Gramophone is a magazine published monthly in London devoted to classical music to reviews of recordings. It was founded in 1923 by the Scottish author Compton Mackenzie, it was acquired by Haymarket in 1999. In 2013 the Mark Allen Group became the publisher; the magazine presents the Gramophone Awards each year to the classical recordings which it considers the finest in a variety of categories. In the title bar of its website Gramophone claims to be: "The world's authority on classical music since 1923." This used to appear on the front cover of every issue. Its circulation, including digital subscribers, was 24,380 in 2014. Apart from the annual Gramophone Awards, each month features a dozen recordings as Gramophone Editor's Choice. In the annual Christmas edition, there is a review of the year's recordings where each critic selects four or five recordings - these selections make up the Gramophone Critics' Choice. In April 2012, Gramophone launched its Hall of Fame, an annual listing of the men and women who have contributed to the classical record industry.
The first 50 were revealed in the May 2012 issue and on Gramophone’s website, each year will see another intake of honorees into the Hall of Fame. Glenn Gould wrote a parody review in the style of Gramophone for the liner notes to his 1968 recording of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony transcribed for solo piano by Liszt; the review, which purports to be from "the English magazine The Phonograph" includes this passage: Unusual recordings of the Beethoven Fifth are, of course, no novelty to the British collector. One calls to mind that elegiac statement Sir Joshua committed to the gramophone in his last years as well as that splendidly spirited rendition transcribed under actual concert conditions by the Newcastle-on-Tyne Light Orchestra upon the occasion of the inadvertent air-alarm of 27 August 1939 The entire undertaking smacks of that incorrigible American pre-occupation with exuberant gesture and is quite lacking in those qualities of autumnal repose which a judged interpretation of this work should offer.
In late 2012, Gramophone announced the launch of a new archive service. Subscribers to the digital edition are now able to read complete PDFs of every issue of the magazine dating back to its launch in 1923, a substantial improvement on the previous service where readers were only able to read OCR text versions of archive magazine articles. Official website Gramophone Archive
Personal life of Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra had many close relationships throughout his life. He had at least six other notable relationships in between, he had three verified children, as well as more than one of questionable relationship. Frank Sinatra met Nancy Rose Barbato when he was nineteen, they were married on February 4, 1939, in Jersey City, New Jersey, Barbato's home town, their wedding was held at Our Lady of Sorrows Church at 93 Clerk Street, after which the newlyweds resided in an apartment house at 137 Bergen Avenue. Their first child, their elder daughter Nancy Sinatra, was born on June 8, 1940, their son, Francis Wayne Sinatra, known as Frank Sinatra Jr. was born on January 10, 1944. Both children were born at the Margaret Hague Hospital in Jersey City. Following their move to Hollywood, Los Angeles, Sinatra errantly strayed from his marriage into extra-marital affairs, the first known with Marilyn Maxwell; these affairs became public knowledge and caused great embarrassment to Nancy Barbato Sinatra, who considered calling off their marriage and had an abortion when she became pregnant in 1946.
A third child, Christina Sinatra, known as "Tina", was born on June 20, 1948. Nancy Barbato Sinatra and Frank Sinatra announced their separation on Valentine's Day, February 14, 1950, with Frank's additional extra-marital affair with Ava Gardner compounding his transgressions and becoming public knowledge once again. After just seeking a legal separation and Nancy Sinatra decided some months to file for divorce, this divorce became final on October 29, 1951. Frank Sinatra's affair and relationship with Gardner had become more and more serious, she became his second wife. What was less known was the fact of Sinatra’s continuing visits. “Throughout the many years after they split, my grandfather came to visit whenever his crazy life would allow it,” Mrs. Sinatra’s granddaughter A. J. Lambert wrote in a 2015 remembrance in Vanity Fair. “I can remember times when she would be on the phone with her ex-husband, the next thing I knew some eggplant was coming out of the freezer to thaw so that she could make him some sandwiches when he showed up.”
She remained profoundly private, uttering a word in public about her life with Sinatra, though their mutual feelings were clear, her granddaughter recalled, to those who knew them best.“I know he never stopped loving her,” Ms. Lambert wrote. “And I know she never stopped loving him.”Nancy Barbato Sinatra died in 2018 at the age of 101, she was never remarried and having outlived not only her ex-husband, but her son Frank Jr. as well, who died in 2016. Kitty Kelley claims that Sinatra had first seen photographs of Ava Gardner in a magazine and had sworn that he would marry her. Ruth Rosenthal, a friend of Gardner's, stated that Gardner detested him upon meeting him at MGM, finding him to be "conceited and overpowering", their similarities, from vices like smoking, drinking hard liquor and cursing, to their volatile tempers and love of violent sports, soon became apparent. Sinatra separated from Nancy on Valentine's Day 1950, after he confessed to his passionate affair with Gardner, she subsequently locked him out of the house and hired a lawyer.
Although Nancy refused to divorce him, Sinatra was granted a divorce in Nevada in October 1951, subsequently obtained a marriage license in Pennsylvania, marrying Gardner in a small ceremony on November 7, 1951. A turbulent marriage, with many well-publicized fights and altercations, an abortion in November 1952, the couple formally announced their separation on October 29, 1953 through MGM. Gardner filed for divorce in June 1954, at a time when she was dating matador Luis Miguel Dominguín, but the divorce wasn't settled until July 1957. Sinatra blamed Peter Lawford for the split, who had dated Gardner before, it took six years for Sinatra to forgive him, he was inconsolable in the fall of 1953 after the split, according to Kelley, on November 18, Van Heusen found him in the elevator of his 57th Street apartment with his wrists slashed. Sinatra took responsibility for Gardner's business affairs long after the split, was still dealing with her finances in 1976; when she fell into financial difficulty in years, Sinatra paid $50,000 towards her medical bills.
Gardner's power in Hollywood helped Sinatra get cast in From Here to Eternity and his subsequent Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor helped revitalize Sinatra's film career. Sinatra married actress Mia Farrow on July 19, 1966, when she was 21 and he was 50. At the time, Sinatra was enjoying a wave of renewed popularity as the song "Strangers in the Night" returned him to the top of the Billboard charts only seventeen days later, they met on the set of Von Ryan's Express. She agreed to appear in his 1968 film, The Detective, but when she reneged as her filming schedule for Rosemary's Baby overran, Sinatra served her divorce papers in front of the cast and crew, they were divorced in Mexico in August 1968. In an interview for the November 2013 issue of Vanity Fair, Farrow said that she and Sinatra "never split up" and answered "possibly" when asked if her son Ronan might be Sinatra's. On July 11, 1976, Sinatra married Barbara Blakeley Marx, she remained his wife until his death, although her relations with Sinatra's children were portrayed as stormy, something Nancy Sinatra confirmed when she publicly claimed that Barbara had not bothere
The Little Drummer Boy
"The Little Drummer Boy" is a popular Christmas song written by the American classical music composer and teacher Katherine Kennicott Davis in 1941. First recorded in 1951 by the Trapp Family Singers, the song was further popularized by a 1958 recording by the Harry Simeone Chorale. In the lyrics, the singer relates how, as a poor young boy, he was summoned by the Magi to the Nativity of Jesus. Without a gift for the Infant, the little drummer boy played his drum with Jesus’ mother, Mary’s approval; the song was titled "Carol of the Drum" and was published by Davis based upon a traditional Czech song, Tluče bubeníček. Davis's interest was in producing material for amateur and girls' choirs: Her manuscript is set as a chorale, in which the tune is in the soprano melody with alto harmony and bass parts producing the "drum rhythm" and a keyboard accompaniment "for rehearsal only", it is headed "Czech Carol transcribed by K. K. D.", these initials deleted and replaced with "C. R. W. Robinson", a name under which Davis sometimes published.
The Czech original of the carol has never been identified. "Carol of the Drum" appealed to the Austrian Trapp Family Singers, who first brought the song to wider prominence when they recorded it for Decca Records in 1951 on their first album for Decca. Their version was credited to Davis and published by Belwin-Mills. In 1957 it was recorded, with a altered arrangement, by the Jack Halloran Singers for their album Christmas Is A-Comin' on Dot Records. Dot's Henry Onorati introduced the song to his friend Harry Simeone and the following year, when 20th Century Fox Records contracted him to make a Christmas album, making further small changes to the Halloran arrangement and retitling it "The Little Drummer Boy", recorded it with the Harry Simeone Chorale on the album Sing We Now of Christmas. Simeone and Onorati claimed joint composition credits with Davis; the album and the song were an enormous success, the single scoring on the U. S. music charts from 1958 to 1962. In 1963, the album was reissued under the title The Little Drummer Boy: A Christmas Festival, capitalizing on the single's popularity.
The following year the album was released in stereo. In 1988, The Little Drummer Boy: A Christmas Festival was released on CD by Casablanca Records, subsequently, on Island Records. Harry Simeone, who in 1964 had signed with Kapp Records, recorded a new version of "The Little Drummer Boy" in 1965 for his album O' Bambino: The Little Drummer Boy. Simeone recorded the song a third and final time in 1981, for an album on the budget Holiday Records label; the story depicted in the song is somewhat similar to a 12th-century legend retold by Anatole France as Le Jongleur de Notre Dame, adapted into an opera in 1902 by Jules Massenet. In the French legend, however, a juggler juggles before the statue of the Virgin Mary, the statue, according to which version of the legend one reads, either smiles at him or throws him a rose; the popularity of "The Little Drummer Boy" can be seen by the number of cover versions in all kinds of music genres: 1957: The Jack Halloran Singers included "Carol of the Drum" on their Christmas album, Christmas Is A-Comin' 1958: The Vienna Boys Choir sang the song "The Little Drummer Boy" in USA TV on 22 December.
Conductor was Gerhard Lang 1959: The Beverley Sisters' version reached No. 6 on the UK Singles Chart 1962 The Ray Conniff Singers recorded a version of the song as part of a medley with "Jolly Old St. Nicholas,", released on their album We Wish You a Merry Christmas; the arrangement was by Peter Schickele Henry Mancini recorded a version of the
Francis Albert Sinatra was an American actor and singer, one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. Born to Italian immigrants in Hoboken, New Jersey, Sinatra began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers", he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack, his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Songs for Swingin' Lovers!, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice'n' Easy.
Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, released a string of successful albums. In 1965, he recorded the retrospective September of My Years and starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music. After releasing Sinatra at the Sands, recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim, it was followed by 1968's Francis Edward K. with Duke Ellington. Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years and recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, reached success in 1980 with "New York, New York". Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until shortly before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor.
After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm, received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate. He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town and Dolls, High Society, Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he became associated with playing detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome. Sinatra would receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1971. On television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Sinatra was heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, campaigned for presidents such as Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. In crime, the FBI investigated his alleged relationship with the Mafia. While Sinatra never learned how to read music, he had an impressive understanding of it, he worked hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music.
A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Sinatra led a colorful personal life, was involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner, he married Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Sinatra had several violent confrontations with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements, he was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Sinatra was the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, he was collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century", he continues to be seen as an iconic figure.
Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey, the only child of Italian immigrants Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa and Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra. Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek and ear, perforated his eardrum—damage that remained for life. Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916. A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that further scarred his face and neck. Sinatra was raised Roman Catholic. Sinatra's mother was energetic and driven, biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and self-confidence. Sinatra's fourth wife Barbara would claim that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, "knocked him around a lot".
Dolly became influential in local Democratic Party circles. She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, according to Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls, for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly", she had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter. Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Mar
Les Brown (bandleader)
Lester Raymond Brown was an American jazz musician who led the big band Les Brown and His Band of Renown for nearly seven decades from 1938 to 2000. Brown was born in Pennsylvania, he enrolled in the Conway Military Band School in 1926, studying with famous bandleader Patrick Conway for three years before receiving a music scholarship to the New York Military Academy, where he graduated in 1932. Brown attended college at Duke University from 1932–1936. There he led the group Les Brown and His Blue Devils, who performed on Duke's campus and up and down the east coast. Brown took the band on an extensive summer tour in 1936. At the end of the tour, while some of the band members returned to Duke to continue their education, others stayed on with Brown and continued to tour, becoming in 1938 the Band of Renown; the band's original drummer, Don Kramer, helped define their future. In 1942, Brown and his band concluded work on an RKO picture, "Sweet and Hot". A few years in 1945, this band brought Doris Day into prominence with their recording of "Sentimental Journey".
The song's release coincided with the end of World War II in Europe and became an unofficial homecoming theme for many veterans. The band had nine other number-one hit songs, including "I've Got My Love to Keep Me Warm". In 1952-53, Brown was the orchestra leader on Day's radio program, The Doris Day Show, on CBS. Les Brown and the Band of Renown performed with Bob Hope on radio and television for fifty years, they did 18 USO Tours for American troops around the world, entertained over three million people. Before the Super Bowls were televised, the Bob Hope Christmas Specials were the highest-rated programs in television history. Tony Bennett was "discovered" by Bob Hope and did his first public performance with Brown and the Band; the first film that Brown and the band appeared in was Seven Days' Leave starring Victor Mature and Lucille Ball. Rock-A-Billy Baby, a low-budget 1957 film, was the Band of Renown's second, in 1963 they appeared in the Jerry Lewis' comedy The Nutty Professor playing their theme song "Leapfrog".
Brown and the Band were the house band for The Steve Allen Show and the Dean Martin Show. Brown and the band performed with every major performer of their time, including Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald and Nat King Cole; the annual Les Brown Big Band Festival, started March 2006 in Les' hometown, features area big bands preserving the songs of the big band era. At the 2012 festival celebrating the 100th birthday anniversary, the town of Reinerton renamed the street near Les' birthplace to Les Brown Lane. In 2013 his hometown of Reinerton, PA adopted as the town's official slogan: Reinerton: The Town of Renown in honor of Les and his band. Les Brown Sr. died of lung cancer in 2001, was interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles, California. He was survived by son Les Jr. and daughter Denise. He was 88 years old at the time of his death, his grandson, Jeff "Swampy" Marsh, co-created the show Ferb. Brown was inducted into the North Carolina Music Hall of Fame in 2010. In 2001, Les Brown, Jr. born 1940, became the full-time leader of the Band of Renown.
They continue to have a regular big band show in Branson, Missouri. Brown Jr. hosts a national radio show on the Music of Your Life network. Brown Jr. was a television actor in the 1960s, a rock musician and producer who worked with Carlos Santana, a concert promoter for many country music artists including Merle Haggard and Loretta Lynn. In 2004, Brown Jr. received the "Ambassador of Patriotism" award from the POW Network. Connee Boswell I Don't Know Connee Boswell Martha Over the Rainbow Palladium Concert 1953 Live at the Hollywood Palladium Dancer's Choice Les Brown & His Orchestra, Vol. 2 Radio Days Live Les Brown & His Band of Renown Swing Song Book Concert Modern Live at Elitch Gardens 1959 The Les Brown Story: His Greatest Hits in Today's Sound Play Hits From The Sound of Music, My Fair Lady and Others Stereophonic Suite for Two Bands: The Les Brown Band and Vic Schoen and His Orchestra A Sign of the Times Today Goes Direct to Disc Digital Swing Anything Goes America Swings Bandland / Revolution in Sound Sentimental Thing with Bing Crosby & Billy Eckstine The Les Brown All-Stars No Name Bop A Good Man Is Hard to Find Thank You for Your Fine Attention Spreadin' the Jam dir: Charles Walters Les Brown dir: Jack Scholl Les Brown and His Band of Renown dir: Will Cowan Art Lund-Tex Beneke-Les Brown dir: Jack Scholl Connee Boswell and Les Brown's Orchestra dir: Will Cowan Crazy Frolic dir: Will Cowan Dance Demons dir: Will Cowan Rockabilly Baby dir: William F.
Claxton Bob Hope Show NBC Radio Bob Hope Show NBC The Steve Allen Show NBC The New Steve Allen Show NBC Hennesey CBS Hollywood Palace NBC Bob Hope Thanksgiving Show NBC Dean Martin Show NBC Dean Martin Summer Show NBC Rowan and Martin at the Movies NBC Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In NBC Dean Martin and the Golddigger
Christmas music comprises a variety of genres of music performed or heard around the Christmas season. Music associated with Christmas may be purely instrumental, or in the case of many carols or songs may employ lyrics whose subject matter ranges from the nativity of Jesus Christ, to gift-giving and merrymaking, to cultural figures such as Santa Claus, among other topics. Performances of Christmas music at public concerts, in churches, at shopping malls, on city streets, in private gatherings is an integral staple of the Christmas holiday in many cultures across the world. Music associated with Christmas is thought to have its origins in 4th-century Rome, in Latin-language hymns such as Veni redemptor gentium. By the 13th century, under the influence of Francis of Assisi, the tradition of popular Christmas songs in regional native languages developed. Christmas carols in the English language first appear in a 1426 work of John Awdlay, an English chaplain, who lists twenty five "caroles of Cristemas" sung by groups of'wassailers' who would travel from house to house.
In the 16th century, various Christmas carols still sung to this day, including "The 12 Days of Christmas", "God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen", "O Christmas Tree", first emerged. The Victorian Era saw a surge of Christmas carols associated with a renewed admiration of the holiday, including "Silent Night", "O Little Town of Bethlehem", "O Holy Night"; the first Christmas songs associated with Saint Nicholas or other gift-bringers came during 19th century, including "Up on the Housetop" and "Jolly Old St. Nicholas". Many older Christmas hymns were translated or had lyrics added to them during this period in 1871 when John Stainer published a influential collection entitled "Christmas Carols New & Old". Few notable carols were produced from the beginning of the 20th century until the Great Depression era of the 1930s, when a stream of songs of American origin were published, most of which did not explicitly reference the Christian nature of the holiday, but rather the more secular traditional Western themes and customs associated with Christmas.
These included songs aimed at children such as "Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town" and "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer", as well as sentimental ballad-type songs performed by famous crooners of the era, such as "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" and "White Christmas", the latter of which remains the best-selling single of all time as of 2018. Popular Christmas music produced from after World War II until the present day has remained thematically and instrumentally similar to the songs produced in the early 20th century. Since the dawn of the rock era in the mid-1950s, much of the Christmas music produced for popular audiences has had explicitly romantic overtones, only using Christmas as a setting; the 1950s featured the introduction of novelty songs that used the holiday as a target for satire and source for comedy. Exceptions such as "The Christmas Shoes" have re-introduced Christian themes as complementary to the secular Western themes, a plethora of traditional carol cover versions by various artists have explored all music genres.
Music was an early feature of its celebrations. The earliest examples are hymnographic works intended for liturgical use in observance of both the Feast of the Nativity and Theophany, many of which are still in use by the Eastern Orthodox Church; the 13th century saw the rise of the carol written in the vernacular, under the influence of Francis of Assisi. In the Middle Ages, the English combined circle called them carols; the word carol came to mean a song in which a religious topic is treated in a style, familiar or festive. From Italy, it passed to France and Germany, to England. Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work of John Audelay, a Shropshire priest and poet, who lists 25 "caroles of Cristemas" sung by groups of wassailers, who went from house to house. Music in itself soon became one of the greatest tributes to Christmas, Christmas music includes some of the noblest compositions of the great musicians. During the Commonwealth of England government under Cromwell, the Rump Parliament prohibited the practice of singing Christmas carols as Pagan and sinful.
Like other customs associated with popular Catholic Christianity, it earned the disapproval of Protestant Puritans. Famously, Cromwell's interregnum prohibited all celebrations of the Christmas holiday; this attempt to ban the public celebration of Christmas can be seen in the early history of Father Christmas. The Westminster Assembly of Divines established Sunday as the only holy day in the calendar in 1644; the new liturgy produced for the English church recognised this in 1645, so abolished Christmas. Its celebration was declared an offence by Parliament in 1647. There is some debate as to the effectiveness of this ban, whether or not it was enforced in the country. Puritans disapproved of the celebration of Christmas—a trend which continually resurfaced in Europe and the USA through the eighteenth and twentieth centuries; when in May 1660 Charles II restored the Stuarts to the throne, the people of England once again practiced the public singing of Christmas carols as part of the revival of Christmas customs, sanctioned by the king's own celebrations.
William Sandys's Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern, contained the first appearance in print of many now-classic English carols, contributed to the mid-Victorian revival of the holiday. Singing carols in church was instituted on Christmas Eve 1880 in Truro Cathedral, England, now seen in churches all over t
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, Evangeline. He was the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy and was one of the Fireside Poets from New England. Longfellow was born in Portland, still part of Massachusetts, he studied at Bowdoin College and, after spending time in Europe, he became a professor at Bowdoin and at Harvard College. His first major poetry collections were Voices of Other Poems. Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854 to focus on his writing, he lived the remainder of his life in a former Revolutionary War headquarters of George Washington in Cambridge, Massachusetts, his first wife Mary Potter died in 1835 after a miscarriage. His second wife Frances Appleton died in 1861 after sustaining burns. After her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on translating works from foreign languages, he died in 1882. Longfellow wrote many lyric poems known for their musicality and presenting stories of mythology and legend.
He became the most popular American poet of his day and had success overseas. He has been criticized, for imitating European styles and writing for the masses. Longfellow was born on February 27, 1807 to Stephen Longfellow and Zilpah Longfellow in Portland, Maine a district of Massachusetts, he grew up in -- Longfellow House. His father was a lawyer, his maternal grandfather was Peleg Wadsworth, a general in the American Revolutionary War and a Member of Congress, his mother was descended from a passenger on the Mayflower. He was named after his mother's brother Henry Wadsworth, a Navy lieutenant who had died three years earlier at the Battle of Tripoli, he was the second of eight children. Longfellow's ancestors were English colonists, they included Mayflower Pilgrims Richard Warren, William Brewster, John and Priscilla Alden, as well as Elizabeth Pabodie, the first child born in Plymouth Colony. Longfellow attended a dame school at the age of three and was enrolled by age six at the private Portland Academy.
In his years there, he earned a reputation as being studious and became fluent in Latin. His mother encouraged his enthusiasm for reading and learning, introducing him to Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote, he published his first poem in the Portland Gazette on November 17, 1820, a patriotic and historical four-stanza poem called "The Battle of Lovell's Pond". He studied at the Portland Academy until age 14, he spent much of his summers as a child at his grandfather Peleg's farm in Maine. In the fall of 1822, 15 year-old Longfellow enrolled at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, along with his brother Stephen, his grandfather was a founder of the college and his father was a trustee. There Longfellow met Nathaniel Hawthorne, he boarded with a clergyman for a time before rooming on the third floor in 1823 of what is now known as Winthrop Hall. He joined a group of students with Federalist leanings. In his senior year, Longfellow wrote to his father about his aspirations: I will not disguise it in the least….
The fact is, I most eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature, my whole soul burns most ardently after it, every earthly thought centres in it…. I am confident in believing, that if I can rise in the world it must be by the exercise of my talents in the wide field of literature, he pursued his literary goals by submitting poetry and prose to various newspapers and magazines due to encouragement from Professor Thomas Cogswell Upham. He published nearly 40 minor poems between January 1824 and his graduation in 1825. About 24 of them were published in the short-lived Boston periodical The United States Literary Gazette; when Longfellow graduated from Bowdoin, he was ranked fourth in the class and had been elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He gave the student commencement address. After graduating in 1825, Longfellow was offered a job as professor of modern languages at his alma mater. An apocryphal story claims that college trustee Benjamin Orr had been impressed by Longfellow's translation of Horace and hired him under the condition that he travel to Europe to study French and Italian.
Whatever the catalyst, Longfellow began his tour of Europe in May 1826 aboard the ship Cadmus. His time abroad lasted three years and cost his father $2,604.24. He traveled to France, Italy, back to France to England before returning to the United States in mid-August 1829. While overseas, he learned French, Spanish and German without formal instruction. In Madrid, he spent time with Washington Irving and was impressed by the author's work ethic. Irving encouraged the young Longfellow to pursue writing. While in Spain, Longfellow was saddened to learn that his favorite sister Elizabeth had died of tuberculosis at the age of 20 that May. On August 27, 1829, he wrote to the president of Bowdoin that he was turning down the professorship because he considered the $600 salary "disproportionate to the duties required"; the trustees raised his salary to $800 with an additional $100 to serve as the college's librarian, a post which required one hour of work per day. During his years teaching at the college, he translated textbooks from French and Spanish.
He published the travel book Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea in serial form before a book edition was released in 1835. Shortly