12th century BC
The 12th century BC is the period from 1200 to 1101 BC. The Late Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East and eastern Mediterranean is considered to begin in this century. 1200 BC: The first civilization in Central and North America develops in about 1200 BC in the coastal regions of the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the Olmec civilization, its early site is at San Lorenzo. Read more 1200 BC: The Phoenicians found the port of Lisbon, Portugal 1197 BC: The beginning of first period by Shao Yong's concept of the I Ching and history. 1197 BC: Ramses III of Egypt repels attacks by northern invaders. 1194 BC: The beginning of the legendary Trojan War. 1192 BC: Wu Ding, King of Shang Dynasty, died. 1191 BC: Menestheus, legendary King of Athens, dies during the Trojan War after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus. Other accounts place his death a decade and shortly after the Trojan War. 1186 BC: End of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Twentieth Dynasty.
April 24, 1184 BC: Traditional date for the fall of Troy, Asia Minor to the Mycenaeans and their allies. This marks the end of the Trojan War of Greek mythology. 1181 BC: Menestheus, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus. Other accounts place his death a decade earlier and during the Trojan War. 1180 BC: The last Kassite King, Anllil-nadin-akhe, is defeated by the Elamites 1180 BC: Collapse of Hittite power in Anatolia with the destruction of their capital Hattusa. April 16, 1178 BC: A solar eclipse may mark the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom after the Trojan War, he discovers a number of suitors competing to marry his wife Penelope, whom they believe to be a widow, in order to succeed him on the throne. He re-establishes himself on the throne. 1160 BC: Death of Pharaoh Ramesses V, from smallpox. 1159 BC: The Hekla 3 eruption triggers an 18-year period of climatic cooling.
1154 BC: Death of King Menelaus of Sparta. 1154 BC: Death of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes.. C. 1150 BC: End of Egyptian rule in Canaan. Rameses VI last Pharaoh acknowledged. 1147 BC: Demophon, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes. 1137 BC: Ramses VII begins his reign as the sixth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. 1135 BC: Oxyntes, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded by his elder son Apheidas. 1134 BC: Apheidas, legendary King of Athens, is assassinated and succeeded by his younger brother Thymoetes after a reign of 1 year. 1126 BC: Thymoetes, legendary King of Athens, dies childless after a reign of 8 years. He is succeeded by his designated heir Melanthus of Pylos, a fifth-generation descendant of Neleus who had assisted him in battle against the Boeotians. 1122 BC: Legendary founding date of the city of Pyongyang. C. 1120 BC: destruction of Troy VIIb1 1115 BC: Tiglath-Pileser.
1110 BC: Cádiz founded by Phoenicians in southwestern Spain. 1100 BC: Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites. C. 1100 BC: The Dorians invade Greece. C. 1100 BC: Beginning of the proto-Villanovan culture in northern Italy. C. 1100 BC: Mycenaean civilization ends. Start of Greek Dark Ages. C. 1100 BC: The New Kingdom in Egypt comes to an end. Elamite invaders carry them in Susa. Fang ding, from Tomb 1004, Anyang, Henan, is made. Shang dynasty, Anyang period, it is now kept at Academia Sinica, Taiwan. Achilles, Greek hero of the Trojan War Amenemses, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt 1155 BC—Death of pharaoh Ramesses III of Egypt 1126 BC—Nebuchadnezzar I becomes king of Babylon 1100s BC—Alphabet developed by Phoenicians. See: List of sovereign states in the 12th century BC
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt
The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period; this Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne. The warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence but the international situation had changed radically towards the end of the dynasty; the Hittites had extended their influence into Syria and Canaan to become a major power in international politics, a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would confront in the future. New Kingdom Egypt reached the zenith of its power under Seti I and Ramesses II, who campaigned vigorously against the Libyans and the Hittites; the city of Kadesh was first captured by Seti I, who decided to concede it to Muwatalli of Hatti in an informal peace treaty between Egypt and Hatti.
Ramesses II attempted unsuccessfully to alter this situation in his fifth regnal year by launching an attack on Kadesh in his Second Syrian campaign in 1274 BC. Ramesses II profited from the Hittites' internal difficulties, during his eighth and ninth regnal years, when he campaigned against their Syrian possessions, capturing Kadesh and portions of Southern Syria, advancing as far north as Tunip, where no Egyptian soldier had been seen for 120 years, he accepted that a campaign against the Hittites was an unsupportable drain on Egypt's treasury and military. In his 21st regnal year, Ramesses signed the earliest recorded peace treaty with Urhi-Teshub's successor, Hattusili III, with that act Egypt-Hittite relations improved significantly. Ramesses II married two Hittite princesses, the first after his second Sed Festival; this dynasty declined. Amenmesse usurped the throne from Merneptah's son and successor, Seti II, but he ruled Egypt for only four years. After his death, Seti destroyed most of Amenmesse's monuments.
Seti was served at court by Chancellor Bay, just a'royal scribe' but became one of the most powerful men in Egypt, gaining the unprecedented privilege of constructing his own tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Both Bay and Seti's chief wife, had a sinister reputation in Ancient Egyptian folklore. After Siptah's death, Twosret ruled Egypt for two more years, but she proved unable to maintain her hold on power amid the conspiracies and powerplays being hatched at the royal court, she was ousted in a revolt led by Setnakhte, founder of the 20th Dynasty. The pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty ruled for 110 years: from c. 1292 to 1187 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree
The 1250s BC is a decade which lasted from 1259 BC to 1250 BC. c. 1259 BC—Ramesses II makes peace agreement with the Hittites. C. 1258 BC—The Exodus as depicted in the Bible. 1251 BC—September 7, a solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes, Greece. 1250 BC—Traditional date of the beginning of the Trojan War. 1250 BC—Wu Ding emperor of Shang Dynasty to 1192 BC. c. 1250 BC—Lion Gate, Greece, are made. Citadel walls are built. C. 1250 BC—Papyrus of Ani created, during the 19th dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Wu Ding Shang Dynasty emperor S. M. Stirling's Nantucket series is set in Bronze Age era, circa the 1250s BC
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. Isis was first mentioned in the Old Kingdom as one of the main characters of the Osiris myth, in which she resurrects her slain husband, the divine king Osiris, produces and protects his heir, Horus, she was believed to help the dead enter the afterlife as she had helped Osiris, she was considered the divine mother of the pharaoh, likened to Horus. Her maternal aid was invoked in healing spells to benefit ordinary people, she played a limited role in royal rituals and temple rites, although she was more prominent in funerary practices and magical texts. She was portrayed in art as a human woman wearing a throne-like hieroglyph on her head. During the New Kingdom, as she took on traits that belonged to Hathor, the preeminent goddess of earlier times, Isis came to be portrayed wearing Hathor's headdress: a sun disk between the horns of a cow. In the first millennium BCE, Osiris and Isis became the most worshipped of Egyptian deities, Isis absorbed traits from many other goddesses.
Rulers in Egypt and its neighbor to the south, began to build temples dedicated to Isis, her temple at Philae was a religious center for Egyptians and Nubians alike. Isis's reputed magical power was greater than that of all other gods, she was said to protect the kingdom from its enemies, govern the skies and the natural world, have power over fate itself. In the Hellenistic period, when Egypt was ruled and settled by Greeks, Isis came to be worshipped by Greeks and Egyptians, along with a new god, Serapis, their worship diffused into the wider Mediterranean world. Isis's Greek devotees ascribed to her traits taken from Greek deities, such as the invention of marriage and the protection of ships at sea, she retained strong links with Egypt and other Egyptian deities who were popular in the Hellenistic world, such as Osiris and Harpocrates; as Hellenistic culture was absorbed by Rome in the first century BCE, the cult of Isis became a part of Roman religion. Her devotees were a small proportion of the Roman Empire's population but were found all across its territory.
Her following developed distinctive festivals such as the Navigium Isidis, as well as initiation ceremonies resembling those of other Greco-Roman mystery cults. Some of her devotees said; the worship of Isis was ended by the rise of Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries CE. Her worship may have influenced Christian beliefs and practices such as the veneration of Mary, but the evidence for this influence is ambiguous and controversial. Isis continues to appear in Western culture in esotericism and modern paganism as a personification of nature or the feminine aspect of divinity. Whereas some Egyptian deities appeared in the late Predynastic Period, neither Isis nor her husband Osiris were mentioned before the Fifth Dynasty. An inscription that may refer to Isis dates to the reign of Nyuserre Ini during that period, she appears prominently in the Pyramid Texts, which began to be written down at the end of the dynasty and whose content may have developed much earlier. Several passages in the Pyramid Texts link Isis with the region of the Nile Delta near Behbeit el-Hagar and Sebennytos, her cult may have originated there.
Many scholars have focused on Isis's name in trying to determine her origins. Her Egyptian name was ꜣst, which became ⲎⲤⲈ in the Coptic form of Egyptian, Wusa in the Meroitic language of Nubia, Ἶσις, on which her modern name is based, in Greek; the hieroglyphic writing of her name incorporates the sign for a throne, which Isis wears on her head as a sign of her identity. The symbol serves as a phonogram, spelling the st sounds in her name, but it may have represented a link with actual thrones; the Egyptian term for a throne was st and may have shared a common etymology with Isis's name. Therefore, the Egyptologist Kurt Sethe suggested she was a personification of thrones. Henri Frankfort agreed, believing that the throne was considered the king's mother, thus a goddess, because of its power to make a man into a king. Other scholars, such as Jürgen Osing and Klaus P. Kuhlmann, have disputed this interpretation, because of dissimilarities between Isis's name and the word for a throne or a lack of evidence that the throne was deified.
The cycle of myth surrounding Osiris's death and resurrection was first recorded in the Pyramid Texts and grew into the most elaborate and influential of all Egyptian myths. Isis plays a more active role in this myth than the other protagonists, so as it developed in literature from the New Kingdom to the Ptolemaic Period, she became the most complex literary character of all Egyptian deities. At the same time, she absorbed characteristics from many other goddesses, broadening her significance well beyond the Osiris myth. Isis is part of the Ennead of Heliopolis, a family of nine gods descended from the creator god, Atum or Ra, she and her siblings—Osiris and Nephthys—are the last generation of the Ennead, born to Geb, god of the earth, Nut, goddess of the sky. The creator god, the world's original ruler, passes down his authority through the male generations of the Ennead, so that Osiris becomes king. Isis, Osiris's wife as well as his sister, is his queen. Set kills Osiris and, in several versions of the story, dismembers his corpse.
Isis and Nephthys, along with other deities such as Anubis, search for the pieces of their brother's body and reassemble it. Their efforts are the mythic prototype for mummification and other anc
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East; the Assyrians emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest attested Indo-European language.
Hittites referred to their native language as nešili "in the language of Nesa" but called their native land as Kingdom of Hattusa. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic; the history of the Hittite civilization is known from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria, Babylonia and the Middle East, the decipherment of, a key event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots, although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; the Hittites were the first of the Indo-European people to make use of iron.
Due to the widespread availability of iron ore, this allowed them to create weapons that were much stronger and cheaper. The Hittite empire fell victim to the Bronze Age Collapse around the beginning of the 12th century BC. Ethnic Hittite dynasties survived in small kingdoms scattered around modern Syria and Israel. Lacking a unifying continuity, their descendants are scattered and have merged into the modern populations of the Levant and Mesopotamia. During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank, the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world. Before the archeological discoveries that revealed the Hittite civilization, the only source of information about the Hittites had been the Old Testament.
Francis William Newman expressed the critical view, common in the early 19th century, that, "no Hittite king could have compared in power to the King of Judah...". As the discoveries in the second half of the 19th century revealed the scale of the Hittite kingdom, Archibald Sayce asserted that, rather than being compared to Judah, the Anatolian civilization " worthy of comparison to the divided Kingdom of Egypt", was "infinitely more powerful than that of Judah". Sayce and other scholars noted that Judah and the Hittites were never enemies in the Hebrew texts. Uriah the Hittite was a captain in King David's army and counted as one of his "mighty men" in 1 Chronicles 11. French scholar Charles Texier found the first Hittite ruins in 1834 but did not identify them as Hittite; the first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the karum of Kanesh, containing records of trade between Assyrian merchants and a certain "land of Hatti". Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but Indo-European.
The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria. In 1887, excavations at Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. Two of the letters from a "kingdom of Kheta"—apparently located in the same general region as the Mesopotamian references to "land of Hatti"—were written in standard Akkadian cuneiform, but in an unknown language. Shortly after this, Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the "kingdom of Kheta" mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was Kheta, but proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim rather than with the Biblical Hittites. Sayce's identification came to be accepted over the course of the early 20th century.
13th century BC
The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC. 1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end in the Indus Valley. 1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty. 1282 BC: Pandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion and his sons, his four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica. 1279 BC: Ramesses II becomes leader of Ancient Egypt. 1278 BC: Seti I dies, 1 year after his son, Ramesses II is crowned. 1274 BC: The Battle of Kadesh in Syria. 1258 BC: Ramses II, king of ancient Egypt, Hattusilis III, king of the Hittites, sign the earliest known peace treaty. 1251 BC: A solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes, Greece. C. 1250 BC: Approximately 4,000 men fight a battle at a causeway over the Tollense valley in Northern Germany, the largest prehistoric battle north of the Alps known so far.
1250 BC: Wu Ding King of Shang Dynasty to 1192 BC. 1250 BC: The Lion Gate at Mycene is constructed. C. 1230 BC: Aegeus, legendary King of Athens, receives a false message that his designated heir Theseus, his son by Aethra of Troezena, is dead. Theseus had been sent to his overlord Minos of Crete as an offering to the Minotaur. Medus, Aegeus' only other son, had been exiled in Asia and would become legendary ancestor to the Medes. Believing himself without heirs the King commits suicide after a reign of 48 years, he is succeeded by Theseus, who still lives. The Aegean Sea is named in his honor. 1213 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus; the latter seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.
1212 BC: Death of Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II. 1208 BC: Pharaoh Merneptah defeats a Libyan invasion. 1206 BC: Approximate starting date of Bronze age collapse, a period of migration and destruction in the eastern Mediterranean and Near East. 1204 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erichthonius II of Athens and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds assassinates him. C. 1200 BC: Earliest writing that survived exists in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Chariots appear in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Start of Iron Age in Near East, eastern Mediterranean, India. C. 1200 BC: Collapse of Hittite power in Anatolia with the destruction of their capital Hattusa. C. 1200 BC: Massive migrations of people around the Mediterranean and the Middle-East.
See Sea People for more information. C. 1200 BC: Aramaic nomads and Chaldeans become a big threat to the former Babylonian and Assyrian Empire. C. 1200 BC: Migration and expansion of Dorian Greeks. Destruction of Mycenaean city Pylos. C. 1200 BC: The proto-Scythian Srubna culture expands from the lower Volga region to cover the whole of the North Pontic area. C. 1200 BC: The Cimmerians start settling the steppes of southern Russia?. c. 1200 BC: Olmec culture starts and thrives in Mesoamerica. C. 1200 BC: San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán starts to flourish. C. 1200 BC: Ancient Pueblo Peoples civilization in North America. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical. 1251 BC—A lunar eclipse might mark the birth of Hercules c. 1225 BC—Birth of legendary Helen to King Tyndareus of Sparta and his wife Leda 1212 BC—Death of Ramesses II of Egypt Moses—A Hebrew prophet found in the Old Testament in the Bible called the Exodus.
Merneptah, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Amenmesse, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Pan Geng of Shang dynasty China See: List of sovereign states in the 13th century BC
Menmaatre Seti I was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most used by scholars today; the name'Seti' means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set. As with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen "mn-m3‘t-r‘ " vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means "Established is the Justice of Re." His better known nomen, or birth name, is transliterated as "sty mry-n-ptḥ" or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty, gave him a reign length of 55 years, though no evidence has been found for so long a reign. After the enormous social upheavals generated by Akhenaten's religious reform, Ramesses I and Seti I's main priority was to re-establish order in the kingdom and to reaffirm Egypt's sovereignty over Canaan and Syria, compromised by the increasing external pressures from the Hittite state.
Seti, with energy and determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. Without succeeding in destroying the Hittites as a potential danger to Egypt, he reconquered most of the disputed territories for Egypt and concluded his military campaigns with victories; the memory of Seti I's military successes was recorded in some large scenes placed on the front of the temple of Amun, situated in Karnak. A funerary temple for Seti was constructed in what is now known as Qurna, on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes while a magnificent temple made of white limestone at Abydos featuring exquisite relief scenes was started by Seti, completed by his son, his capital was at Memphis. He was considered a great king by his peers, but his fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son, Ramesses II. Seti I's reign length was either 15 full years. Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen has estimated that it was 15 years, but there are no dates recorded for Seti I after his Year 11 Gebel Barkal stela.
As he is otherwise quite well documented in historical records, other scholars suggest that a continuous break in the record for his last four years is unlikely, although it is technically possible that no records have been yet discovered. Peter J. Brand noted that the king opened new rock quarries at Aswan to build obelisks and colossal statues in his Year 9; this event is commemorated on two rock stelas in Aswan. However, most of Seti's obelisks and statues — such as the Flaminian and Luxor obelisks were only finished or decorated by the time of his death since they were completed early under his son's reign based on epigraphic evidence. Ramesses II used the prenomen'Usermaatre' to refer to himself in his first year and did not adopt the final form of his royal title--'Usermaatre Setepenre'--until late into his second year. Brand aptly notes that this evidence calls into question the idea of a 15 Year reign for Seti I and suggests that "Seti died after a ten to eleven year reign" because only two years would have passed between the opening of the Rock Quarries and the partial completion and decoration of these monuments.
This explanation conforms better with the evidence of the unfinished state of Seti I's monuments and the fact that Ramesses II had to complete the decorations on "many of his father's unfinished monuments, including the southern half of the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak and portions of his father's temples at Gurnah and Abydos" during the first Year of his own reign. Critically, Brand notes that the larger of the two Aswan rock stelas states that Seti I "has ordered the commissioning of multitudinous works for the making of great obelisks and great and wondrous statues in the name of His Majesty, L. P. H, he made great barges for transporting them, ships crews to match them for ferrying them from the quarry." However, despite this promise, Brand stresses that there are few obelisks and no colossi inscribed for Seti. Ramesses II, was able to complete the two obelisks and four seated colossi from Luxor within the first years of his reign, the two obelisks in particular being inscribed before he adopted the final form of his prenomen sometime in year two.
This state of affairs implies that Seti died after ten to eleven years. Had he ruled on until his fourteenth or fifteenth year surely more of the obelisks and colossi he commissioned in year nine would have been completed, in particular those from Luxor. If he in fact died after little more than a decade on the throne, however at most two years would have elapsed since the Aswan quarries were opened in year nine, only a fraction of the great monoliths would have been complete and inscribed at his death, with others just emerging from the quarries so that Ramesses would be able to decorate them shortly after his accession.... It now seems clear that a long, fourteen-to fifteen-year reign for Seti I can be rejected for lack of evidence. Rather, a tenure of ten or more probably eleven, years appears the most scenario; the German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath accepts that Seti I's reign lasted only 11 Years. Seti's highest known date is Year 11, IV Shemu day 12 or 13 on a sandstone stela from Gebel Barkal but he would have survived for 2 to 3 days into his Year 12 before dying based on the date of Ramesses II's rise to power.