The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1238 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule. When Abu l-Hasan Ali the reigning amir was ousted by his son Abu Abd Allah Mumhamed XII, Abu l-Hasan Ali retreated to Málaga and civil war broke out between the competing factions. Christians took full advantage of this and continued capturing Muslims strongholds, muhammed XII was caught by Christian forces in 1483 at Lucena. He was freed after he swore an oath of allegiance to Ferdinand, Abu l-Hasan Ali finally abdicated in favor of his brother Sad al-Zaghal and a power struggle with Abu Abd Allah continued. Sad prevailed in the struggle but was forced to surrender to the Christians. Abu Abd Allah was given a lordship in the Alpujarras mountains, the family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty.
It starts with their ancestor, Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted, as are sons whose descendants never reigned, during times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree generally recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace. Al-Andalus Alhambra Romance of Abenamar Fernández Puertas, from the Ninth Century to Yusuf I. L’Espagne musulmane au Temps des Nasrides, entre la historia y la leyenda. Cortés Peña, Antonio Luis, Bernard
Emirate of Granada
After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Mohammed I ibn Nasr established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula—the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex as it is known today, by 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. Andalusian Arabic was the tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity, the Nasrids provided military assistance to Castile for its conquest of areas under Muslim control, most notably Seville in November 1248 and the Taifa of Niebla in 1262. In 1305, Granada conquered Ceuta, but lost control of the city in 1309 to the Kingdom of Fez with the assistance of the Crown of Aragon, Granada re-captured Ceuta a year later, but again lost it in 1314. Granada again held the city from 1315 to 1327, in 1384, Granada again re-took Ceuta but lost it definitively to Kingdom of Fe in 1386.
Finally Ceuta was taken by Portuguese Empire in 1415 and by Spanish Empire in 1580, granadas peace with Castile broke down on various occasions. Granada lost territory to Castile at the Battle of Teba in 1330, in 1340, Granada under Yusuf I supported the failed Marinid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, which ended at the Battle of Río Salado. Granada served as a refuge for Muslims fleeing during the Reconquista, regardless of its comparative prosperity, intra-political strife was constant. Skirmishes along the border of Granada occurred frequently and territory was gradually lost to Castile, Granada was tightly integrated in Mediterranean trade networks and heavily financed by Genoese bankers aiming to gain control of the gold trade carried in through Saharan caravan routes. However, after Portugal opened direct trade routes to Sub-Saharan Africa by sea in the 15th century, with the union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, these kingdoms set their sights on annexing Granada. The war of Granada would offer an opportunity for Ferdinand and Isabella to harness the restless Castilian nobility against a common enemy, the Emirates attack on the Castilian frontier town of Zahara in December 1481 led to a prolonged war.
The Granada War began in 1482, with Christian forces capturing Alhama de Granada in February 1482 and this marked the beginning of a grinding 10-year war. The Christian force was made up of troops provided by Castilian nobles, the Catholic Church encouraged other Christian countries to offer their troops and their finances to the war effort. Meanwhile, civil war erupted in Granada as a result of struggles in the Nasrid ruling house. Castile used this internal strife as an opportunity to push further into Granada, by 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege. On November 25,1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, on January 2,1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos. The Christian ousting of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula with the conquest of Granada did not extinguish the spirit of the Reconquista, Isabella urged Christians to pursue a conquest of Africa
The Chishtī Order is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam. It began in Chisht, a town near Herat, Afghanistan about 930 CE. The Chishti Order is known for its emphasis on love, the Chishti Order is primarily followed in Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent. It was the first of the four main Sufi orders to be established in this region, Moinuddin Chishti introduced the Chishti Order in Lahore and Ajmer, sometime in the middle of the 12th century CE. He was eighth in the line of succession from the founder of the Chishti Order, there are now several branches of the order, which has been the most prominent South Asian Sufi brotherhood since the 12th century. In the last century, the order has spread outside Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent, Chishti teachers have established centers in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and Southern Africa. The Chishti are perhaps best known for the welcome extended to seekers who belong to other religions, Chishti shrines in South Asia are open to all faiths and attract great crowds to their festivals.
The Chishti shaykhs have stressed the importance of keeping a distance from worldly power, a ruler could be a patron or a disciple, but he or she was always to be treated as just another devotee. A Chishti teacher should not attend the court or be involved in matters of state, Chishti practice is notable for sama, evoking the divine presence Sufis use to listening to Qawwali. The Chishti, as well as some other Sufi orders, believe that Qawwali can help devotees forget self in the love of Allah. However, the order insists that followers observe the full range of Muslim obligations, it does not dismiss them as mere legalism, the Qawwali usually heard at Chisti shrines and festivals is qawwali. The Chishtis follow five basic devotional practices and these texts are still read and respected today. Chishti read collections of the sayings, speeches and these collections, called malfūẓāt, were prepared by the shaykhs disciples. Opinions differ as to this successor, some Sufi orders trace their lineage to Abu Bakr, the first Sunni caliph, others to Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Muhammads cousin, whom the Shia regard as the first imam.
The Chishti, though Sunni, trace their lineage through Ali and this is not unusual for Sufi orders, which tend to stress devotion rather than legalism and sectarianism. Before returning to Syria, where he is now buried next to Ibn Arabi at Jabal Qasioun Shami initiated and deputized the son of the local emir, Abu Ahmad Abdal. Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad’s descendants, the Chishtiya as they are known, the founder of the Chishti Order in South Asia was Moinuddin Chishti. He was born in the province of Silistan in eastern Persia around 536 AH, when he was only nine, he memorized the Quran, thus becoming a hafiz
Sufism or Taṣawwuf, which is often defined as Islamic mysticism, the inward dimension of Islam, or the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam, is a mystical trend in Islam characterized. These orders meet for sessions in meeting places known as zawiyas, khanqahs. They strive for ihsan as detailed in a hadith, Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him, if you cant see Him, Rumi stated, The Sufi is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr. Sufis regard Muhammad as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God. The orders largely follow one of the four madhhabs of Sunni Islam, classical Sufis were characterized by their asceticism, especially by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of repeating the names of God, often performed after prayers. According to William Chittick, In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization, Muslims have used the Arabic word taṣawwuf to identify the practice of Sufis. In this view, it is necessary to be a Muslim to be a true Sufi.
However, Islamic scholars themselves are not by any means in agreement about the meaning of the word sufi, Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to Sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Tasawwuf as a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else, two origins of the word sufi have been suggested. Commonly, the root of the word is traced to ṣafā. Another origin is ṣūf, wool in Arabic, referring to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore, the two were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari, who said, The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity. Scholars generally agree that ṣūf or wool is probably the word of Sufi. This term was given to them because they wore woollen garments, the term labisal-suf meant he clad himself in wool and applied to a person who renounced the world and became an ascetic. Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah and these men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis.
Al-Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds. Sufi orders are based on the bayah that was given to the Prophet Muhammad by his Sahaba, by pledging allegiance to the Prophet Muhammad, the Sahaba had committed themselves to the service of God. According to Islamic belief, by pledging allegiance to Prophet Muhammad and it is through the Prophet Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about and connect with God. Such a concept may be understood by the hadith, which Sufis regard to be authentic, in which Prophet Muhammad said, I am the city of knowledge, eminent Sufis such as Ali Hujwiri refer to Ali as having a very high ranking in Tasawwuf
A saint, historically known as a hallow, is a term used for a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness to God. Depending on the context and denomination, the term retains its original Christian meaning, as any believer who is in Christ and in whom Christ dwells, whether in Heaven or on Earth. Depending on the religion, saints are recognized either by official ecclesiastical declaration, the English word saint comes from the Latin sanctus. The word translated the Greek ἅγιος, which derives from the verb ἁγιάζω, the word ἅγιος appears 229 times in the Greek New Testament, and its English translation 60 times in the corresponding text of the King James Version of the Bible. In the New Testament, saint did not denote the deceased who had recognized as especially holy or emulable. Many religions use similar concepts to venerate persons worthy of some honor, the anthropologist Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question Who is a saint.
These saintly figures, he asserts, are the points of spiritual force-fields. They exert powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the lives of others in transforming ways as well. In the Bible, only one person is called a saint, They envied Moses in the camp. The apostle Paul declared himself to be less than the least of all saints in Ephesians 3,8, in the Catholic Church, a saint is anyone in Heaven, whether recognized on Earth or not. There are many persons that the Church believes to be in Heaven who have not been formally canonized, sometimes the word saint denotes living Christians. They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ, the Catholic Church teaches that it does not make or create saints, but rather recognizes them. Proofs of heroicity required in the process of beatification will serve to illustrate in detail the general principles exposed above upon proof of their holiness or likeness to God.
On 3 January 993, Pope John XV became the first pope to proclaim a person a saint, on the petition of the German ruler, before that time, the popular cults, or venerations, of saints had been local and spontaneous. Pope John XVIII subsequently permitted a cult of five Polish martyrs, walter of Pontoise was the last person in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope, Hugh de Boves, the Archbishop of Rouen, canonized him in 1153. Thenceforth a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1170 reserved the prerogative of canonization to the Pope, one source claims that there are over 10,000 named saints and beatified people from history, the Roman Martyrology and Orthodox sources, but no definitive head count. Alban Butler published Lives of the Saints in 1756, including a total of 1,486 saints, the latest revision of this book, edited by Rev. Herbert Thurston, SJ and British author Donald Attwater, contains the lives of 2,565 saints. Monsignor Robert Sarno, an official of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints of the Holy See, expressed that it is impossible to give an exact number of saints
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside of either theology or science. The term philosopher comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος meaning lover of wisdom, the coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. Typically, these brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. The separation of philosophy and science from theology began in Greece during the 6th century BC, thales, an astronomer and mathematician, was considered by Aristotle to be the first philosopher of the Greek tradition. While Pythagoras coined the word, the first known elaboration on the topic was conducted by Plato, in his Symposium, he concludes that Love is that which lacks the object it seeks. Therefore, the philosopher is one who seeks wisdom, if he attains wisdom, the philosopher in antiquity was one who lives in the constant pursuit of wisdom, and living in accordance to that wisdom.
Disagreements arose as to what living philosophically entailed and these disagreements gave rise to different Hellenistic schools of philosophy. In consequence, the ancient philosopher thought in a tradition, as the ancient world became schism by philosophical debate, the competition lay in living in manner that would transform his whole way of living in the world. Philosophy is a discipline which can easily carry away the individual in analyzing the universe. The second is the change through the Medieval era. With the rise of Christianity, the way of life was adopted by its theology. Thus, philosophy was divided between a way of life and the conceptual, logical and metaphysical materials to justify that way of life, philosophy was the servant to theology. The third is the sociological need with the development of the university, the modern university requires professionals to teach. Maintaining itself requires teaching future professionals to replace the current faculty, the discipline degrades into a technical language reserved for specialists, completely eschewing its original conception as a way of life.
In the fourth century, the word began to designate a man or woman who led a monastic life. Gregory of Nyssa, for example, describes how his sister Macrina persuaded their mother to forsake the distractions of life for a life of philosophy. Later during the Middle Ages, persons who engaged with alchemy was called a philosopher - thus, many philosophers still emerged from the Classical tradition, as saw their philosophy as a way of life. Among the most notable are René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche, with the rise of the university, the modern conception of philosophy became more prominent
Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi
Nasiruddin Mahmud Chirag-Dehlavi was a 14th-century mystic-poet and a Sufi saint of the Chishti Order. He was a murid of noted Sufi saint, Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya and he was the last important Sufi of the Chishti Order from Delhi. Dehlavi was given the title, Roshan Chirag-e-Delhi, which in Urdu, Nasiruddin Mahmud Chiragh Dehlavi was born as Syed Nasiruddin Mahmud AlHassani around 1274, at Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh. His father died when he was nine years of age and he received his early education from Maulana Abdul Karim Sherwani. At age forty, he left Ayodhya for Delhi, where he became the disciple of Khwaja Nizamuddin Auliya and it was here that Dehlavi stayed for the rest of his life as his murid, and after his death, became his successor. In time, he became a known poet in Persian language. He died in 17 Ramzan 757 Hijri or 1356 AD, at the age of 82, the dargah of Khwaja Bande Nawaz, exists today in the city of Gulbarga, as a symbol of multi-religious unity. During his stay in Delhi, Dehlavi continued to visit Ayodhya often, one of noted addition was a mosque built by a Mughal emperor, Farrukhsiyar, in the early 18th century, and popular among both Muslims and non-Muslims.
Location of dargah from google map Chirag Delhi Dargah 7JWVG6QG+FR https and he did not however pass any specific judgement against it. This is the reason why even today, qawwali is not performed near his shrine in Delhi, Hazrat Nasiruddins descendants are to be found far and wide as a lot of them moved down South to Hyderabad. The dargah of Badi Bua or Badi Bibi, who said be the sister of Nasiruddin Mahmud Chiragh Dehlavi. Khanzadah, the Persian form of the Rajputana word Rajput, is the title of the representatives of the ancient Jadubansi royal Rajput family, descendants of Krishna, Jadon Rajput Raja Lakhan Pala, the progenitor of the family of the Khanzadahs, was the grandson of Raja Adhan Pala. Tahan Pala, who founded Tahangarh, was the eldest son of Raja Bijai Pala, Jadon Raja Lakhan Pala, Mewatpatti was 94th in descent from Lord Krishna. The acceptance of Islam by Khanzadahs have been a enlightenment of heart come about from their association with the Sufi saints