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1295

Year 1295 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. June 20 – Pope Boniface VIII proposes the Treaty of Anagni, seeking to bring peace between the house of Anjou and Sicily. June 26 – Przemysł II is crowned King of Poland in Gniezno Cathedral, the first coronation of a Polish ruler in 219 years. October 23 – The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance, between Scotland and France against England, is signed in Paris. November 13 – King Edward I of England summons the Model Parliament to Westminster, the composition of which serves as a model for parliaments. Mongol leader Ghazan Khan converts to Islam. Jayavarman VIII of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia abdicates. Marco Polo returns from his travels to China. Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII begin having disagreements. Construction begins on Beaumaris Castle in Anglesey, the last of the ring of castles built by Edward I of England, to subdue Wales. September 16 – Elizabeth de Clare, English noblewoman date unknown Isabella of France, queen of England John IV, Duke of Brittany Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy Jean Buridan, French philosopher probable Reginald de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham Joanna of Flanders, military leader in the War of the Breton Succession Nicephorus Gregoras, Byzantine historian Saint Roch, French saint April 25 – King Sancho IV of Castile August 12 – Charles Martel of Anjou October – Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia December 7 – Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, English politician December 20 – Margaret of Provence, queen of Louis IX of France date unknown – Guy of Charpigny date unknown – Padishah Khatun, Mongolian poet, sovereign queen of Kirman

Siniša Glavašević

Siniša Glavašević was a Croatian reporter, killed by Serbian paramilitaries following the Battle of Vukovar. A native of Vukovar, Glavašević finished primary school there and entered the University of Sarajevo, where he graduated with a degree in Comparative Literature. During the Croatian War of Independence, he was chief editor of Radio Vukovar. During the Battle of Vukovar, Glavašević was reporting from the besieged city, he is remembered for a series of stories he had read to the listeners, that talked about basic human values. On 16 October 1991, Glavašević said on Croatian Radio:Vukovar submits to Croatia and the world - either the Croatian authorities will do everything to obtain a permanent cease-fire, or they will send the necessary and efficient assistance, of the military kind, or they will evacuate the entire civilian population of this area. There is another option, and, the complete and final destruction of the city and a massacre of the population, as well as two hundred and fifty wounded.

However, that option isn't on anyone's mind here. The heroes of this city are necessary for some time yet, as living witnesses of this war. Thank you Zagreb. Don't cut this part... On 18 November 1991, Glavašević sent in his last report, which ended with: The picture of Vukovar at the 22nd hour of the 87th day will remain forever in the memory of the witnesses of this time. There are infinite spooky sights, you can smell the burning. We walk over bodies, building material, glass and the gruesome silence.... We hope. Glavašević disappeared shortly after this last report, he had been beaten and executed by Serbian paramilitary forces, along with hundreds of others between 18–20 November. In 1997, his body was exhumed from a mass grave in a nearby farm in Ovčara, he was 31 years old. Both Glavašević and fellow journalist Branimir Polovina, a native of Ovčara, were featured cases in Amnesty International's 1993-94 Campaign Against Disappearances and Political Killings. Polovina’s funeral was held in Zagreb on 11 March 1997.

In 1992, Matica hrvatska printed Stories from Vukovar, a collection of stories by Glavašević. English translation of the collection was published in 2011. List of journalists killed in Europe

Powhatan attack of 1622

Powhatan attack of 1622 popularly known as the Jamestown massacre took place in the English Colony of Virginia, in what is now the United States, on Friday, 22 March 1622. John Smith, though he had not been in Virginia since 1609 and was not an eyewitness, related in his History of Virginia that braves of the Powhatan "came unarmed into our houses with deer, fish and other provisions to sell us"; the Powhatan grabbed any tools or weapons available and killed all the English settlers they found, including men and children of all ages. Chief Opechancanough led the Powhatan Confederacy in a coordinated series of surprise attacks. Jamestown, founded in 1607, was the site of the first successful English settlement in North America, was the capital of the Colony of Virginia, its tobacco economy led to constant expansion and seizure of Powhatan lands, which provoked a violent reaction. At first, the natives were glad to trade provisions to the colonists for metal tools, but by 1609 the English governor, John Smith, had begun to send raiding parties to demand food.

This precipitated conflict. They isolated the Native Americans, burned down houses, stole their food supplies; the English violence alienated the natives further and they laid siege to the Jamestown fort for several months. Unable to secure more food supplies, many colonists died during the "Starving Time" in 1609–10; the London Company's primary concern was the survival of the colony. In England's best interest the colonists would have to maintain civil relations with the Powhatan; the Powhatan and the English realized that they could benefit from each other through trade once peace was restored. In exchange for food, the chief asked the colonists to provide him with copper. Unlike John Smith, other early leaders of Virginia such as Thomas Dale and Thomas Gates based their actions on different thinking, as they were military men and saw the Powhatan as a "military problem."The Powhatan had soon realized that the Englishmen did not settle in Jamestown to trade with them. The English wanted more.

As Chief Powhatan said: Your coming is not for trade, but to invade my people and possess my country…Having seen the death of all my people thrice… I know the difference of peace and were better than any other Country. He would be so haunted by Smith that he can neither rest eat nor sleep, but his tired men must watch, if a twig but break, every one cry, there comes Captain John Smith; as for Chief Powhatan, Gates was told, "If you finde it not best to make him your prisoner yet you must make him your tributary, all the other his weroances about him first to acknowledge no other Lord but King James". When Gates arrived at Jamestown, he decided to evacuate the settlement because he thought the government's plan was not feasible; as the colonists were about to leave the Bay and head out into the open sea, they were met by the incoming fleet of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr. Taking command as governor, de la Warr ordered, he plotted conquest of the surrounding tribes. In July 1610 he sent Gates against the Kecoughtan people.

"Gates lured the natives into the open by means of music-and-dance act by his drummer, slaughtered them". This was the First Anglo-Powhatan War; the English, led by Samuel Argall, captured Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, held her hostage until he would agree to their demands. "English demanded that all Powhatan captives be released, return all English weapons taken by his warriors, agree upon a lasting peace". It was while Pocahontas was held by the English that she met John Rolfe, whom she married. While in captivity, Pocahontas was taught the English language, she learned about English customs and religion, she took the name Rebecca. Rolfe wrote that the way to maintain peace between the Powhatan and the English, was to marry Pocahontas, not "with the unbridled desire of carnal affection but for the good of the colony and the glory of God; such a marriage might bring peace between the warring English and Powhatan, just as it would satisfy Pocahontas's desire." After they married, there were more peaceful relations for a time between the English colonists and the Powhatan Confederacy.

Edward Waterhouse, secretary of the Virginia Company, wrote: uch was the conceit of firme peace and amitie, as that there was seldome or never a sword worne, a Peece seldomer, except for a Deere or Fowle.... The Plantations of particular Adventurers and Planters were placed scatteringly and straglingly as a choyce veyne of rich ground invited them, the further from neighbors held the better; the houses set open to the Savages, who were alwaies friendly entertained at the tables of the English, lodged in their bed-chambers. In 1618, after the death of Powhatan, his brother Opitchapam, a lame and quiet old man, became paramount chief of the confederacy, their youngest brother, was the effective leader, with his friend, war-chief and advisor Nemattanew, both of them did not believe peaceful relations with the colonists could be maintained. In 1620-1621 Opitchapam retired or he was deposed and he was succeeded by his youngest brother, Opchanacanough and Nemattanew began to predispose plans f