austrian Postal Savings Bank.
Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior. The reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum; the interior was purely functional and spare, a large open space of steel and concrete where the only decoration was the structure itself. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos began removing any ornament from his buildings, his S
Bayer AG is a German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Headquartered in Leverkusen, where its illuminated corporate logo, the Bayer cross, is a landmark, Bayer's areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Werner Baumann has been CEO since 2016. Founded in Barmen in 1863 as a dyestuffs factory, Bayer's first and best-known product was aspirin. In 1898 Bayer trademarked the name heroin for the drug diacetylmorphine and marketed it as a cough suppressant and non-addictive substitute for morphine until 1910. Bayer introduced phenobarbital. In 1925 Bayer was one of six chemical companies that merged to form IG Farben, the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical company; the Allied Control Council seized IG Farben after World War II, because of its role in the Nazi war effort and involvement in the Holocaust, which included using slave labour from concentration camps.
It was split into its six constituent companies in 1951 split again into three: BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. Bayer played a key role in the Wirtschaftswunder in post-war West Germany regaining its position as one of the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical corporations. In 2006 the company acquired Schering, in 2014 it acquired Merck & Co.'s consumer business, with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholl's, in 2018 it acquired Monsanto, a leading producer of genetically engineered crops, for $63 billion. Bayer CropScience develops genetically modified pesticides. Bayer AG was founded as a dyestuffs factory in 1863 in Barmen, Germany, by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, Johann Friedrich Weskott, a master dyer. Bayer was responsible for the commercial tasks. Fuchsine and aniline became; the headquarters and most production facilities moved from Barmen to a larger area in Elberfeld in 1866. Friedrich Bayer, son of the company's founder, was a chemist and joined the company in 1873. After the death of his father in 1880, the company became a joint-stock company, Farbenfabriken vorm.
Friedr. Bayern & Co known as Elberfelder Farbenfabriken. A further expansion in Elberfeld was impossible, so the company moved to the village Wiesdorf at Rhein and settled in the area of the alizarin producer Leverkus and Sons. A new city, was founded there in 1930 and became home to Bayer AG's headquarters; the company's corporate logo, the Bayer cross, was introduced in 1904, consisting of the word BAYER written vertically and horizontally, sharing the Y and enclosed in a circle. An illuminated version of the logo is a landmark in Leverkusen. Bayer's first major product was acetylsalicylic acid—first described by French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt in 1853—a modification of salicylic acid or salicin, a folk remedy found in the bark of the willow plant. By 1899 Bayer's trademark Aspirin was registered worldwide for Bayer's brand of acetylsalicylic acid, but it lost its trademark status in the United States and the United Kingdom after the confiscation of Bayer's US assets and trademarks during World War I by the United States, because of the subsequent widespread usage of the word.
The term aspirin continued to be used in the US, UK and France for all brands of the drug, but it is still a registered trademark of Bayer in over 80 countries, including Canada, Mexico and Switzerland. As of 2011 40,000 tons of aspirin were produced each year and 10–20 billion tablets consumed in the United States alone for prevention of cardiovascular events, it is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. There is an unresolved controversy over the roles played by Bayer scientists in the development of aspirin. Arthur Eichengrün, a Bayer chemist, said he was the first to discover an aspirin formulation that did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain, he said he had invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and efficacy. Bayer contends. Various sources support the conflicting claims. Most mainstream historians attribute the invention of aspirin to Hoffmann and/or Eichengrün.
Heroin, now illegal as an addictive drug, was introduced as a non-addictive substitute for morphine, trademarked and marketed by Bayer from 1898 to 1910 as a cough suppressant and over-the-counter treatment for other common ailments, including pneumonia and tuberculosis. Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but the company led the way in commercializing it. Heroin was a Bayer trademark until after World War I. In 1903 Bayer licensed the patent for the hypnotic drug diethylbarbituric acid from its inventors Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, it was marketed under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Systematic investigations of the effect of structural changes on potency and duration of action at Bayer led to the discovery of phenobarbital in 1911 and the discovery of its potent anti-epileptic activity in 1912. Phenobarbital was among the most used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, as of 2014 it remains on the World Health Organization's list of essential medications.
During World War I, Bayer's assets, including the rights to
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A mechanical floor, mechanical penthouse, mechanical layer or mechanical level is a story of a high-rise building, dedicated to mechanical and electronics equipment. "Mechanical" is the most used term, but words such as utility, technical and plant are used. They are present in all tall buildings including the world's tallest skyscrapers with significant structural and aesthetics concerns. While most buildings have mechanical rooms in the basement, tall buildings require dedicated floors throughout the structure for this purpose, for a variety of reasons discussed below; because they use up valuable floor area, engineers try to minimize the number of mechanical floors while allowing for sufficient redundancy in the services they provide. As a rule of thumb, skyscrapers require a mechanical floor for every 10 tenant floors although this percentage can vary widely. In some buildings they are clustered in groups that divide the building into blocks, in others they are spread evenly through the structure, while in others still they are concentrated at the top.
Mechanical floors are counted in the building's floor numbering but are accessed only by service elevators. In some legislations they have been excluded from maximum floor area calculations, leading to significant increases in building sizes. Sometimes buildings are designed with a mechanical floor located on the thirteenth floor, to avoid problems in renting the space due to superstitions about that number; some skyscrapers have narrow building cores. This is accomplished by joining the core to the external supercolumns at regular intervals using outrigger trusses; the triangular shape of the struts precludes the laying of tenant floors, so these sections house mechanical floors instead in groups of two. Additional stabilizer elements such as tuned mass dampers require mechanical floors to contain or service them; this layout is reflected in the internal elevator zoning. Since nearly all elevators require machine rooms above the last floor they service, mechanical floors are used to divide shafts that are stacked on top of each other to save space.
A transfer level or skylobby is sometimes placed just below those floors. Elevators that reach the top tenant floor require overhead machine rooms. On most building designs this is a simple "box" on the roof, on others it is concealed inside a decorative spire. A consequence of this is that if the topmost mechanical floors are counted in the total, there can be no such thing as a true "top-floor office" in a skyscraper with this design. Besides structural support and elevator management, the primary purpose of mechanical floors is heating and air-conditioning, other services, they contain electrical generators, chiller plants, water pumps, so on. In particular, the problem of bringing and keeping water on the upper floors is an important constraint in the design of skyscrapers. Water is necessary for tenant use, air conditioning, equipment cooling, basic firefighting through sprinklers, it is inefficient, feasible, for water pumps to send water directly to a height of several hundred meters, so intermediate pumps and water tanks are used.
The pumps on each group of mechanical floors act as a relay to the next one up, while the tanks hold water in reserve for normal and emergency use. The pumps have enough power to bypass a level if the pumps there have failed, send water two levels up. Special care is taken towards fire safety on mechanical floors that contain generators and elevator machine rooms, since oil is used as either a fuel or lubricant in those elements. Mechanical floors contain communication and control systems that service the building and sometimes outbound communications, such as through a large rooftop antenna. Modern computerized HVAC control systems minimize the problem of equipment distribution among floors, by enabling central remote control. Most mechanical floors require external vents or louvers for ventilation and heat rejection along most or all of their perimeter, precluding the use of glass windows; the resulting visible "dark bands" can disrupt the overall facade design if it is glass-clad. Different architectural styles approach this challenge in different ways.
In the Modern and International styles of the 1960s and 1970s where form follows function, the vents' presence is not seen as undesirable. Rather it emphasizes the functional layout of the building by dividing it neatly into equal blocks, mirroring the layout of the elevators and offices inside; this could be seen on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and can be seen on the Willis Tower. In the IDS Tower in Minneapolis, the lowest mechanical floor serves as a visual separation from the street- and skyway-level Crystal Court shopping center and the office tower above. Conversely, designers of the recent postmodern-style skyscrapers strive to mask the vents and other mechanical elements in clever and ingenious ways; this is accomplished through such means as complex wall angles, intricate latticework cladding (
A mezzanine is speaking, an intermediate floor in a building, open to the double-height ceilinged floor below, or which does not extend over the whole floorspace of the building. However, the term is used loosely for the floor above the ground floor where a high original ground floor has been split horizontally into two floors. Mezzanines may serve a wide variety of functions. Industrial mezzanines, such as those used in warehouses, may be temporary or semi-permanent structures. In French architecture, entresol means a room created by partitioning that does not go up all the way to the ceiling. A mezzanine is an intermediate floor in a building, open to the floor below, it is placed halfway up the wall on a floor which has a ceiling at least twice as high as a floor with minimum height. A mezzanine does not count as one of the floors in a building, does not count in determining maximum floorspace; the International Building Code permits a mezzanine to have as much as one-third of the floor space of the floor below.
Local building codes may vary somewhat from this standard. A space may have more than one mezzanine, as long as the sum total of floor space of all the mezzanines is not greater than one-third the floor space of the complete floor below. Mezzanines help to make a high-ceilinged space feel more personal and less vast, can create additional floor space. Mezzanines, may have lower-than-normal ceilings due to their location; the term "mezzanine" does not imply a function, as mezzanines can be used for a wide array of purposes. Mezzanines are used in Modern architecture, which places a heavy emphasis on light and space. In industrial settings, mezzanines may be installed in high-ceilinged spaces such as warehouses; these semi-permanent structures are free-standing, can be dismantled and relocated, are sold commercially. Industrial mezzanine structures can be supported by structural steel columns and elements, or by racks or shelves. Depending on the span and the run of the mezzanine, different materials may be used for the mezzanine's deck.
Some industrial mezzanines may include enclosed, paneled office space on their upper levels. A structural engineer is sometimes hired to help determine whether the floor of the building can support a mezzanine, to design the appropriate mezzanine. Employees in material handling and manufacturing are at risk to falls when they are on the job. Recent figures show 20,000 serious injuries and nearly 100 fatalities a year in industrial facilities. Falls of people and objects from mezzanines are of particular concern. In many industrial operations, openings are cut into the guardrail on mezzanines and elevated work platforms to allow picking of palletized material to be loaded and unloaded with a fork truck, to upper levels; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and International Building Council have published regulations for fall protection and The American National Standards Institute has published standards for securing pallet drop areas to protect workers that work on elevated platforms and are exposed to openings.
In most cases, safety gates are used to secure these openings. OSHA requires openings taller to be secured with a fall protection system. Removable sections of railing or gates that swing or slide open would be used to open up the area and allow the transfer of material, close once the material is removed. However, current ANSI standards require dual-gate safety systems for fall protection. Dual-gate safety systems were created to secure these areas, allowing a barrier to be in place at all times while pallets are being loaded or removed. Dual-gate systems create a enclosed workstation providing protection for the worker during loading and off-loading operations; when the rear-side gate opens, the ledge gate automatically closes, ensuring there is always a gate between the operator and the ledge. Aghayere, Abi O.. Structural Wood Design: A Practice-Oriented Approach. Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley. ISBN 9780470056783. Allen, Edward; the Architect's Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design.
Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470641910. Coates, Michael; the Visual Dictionary of Interior Architecture and Design. Lausanne: AVA Academia. ISBN 9782940373802. Drury, Jolyon. Buildings for Industrial Storage and Distribution. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0750648198. Guo, Qinghua; the Mingqi Pottery Buildings of Han Dynasty China, 206 BC-AD 220: Architectural Representations and Represented Architecture. Portland, Ore.: Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 9781845193218. Habraken, N. J.. Structure of the Ordinary: Form and Control in the Built Environment. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262581950. Harris, Cyril M.. Illustrated Dictionary of Historic Architecture. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486244440. Materials Handling and Management Society; the Professional Materials Handling Learning System: A Basic Reference Collection in Materials Handling. Volume 2. Charlotte, N. C.: Material Handling Education Foundation. The dictionary definition of mezzanine at Wiktionary Proper safeguarding for elevated work platforms Material Handling Industry Protective Guarding Manufacturers Association
The Bell Centre known as the Molson Centre, is a sports and entertainment complex in Montreal, Canada. It opened on March 1996, after nearly three years under construction, it is best known as the home of the National Hockey League's Montreal Canadiens ice hockey team, it has the largest arena capacity to host an NHL team. It is owned by a partnership group headed by Geoff Molson and his brothers and Justin; the same ownership group owns the Montreal Canadiens and Evenko, an entertainment event promoter. Since it opened in 1996, it has been listed as one of the world's busiest arenas receiving the highest attendance of any arena in Canada. In 2012, it was the fifth-busiest arena in the world based on ticket sales for non-sporting events. Construction began on the site on June 22, 1993 two weeks after the Canadiens defeated the Los Angeles Kings at the Forum for their 24th and most recent Stanley Cup; the name of the arena reflected Molson, Inc. a brewing company, owner of the Canadiens at the time.
Molson elected not to keep the naming rights when they sold the team and the name was changed on September 1, 2002, after Bell Canada acquired the naming rights. On November 9, 1997, the Molson Centre was the site of WWE's Survivor Series event, the infamous Montreal Screwjob. On October 14, 2015, it was announced that Bell Centre would undergo renovations, including renovated hallways and concessions, new restaurants, public Wi-Fi, the planned conversion of Avenue des Canadiens-de-Montréal into a pedestrian-only street; the renovations, which are not expected to interfere with normal operations, have a budget of $100 million. Bell Centre is located in downtown Montreal, near the corner of Avenue des Canadiens-de-Montréal and De La Montagne Street; the Lucien L'Allier commuter rail terminal, to which it is connected, is next door on that corner. In addition it is located across the street from the 1250 René-Lévesque skyscraper, it is accessible by public transportation, as it is linked to both Lucien-L'Allier and Bonaventure Metro stations.
It is connected to the underground city and Central Station. The building covers an area of 3.87 acres. It has a seating capacity of 21,288, making it the largest hockey arena in the world, it holds six restaurants. Capacities of the Centre are: Arena: 21,302 Arena: 22,114 Concerts: 19,200 Amphitheatre: 10,000–14,000 Theatre: 5,000–9,000 Hemicycle: 2,000–4,000The public address announcer for the Canadiens' games is Michel Lacroix, while the national anthem singer alternates every home game after Charles Prevost-Linton was not asked to return at the end of the 2013–2014 season. Most notable amongst these rotating performers is Quebecois pop legend Ginette Reno, whose appearances to sing the Canadian anthem at playoff games were popular. Diane Bibeau plays the organ on Saturday nights. A new scoreboard was installed prior of the 2008–2009 season; the new scoreboard consists of four 510 square foot video panels. It was the biggest in the NHL until 2012, it is one of only two NHL arenas that uses an old-style siren to mark the end of periods instead of a horn.
The sirens were inherited from the arenas' predecessor facilities, coming from the disused Montreal Forum and the Boston Garden respectively. Unlike most North American arenas, which have been designed by Populous and its predecessors, the Bell Centre was designed by a local consortium, has many unique design features; the grandstands are sloped steeply. Washrooms on the 100 level are centralized on a specific lower level located at each end; the Bell Centre is arranged in a three-tier layout: The lower 100 section referred to as "the reds" since these seats are painted red. The Club Desjardins section is premium section between two levels of corporate boxes. Larger seats and free food and non-alcoholic drinks are provided; the 300–400 section is divided into three zones by seat colour: white section rows AA–FF, the grey section rows A–D, the blue section, labelled "400," and consisting of rows A–D. The ends of the 400 section are further divided into two more groups. At the end the Canadiens shoot towards twice is the Coors Light Zone, featuring section cheerleaders and a band playing in the hallway.
At the opposite end is the Family Zone, featuring child-specific ticket prices and limited alcohol. Seats behind the press gondola, in Sections 318, 319, 320, feature their own scoreboards on the back of the gondola, due to the normal scoreboard being blocked. After some early complaints of a generic feel compared to the Forum, the Canadiens started to incrementally decorate the building with celebrations of the team's history, including a ring of players around the top level of seating; the Molson Ex Zone features its own red theme. See also: List of entertainment events held at the Bell Centre The final two games of the three-game 1996 World Cup of Hockey championship series were held at Bell Centre. Bell Centre was host to two pool games in the 2004 World Cup of Hockey; the Bell Centre hosted the 2009 NHL Entry Draft. Montreal Canadiens home games have been sold out since January 2004. Additionally, the Canadiens have among the top attendance figures in the NHL. For the 2009–2010 sea