12th century BC

The 12th century BC is the period from 1200 to 1101 BC. The Late Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East and eastern Mediterranean is considered to begin in this century. 1200 BC: The first civilization in Central and North America develops in about 1200 BC in the coastal regions of the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the Olmec civilization, its early site is at San Lorenzo. Read more 1200 BC: The Phoenicians found the port of Lisbon, Portugal 1197 BC: The beginning of first period by Shao Yong's concept of the I Ching and history. 1197 BC: Ramses III of Egypt repels attacks by northern invaders. C. 1194 BC: The beginning of the legendary Trojan War. 1192 BC: Wu Ding, King of Shang Dynasty, died. 1191 BC: Menestheus, legendary King of Athens, dies during the Trojan War after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus. Other accounts place his death a decade and shortly after the Trojan War. 1186 BC: End of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Twentieth Dynasty.

April 24, 1184 BC: Traditional date for the fall of Troy, Asia Minor to the Mycenaeans and their allies. This marks the end of the Trojan War of Greek mythology. 1181 BC: Menestheus, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus. Other accounts place his death a decade earlier and during the Trojan War. 1180 BC: The last Kassite King, Anllil-nadin-akhe, is defeated by the Elamites 1180 BC: Collapse of Hittite power in Anatolia with the destruction of their capital Hattusa. April 16, 1178 BC: A solar eclipse may mark the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom after the Trojan War, he discovers a number of suitors competing to marry his wife Penelope, whom they believe to be a widow, in order to succeed him on the throne. He re-establishes himself on the throne. 1160 BC: Death of Pharaoh Ramesses V, from smallpox. 1159 BC: The Hekla 3 eruption triggers an 18-year period of climatic cooling.

1154 BC: Death of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes.. C. 1150 BC: End of Egyptian rule in Canaan. Rameses VI last Pharaoh acknowledged. C. 1147 BC: Demophon, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes. 1137 BC: Ramses VII begins his reign as the sixth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. C. 1135 BC: Oxyntes, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded by his elder son Apheidas. C. 1134 BC: Apheidas, legendary King of Athens, is assassinated and succeeded by his younger brother Thymoetes after a reign of 1 year. C. 1126 BC: Thymoetes, legendary King of Athens, dies childless after a reign of 8 years. He is succeeded by his designated heir Melanthus of Pylos, a fifth-generation descendant of Neleus who had assisted him in battle against the Boeotians. 1122 BC: Legendary founding date of the city of Pyongyang. C. 1120 BC: destruction of Troy VIIb1 1115 BC: Tiglath-Pileser. 1110 BC: Cádiz founded by Phoenicians in southwestern Spain.

1100 BC: Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites. C. 1100 BC: The Dorians invade Greece. C. 1100 BC: Beginning of the proto-Villanovan culture in northern Italy. C. 1100 BC: Mycenaean civilization ends. Start of Greek Dark Ages. C. 1100 BC: The New Kingdom in Egypt comes to an end. Elamite invaders carry them in Susa. Fang ding, from Tomb 1004, Anyang, Henan, is made. Shang dynasty, Anyang period, it is now kept at Academia Sinica, Taiwan. Twosret, female Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. 1155 BC—Death of pharaoh Ramesses III of Egypt 1126 BC—Nebuchadnezzar I becomes king of Babylon 1100s BC—Alphabet developed by Phoenicians. See: List of sovereign states in the 12th century BC

West Middlesex Waterworks Company

The West Middlesex Waterworks Company was a utility company supplying water to parts of west London in England. The company was established in 1806 with works at Hammersmith and became part of the publicly owned Metropolitan Water Board in 1903; the West Middlesex Waterworks Company was founded by serial entrepreneur Ralph Dodd in 1806 to supply water to the Marylebone and Paddington areas of London. In 1808 the company installed cast iron pipes to supply water from its intakes at Hammersmith; the water company established a 3.5 million gallon reservoir at Campden Hill near Notting Hill just west of Central London. Soon after, in 1825 the company built a new reservoir at Barrow Hill next to Primrose Hill just north of Central London. In the 1850s the quality of drinking water in London was connected to poor public health. John Snow examined the state of waters in 1849 and noted that the West Middlesex was less subject to cholera because its intakes were upstream and it had large reservoirs; the Metropolis Water Act 1852 was enacted under the conclusions of a report of the Metropolitan Water Board "to make provision for securing the supply to the Metropolis of pure and wholesome water".

Under the Act it became unlawful for any water company to extract water for domestic use from the tidal reaches of the Thames after 31 August 1855, from 31 December 1855 all such water was required to be "effectually filtered". The Company closed the Hammersmith site and new pumping works were established between Sunbury and Molesey Locks at Hampton; the Hampton facility was completed in 1855 and was shared with the Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company and the Grand Junction Waterworks Company. London water supply infrastructure

Khalid al-Odah

Khalid al-Odah is the father of Guantanamo Bay detainee, Fawzi al-Odah, the founder of the Kuwaiti Family Committee, a group established in 2004 to heighten global awareness of the prisoners in Guantanamo Bay. Over the past five years, Khalid has waged legal and public relations campaigns to promote the need for due process for the prisoners at Guantanamo. In 2004, Khalid brought his son's case to the Supreme Court Bush / al-Odah v. Bush. Khalid has five children, he is committed to seeking justice for other detainees. Khalid lives in Kuwait. Al Odah commented on a poll on American's attitudes towards the Guantanamo detainees; the poll found that: Nearly 60 percent of the Americans surveyed, "...believe the prisoners being held in Guantanamo Bay should either be granted a hearing before an independent judge or be released to their home countries." 52 percent of the Americans surveyed, "...believe the Military Commissions Act, a new law created in October that denies "enemy combatants" the right to challenge their imprisonment in front of an independent judge, is unfair."

Less than 20 percent of the Americans surveyed, "...believe that the detainees should be held indefinitely."Al Odah said: "I am heartened that so many Americans agree that my son and others in Guantanamo Bay deserve a hearing before an independent judge,"Al Otah's son received a habeas corpus hearing before a federal judge, who ruled on August 24, 2009 that he was detained legally. On October 28, 2011, CNN reporter Jenifer Fenton visited Khalid al-Odah's house, where she met and interviewed several former Guantanamo captives, including Fouad al Rabiah and Abd Al Aziz Sayer Uwain Al Shammeri. Fenton reported that former captives met at al Odah's house for moral support. Kuwaiti Family Committee website