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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1259 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1259
Ab urbe condita 2012
Armenian calendar 708
Assyrian calendar 6009
Balinese saka calendar 1180–1181
Bengali calendar 666
Berber calendar 2209
English Regnal year 43 Hen. 3 – 44 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1803
Burmese calendar 621
Byzantine calendar 6767–6768
Chinese calendar 戊午(Earth Horse)
3955 or 3895
    — to —
己未年 (Earth Goat)
3956 or 3896
Coptic calendar 975–976
Discordian calendar 2425
Ethiopian calendar 1251–1252
Hebrew calendar 5019–5020
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1315–1316
 - Shaka Samvat 1180–1181
 - Kali Yuga 4359–4360
Holocene calendar 11259
Igbo calendar 259–260
Iranian calendar 637–638
Islamic calendar 656–658
Japanese calendar Shōka 3 / Shōgen 1
Javanese calendar 1168–1169
Julian calendar 1259
Korean calendar 3592
Minguo calendar 653 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar −209
Thai solar calendar 1801–1802
Tibetan calendar 阳土马年
(male Earth-Horse)
1385 or 1004 or 232
    — to —
(female Earth-Goat)
1386 or 1005 or 233
Portion of a fresco of the Boyana Church, completed this year.

Year 1259 (MCCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]



  • August 11 – While conducting a siege against the Song Dynasty city known as Fishing Town in the province of Chongqing, China, the Mongol Khagan, Möngke Khan, dies in the nearby hills. Persian, Chinese, and Mongol records have different accounts of how he died, including succumbing to an arrow wound received by a Chinese archer in the siege, dysentery, and even a cholera epidemic, his death sparks a succession crisis in the Mongol Empire, while his brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai soon convene their own kuriltai to elect themselves as the next Khan of Khans, opening the path to a four–year-long Toluid Civil War from 1260 to 1264. In the end, Ariq Böke surrenders to Kublai.
  • While engaged in a war with the Mongols, the Song Chinese official Li Zengbo writes in his Kozhai Zagao, Xugaohou that the city of Qingzhou is manufacturing one to two thousand strong iron-cased gunpowder bomb shells a month, dispatching to Xiangyang and Yingzhou about ten to twenty thousand such bombs at a time.
  • Lannathai, a kingdom in the north of Thailand, is founded by King Mangrai.
  • The Goryeo Kingdom in Korea surrenders to invading Mongol forces.
  • The Chinese era Kaiqing begins and ends, in the Northern Song Dynasty of China.
  • The Japanese Shōka era ends, and the Shōgen era begins.