Morningside Heights, Manhattan
Morningside Heights is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, on the border of the Upper West Side and Manhattanville. The neighborhood is home to St. Lukes Hospital. Most of the neighborhood is part of New Yorks 10th congressional district since 2013, in the 17th century, the land that is now Morningside Heights was known as Vandewaters Heights, named for the landowner. On September 16,1776, the Battle of Harlem Heights was fought in Morningside Heights, a plaque by the Columbia University gate on 117th Street and Broadway commemorates this battle. Use of the name Morningside Heights for the neighborhood arose in the 1890s when development of the area commenced, other names such as Morningside Hill and Riverside Heights were used for the area. No single name was used for the neighborhood by the time Columbia University, Teachers College, the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine. Two names eventually gained the most use, Morningside Heights was preferred by the two colleges, while Cathedral Heights was preferred by St.
Johns and St. Lukes. After about 1898, Morningside Heights became the most generally accepted, by the mid-20th century the increasing prevalence of Single Room Occupancy hotels led to attendant socioeconomic problems and a decline in the neighborhood. Jane Jacobs The Death and Life of Great American Cities presented the neighborhood as a key example of the failure of the urban planning techniques of the era, in 1951 the organization developed Morningside Gardens, a six-building apartment complex to house middle-income families from all ethnic backgrounds. Morningside Gardens, an experimental project, opened in 1957 between 123rd and LaSalle Streets and Amsterdam Avenue. Social problems in the area prompted Columbia to purchase much of the real estate. This process reached its nadir in 1968, when protests erupted in both the neighborhood and on Columbias campus over the proposal to build a gym in Morningside Park. The university was forced to abandon the plan. However, Columbia University has still expanded its presence in the neighborhood markedly over the last few decades, in January 2008 the university received approval from the City Council to expand significantly in nearby Manhattanville.
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Morningside Heights was 55,929, covering an area of 465.11 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 120.2 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 46. 0% White,13. 6% African American,0. 2% Native American,13. 3% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 4% from other races, and 2. 9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23. 5% of the population, the label Academic Acropolis has been used to describe the area, which sits on a high natural point in Manhattan and contains numerous academic institutions. Much of the neighborhood is the campus of Columbia University, nASAs Goddard Institute for Space Studies is located in the neighborhood, directly above Toms Restaurant in a building owned by Columbia University
An elevated railway is a rapid transit railway with the tracks above street level on a viaduct or other elevated structure. The railway may be standard gauge, narrow gauge, light rail, Elevated railways are usually used in urban areas where there would otherwise be a large number of level crossings. Most of the time, the tracks of elevated railways that run on steel viaducts can be seen from street level, the earliest elevated railway was the London and Greenwich Railway on a brick viaduct of 878 arches, built between 1836 and 1838. The first 2.5 miles of the London and Blackwall Railway was on a viaduct, during the 1840s there were other schemes for elevated railways in London which did not come to fruition. From the late 1860s elevated railways became popular in US cities, the New York West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway operated with cable cars from 1868 to 1870, thereafter locomotive-hauled. This was followed by the Manhattan Railway in 1875, the South Side Elevated Railroad, the Chicago transit system itself is known as L, short for elevated.
The Berlin Stadtbahn is mainly elevated, the first electric elevated railway was the Liverpool Overhead Railway, which operated through Liverpool docks from 1893 until 1956. In London, the Docklands Light Railway is an elevated railway that opened in 1987 and. The trains are driverless and automatic, another modern elevated railway is Tokyos driverless Yurikamome line, opened in 1995. Most monorails are elevated railways, such as the Disneyland Monorail System, the Tokyo Monorail, the Sydney Monorail, the KL Monorail, the Las Vegas Monorail, many maglev railways are elevated. During the 1890s there was some interest in railways, particularly in Germany, with the Schwebebahn Dresden. H-Bahn suspension railways were built in Dortmund and Düsseldorf airport,1975, the Memphis Suspension Railway opened in 1982. Shonan Monorail and Chiba Urban Monorail in Japan, despite their names, are suspension railways too, People mover or automated people mover is a type of driverless grade-separated, mass-transit system.
The term is used only to describe systems that serve as loops or feeder systems. Similar to monorails, Bombardier Innovia APM technology uses only one rail to guide the vehicle along the guideway, aPMs are common at airports and effective at helping passengers quickly reach their gates. Elevator Grade separation Monorail Railway Rapid transit People mover Trackless
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Since the 1920s, Harlem has been known as a major African-American residential, originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlems history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, African-American residents began to arrive by a lot in 1905, with numbers fed by the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the Harlem Renaissance, with job losses in the time of the Great Depression and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly. Harlems African-American population peaked in the 1950s, in the second half of the 20th century, Harlem became a major hub of African-American businesses. In 2008, the United States Census found that for the first time since the 1930s, less than half of residents were black, since New York Citys revival in the late 20th century, long-time residents of Harlem have been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth.
Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan, often referred to as Uptown by locals. Central Harlem is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, and the Harlem River on the north. A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks, on the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park, known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem. The bulk of the falls under Manhattan Community Board No.10. In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, the West Harlem neighborhoods of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights comprise part of Manhattan Community Board No.9. The two neighborhoods area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway on the South, 155th Street on the North, nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the East, and Riverside Park/the Hudson River on the west. Morningside Heights is located in the southern most section of West Harlem, Manhattanville begins at roughly 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street.
The northern most section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights, the New York City Police Department patrols six precincts located within Harlem. The New York City Fire Department operates 9 firehouses in Harlem, as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. Between 1637 and 1639, a few settlements were established, during the American Revolution, the British burned Harlem to the ground. It took a time to rebuild, as Harlem grew more slowly than the rest of Manhattan during the late 18th century. After the American Civil War, Harlem experienced an economic boom starting in 1868, the neighborhood continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but increasingly those coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian
City Hall (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
Opened on October 27,1904, this station, located underneath the public area in front of City Hall, was designed to be the showpiece of the new subway. The platform and mezzanine feature Guastavino tile, colored glass tilework, the Rafael Guastavino-designed station is unique in the system for the usage of Romanesque Revival architecture. The station was built on a curve and could only accommodate five-car trains, the official start of construction took place on March 24,1900, at the front steps of City Hall, at a ceremony officiated by then-Mayor Robert Van Wyck. After construction was complete, this station was the place for hanging commemorative plaques recognizing the achievement of building the entire New York City Subway system. A mezzanine area above the platform once had an oak ticket booth. The subway opened to the public on October 27,1904, more than 15,000 people were issued passes for the first series of rides from the platform. At precisely 2,35 p. m. the first subway train departed from City Hall station with Mayor McClellan at the controls, the event was so heavily attended that police Commissioner McAdoo said every policeman in the city was on duty all day and far into the night.
At the time of the opening, President A. E. Orr of the Rapid Transit Board requested that all New Yorkers join in the celebration by blowing whistles and ringing bells. At street level, in the pavement in front of City Hall, at the time, the station was called City Hall Loop. Unlike the rest of the line, the City Hall station had tall tile arches, brass fixtures, skylights, polychrome tile. It was lit by wrought iron chandeliers and the three skylights of cut amethyst glass that allowed sunshine onto parts of the platform, during World War II, the skylights were blacked out with tar for safety. In the years after the construction, increased subway ridership led to longer trains. The City Hall station, built on a curve, would have been difficult to lengthen. In addition, the new, longer trains had center doors in each car, City Hall, notwithstanding its architectural grandeur, was never an important station. In its final year of use, it served only 600 passengers per day and was not open at nights.
The Brooklyn Bridge station, located a short walk away, at the end of City Hall Park, was more popular. The Brooklyn Bridge streetcar terminal and Park Row station on the BMT elevated lines were above for easy transfers, given the extensive renovations that would have been required to bring the station up to modern standards, the city decided to close it instead. The final day of service was December 31,1945, plans for the museum annex were abandoned and museum tours ceased for several years
New York City Subway
Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the worlds oldest public transit systems, one of the worlds most used metro systems, and the metro system with the most stations. It offers service 24 hours per day, every day of the year, the New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Queens, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson and the AirTrain JFK, in Manhattan and Queens respectively, accept the subways MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. Another mass transit service that is not operated by the MTA, the system is one of the worlds longest. Overall, the system contains 236 miles of routes, translating into 665 miles of track. In 2015, the subway delivered over 1.76 billion rides, averaging approximately 5.7 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.9 million rides each weekend. Of the systems 25 services,22 of them pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, and the Rockaway Park Shuttle.
Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, in total, 40% of track is not underground despite the subway moniker. Many lines and stations have both express and local services and these lines have three or four tracks. Normally, the two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are typically major transfer points or destinations, alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870. The tunnel was never extended for political and financial reasons, although extensions had been planned to take the tunnel southward to The Battery, the Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system. A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, the first underground line of the subway opened on October 27,1904, almost 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line.
The fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers, the oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line. The oldest right-of-way, which is part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a railroad called the Brooklyn, Bath. By the time the first subway opened, the lines had been consolidated into two privately owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the city built most of the lines and leased them to the companies. This required it to be run at cost, necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time, in 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service immediately while others closed soon after, integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT, these now operate as one division called the B Division
125th Street (Manhattan)
It is often considered to be the Main Street of Harlem, and is co-named Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard. Notable buildings along 125th Street include the Apollo Theater, the Adam Clayton Powell Jr, the street was designated by the Commissioners Plan of 1811 that established the Manhattan street grid as one of 15 east–west streets that would be 100 feet in width. East of Morningside Avenue it runs east–west through central Harlem to Second Avenue, however, 125th Street continues to First Avenue, where it connects to the southbound FDR Drive and the Willis Avenue Bridge. West of Convent Avenue, 125th Street was rerouted onto what was, prior to 1920, what remains of the original alignment of 125th Street was renamed La Salle Street at that time. The remaining blocks run between Amsterdam Avenue and Claremont Avenue, a block of the original 125th Street in this area was de-mapped to make the super-blocks where the Grant Houses projects now exist. A proposal to convert the street into a Trans-Harlem Expressway died when funds were diverted from the proposed 125th Street Hudson River bridge at the western end.
Beginning in the late 1990s, many sections of 125th Street have been gentrified and developed with such stores as MAC Cosmetics, Old Navy, H&M, CVS/pharmacy, and Magic Johnson Theaters. In collaboration with the community, the city has developed a plan for the 125th Street corridor focusing on reinforcing and building upon its strengths as an arts and cultural corridor. A rift in the crust runs along underneath this street from the East River to New Jersey and is known as the 125th Street Fault or the Manhattanville Fault. It is suspected to have caused a magnitude-5.2 earthquake in 1737, riverside Drive elevates to cross over the fault valley. The following New York City Subway stations are located at 125th Street, the planned Second Avenue Subway will turn on 125th Street, serving a station at Lexington Avenue that would be the terminal for the second phase of the line and connect to the preexisting station. As of 2011, former president Bill Clinton maintains an office on 125th Street, notes Media related to 125th Street at Wikimedia Commons
MTA Regional Bus Operations
Both NYCT and MaBSTOA operate service pursuant to a lease agreement with the City of New York. MTABC operates service pursuant to an agreement with the City of New York under which all expenses of MTABC and this brought almost all bus transportation in New York City under its control. After the bus mergers were completed in 2006, the MTA moved to streamline its operations through consolidation of management function, MTA Regional Bus included the MTA Long Island Bus division until January 2012, when its services were transferred to a private operator by Nassau County. Other changes have included eliminating the MTA Bus call center, folding it into that of MTA New York City Transit, Regional Bus Operations is currently only used in official documentation, and not publicly as a brand. The seven former companies were, Command Bus Company, Inc. Green Bus Lines, Queens Surface Corp. and Triboro Coach Corp. The most common scheme is a blue stripe across the sides of the bus against a white base, with no colors on the front or back.
From 1977 until late 2007, the livery was a full all-around stripe with a rear, and until late 2010. Buses operated in Select Bus Service bus rapid transit service are wrapped with a light blue-and-white wrap below the windows. In spring 2016, a new livery was introduced based on blue, light blue, and gold, with a mostly blue front and sides, a light blue and gold wave. Access-A-Ride paratransit services are provided by independent contractors, using vehicles owned by the MTA. In addition, MTA Regional Bus Operations operated bus and paratransit service in Nassau County under the name Long Island Bus until December 31,2011 and this service was operated by the MTA under an agreement with Nassau County, who owned its facilities and equipment. In 2011, the MTA asked Nassau County to provide funding for Long Island Bus than they were at the time. The county refused to provide funding, and the MTA voted to end operation of the system at the end of 2011. The county decided to hire Veolia Transportation, a transportation company.
Eventually all of these routes were transferred to private management, another city acquisition was the Bridge Operating Company, which ran the Williamsburg Bridge Local trolley, acquired in 1921 by the DP&S. Unlike the other lines, this one remained city-operated, and was replaced by the B39 bus route on December 5,1948, on February 23,1947, the Board of Transportation took over the Staten Island bus network of the Isle Transportation Company. The final Brooklyn trolleys were the Church Avenue Line and McDonald Avenue Line, discontinued on October 31,1956, though the privately operated Queensboro Bridge Local remained until 1957. Thus, in the late 1950s, the city operated all local service in Staten Island and Brooklyn, about half the service in Queens
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
1 (New York City Subway service)
The 1 Broadway–Seventh Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or bullet, is colored tomato red since it uses the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line for its entire route, the 1 operates local at all times between Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street in Riverdale and South Ferry in Lower Manhattan. When the first subway opened between 1904 and 1908, one of the main service patterns was the West Side Branch, trains ran from Lower Manhattan to Van Cortlandt Park via what is now the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, 42nd Street Shuttle, and IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line. There was both local and express service with trains using the express tracks south of 96th Street. Some express trains ran to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn via the Joralemon Street Tunnel during rush hours while all other trains turned around at City Hall or the South Ferry outer loop. This shuttle was extended south to South Ferry, with a shuttle on the Brooklyn branch between Chambers Street and Wall Street, on July 1,1918.
Finally, the new H system was implemented on August 1,1918, late night service was not operated. All 1 Local trains ran from 137th Street to South Ferry days and evenings, on September 5,1937, the practice of splitting Sunday morning trains at Brooklyn Museum was discontinued, with the alternate trains going to New Lots Avenue or Flatbush Avenue. As of July 1,1938, all evening and Sunday trains were rerouted to New Lots Avenue, by 1945, all 1 Local peak period trains were cut back from Dyckman Street to 137th Street. Beginning on May 10,1946, all 1 Brooklyn trains were made express during late nights running on 12 minute headways, previously all 1 trains ran local from 12,30 to 5, 30am and they alternated between Flatbush and New Lots Avenues. On December 20,1946, all night trains were routed to Flatbush Avenue. On June 12,1949, 137th Street to South Ferry Sunday locals were discontinued, on March 15,1954, weekend 137th Street to South Ferry locals were discontinued, and simultaneously weekend Brooklyn trains were rerouted to Flatbush Avenue.
An attempt was made to extend service further north on January 14,1955. This proved unsuccessful, and ended on June 28,1956, meanwhile, in Brooklyn, weekday trains were rerouted to Flatbush Avenue on December 20,1957, and evening 137th Street to South Ferry locals were discontinued on May 23,1958. Under a $100,000,000 rebuilding program and lengthened service was implemented during peak hours on the 1 train, switching north of 96th Street was eliminated. On February 6,1959,1 trains began to run between 242nd Street and South Ferry all times, trains began to be branded as Hi-Speed Locals, being as fast as the old express service was with new R21s and R22s on the line. During rush hour in the direction, alternate trains, those running from 242nd Street. The bypassed stations were served by locals originating from Dyckman Street and this express service was discontinued on May 24,1976, after which all 1 trains began to make all stops