1.
Integer
–
An integer is a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example,21,4,0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, 5 1⁄2, the set of integers consists of zero, the positive natural numbers, also called whole numbers or counting numbers, and their additive inverses. This is often denoted by a boldface Z or blackboard bold Z standing for the German word Zahlen, ℤ is a subset of the sets of rational and real numbers and, like the natural numbers, is countably infinite. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers, in algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes called rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers. In fact, the integers are the integers that are also rational numbers. Like the natural numbers, Z is closed under the operations of addition and multiplication, that is, however, with the inclusion of the negative natural numbers, and, importantly,0, Z is also closed under subtraction. The integers form a ring which is the most basic one, in the following sense, for any unital ring. This universal property, namely to be an object in the category of rings. Z is not closed under division, since the quotient of two integers, need not be an integer, although the natural numbers are closed under exponentiation, the integers are not. The following lists some of the properties of addition and multiplication for any integers a, b and c. In the language of algebra, the first five properties listed above for addition say that Z under addition is an abelian group. As a group under addition, Z is a cyclic group, in fact, Z under addition is the only infinite cyclic group, in the sense that any infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to Z. The first four properties listed above for multiplication say that Z under multiplication is a commutative monoid. However, not every integer has an inverse, e. g. there is no integer x such that 2x =1, because the left hand side is even. This means that Z under multiplication is not a group, all the rules from the above property table, except for the last, taken together say that Z together with addition and multiplication is a commutative ring with unity. It is the prototype of all objects of algebraic structure. Only those equalities of expressions are true in Z for all values of variables, note that certain non-zero integers map to zero in certain rings. The lack of zero-divisors in the means that the commutative ring Z is an integral domain
Integer
–
Algebraic structure → Group theory
Group theory
2.
Negative number
–
In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero. If positive represents movement to the right, negative represents movement to the left, if positive represents above sea level, then negative represents below level. If positive represents a deposit, negative represents a withdrawal and they are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset, if a quantity may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as positive and negative. In the medical context of fighting a tumor, an expansion could be thought of as a negative shrinkage, negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature. The laws of arithmetic for negative numbers ensure that the common idea of an opposite is reflected in arithmetic. For example, − −3 =3 because the opposite of an opposite is the original thing, negative numbers are usually written with a minus sign in front. For example, −3 represents a quantity with a magnitude of three, and is pronounced minus three or negative three. To help tell the difference between a subtraction operation and a number, occasionally the negative sign is placed slightly higher than the minus sign. Conversely, a number that is greater than zero is called positive, the positivity of a number may be emphasized by placing a plus sign before it, e. g. +3. In general, the negativity or positivity of a number is referred to as its sign, every real number other than zero is either positive or negative. The positive whole numbers are referred to as natural numbers, while the positive and negative numbers are referred to as integers. In bookkeeping, amounts owed are often represented by red numbers, or a number in parentheses, Liu Hui established rules for adding and subtracting negative numbers. By the 7th century, Indian mathematicians such as Brahmagupta were describing the use of negative numbers, islamic mathematicians further developed the rules of subtracting and multiplying negative numbers and solved problems with negative coefficients. Western mathematicians accepted the idea of numbers by the 17th century. Prior to the concept of numbers, mathematicians such as Diophantus considered negative solutions to problems false. Negative numbers can be thought of as resulting from the subtraction of a number from a smaller. For example, negative three is the result of subtracting three from zero,0 −3 = −3, in general, the subtraction of a larger number from a smaller yields a negative result, with the magnitude of the result being the difference between the two numbers
Negative number
–
This thermometer is indicating a negative
Fahrenheit temperature (−4°F).
3.
100 (number)
–
100 or one hundred is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the hundred or five score in order to differentiate the English. The standard SI prefix for a hundred is hecto-,100 is the basis of percentages, with 100% being a full amount. 100 is the sum of the first nine prime numbers, as well as the sum of pairs of prime numbers e. g.3 +97,11 +89,17 +83,29 +71,41 +59. 100 is the sum of the cubes of the first four integers and this is related by Nicomachuss theorem to the fact that 100 also equals the square of the sum of the first four integers,100 =102 =2. 26 +62 =100, thus 100 is a Leyland number and it is divisible by the number of primes below it,25 in this case. It can not be expressed as the difference between any integer and the total of coprimes below it, making it a noncototient and it can be expressed as a sum of some of its divisors, making it a semiperfect number. 100 is a Harshad number in base 10, and also in base 4, there are exactly 100 prime numbers whose digits are in strictly ascending order. 100 is the smallest number whose common logarithm is a prime number,100 senators are in the U. S One hundred is the atomic number of fermium, an actinide. On the Celsius scale,100 degrees is the temperature of pure water at sea level. The Kármán line lies at an altitude of 100 kilometres above the Earths sea level and is used to define the boundary between Earths atmosphere and outer space. There are 100 blasts of the Shofar heard in the service of Rosh Hashana, a religious Jew is expected to utter at least 100 blessings daily. In Hindu Religion - Mythology Book Mahabharata - Dhritarashtra had 100 sons known as kauravas, the United States Senate has 100 Senators. Most of the currencies are divided into 100 subunits, for example, one euro is one hundred cents. The 100 Euro banknotes feature a picture of a Rococo gateway on the obverse, the U. S. hundred-dollar bill has Benjamin Franklins portrait, the Benjamin is the largest U. S. bill in print. American savings bonds of $100 have Thomas Jeffersons portrait, while American $100 treasury bonds have Andrew Jacksons portrait, One hundred is also, The number of years in a century. The number of pounds in an American short hundredweight, in Greece, India, Israel and Nepal,100 is the police telephone number. In Belgium,100 is the ambulance and firefighter telephone number, in United Kingdom,100 is the operator telephone number
100 (number)
–
The
U.S. hundred-dollar bill, Series 2009.
4.
Factorization
–
In mathematics, factorization or factoring is the decomposition of an object into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original. For example, the number 15 factors into primes as 3 ×5, in all cases, a product of simpler objects is obtained. The aim of factoring is usually to reduce something to “basic building blocks”, such as numbers to prime numbers, factoring integers is covered by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and factoring polynomials by the fundamental theorem of algebra. Viètes formulas relate the coefficients of a polynomial to its roots, the opposite of polynomial factorization is expansion, the multiplying together of polynomial factors to an “expanded” polynomial, written as just a sum of terms. Integer factorization for large integers appears to be a difficult problem, there is no known method to carry it out quickly. Its complexity is the basis of the security of some public key cryptography algorithms. A matrix can also be factorized into a product of matrices of special types, One major example of this uses an orthogonal or unitary matrix, and a triangular matrix. There are different types, QR decomposition, LQ, QL, RQ and this situation is generalized by factorization systems. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, every integer greater than 1 has a unique prime factorization. Given an algorithm for integer factorization, one can factor any integer down to its constituent primes by repeated application of this algorithm, for very large numbers, no efficient classical algorithm is known. Modern techniques for factoring polynomials are fast and efficient, but use sophisticated mathematical ideas and these techniques are used in the construction of computer routines for carrying out polynomial factorization in Computer algebra systems. This article is concerned with classical techniques. While the general notion of factoring just means writing an expression as a product of simpler expressions, when factoring polynomials this means that the factors are to be polynomials of smaller degree. Thus, while x 2 − y = is a factorization of the expression, another issue concerns the coefficients of the factors. It is not always possible to do this, and a polynomial that can not be factored in this way is said to be irreducible over this type of coefficient, thus, x2 -2 is irreducible over the integers and x2 +4 is irreducible over the reals. In the first example, the integers 1 and -2 can also be thought of as real numbers, and if they are, then x 2 −2 = shows that this polynomial factors over the reals. Similarly, since the integers 1 and 4 can be thought of as real and hence complex numbers, x2 +4 splits over the complex numbers, i. e. x 2 +4 =. The fundamental theorem of algebra can be stated as, Every polynomial of n with complex number coefficients splits completely into n linear factors
Factorization
–
A visual representation of the factorization of cubes using volumes. For a sum of cubes, simply substitute z=-y.
5.
Divisor
–
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some other integer to produce n. In this case one says also that n is a multiple of m, an integer n is divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n, this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder. Under this definition, the statement m ∣0 holds for every m, as before, but with the additional constraint k ≠0. Under this definition, the statement m ∣0 does not hold for m ≠0, in the remainder of this article, which definition is applied is indicated where this is significant. Divisors can be negative as well as positive, although sometimes the term is restricted to positive divisors. For example, there are six divisors of 4, they are 1,2,4, −1, −2, and −4,1 and −1 divide every integer. Every integer is a divisor of itself, every integer is a divisor of 0. Integers divisible by 2 are called even, and numbers not divisible by 2 are called odd,1, −1, n and −n are known as the trivial divisors of n. A divisor of n that is not a divisor is known as a non-trivial divisor. A non-zero integer with at least one divisor is known as a composite number, while the units −1 and 1. There are divisibility rules which allow one to recognize certain divisors of a number from the numbers digits, the generalization can be said to be the concept of divisibility in any integral domain. 7 is a divisor of 42 because 7 ×6 =42 and it can also be said that 42 is divisible by 7,42 is a multiple of 7,7 divides 42, or 7 is a factor of 42. The non-trivial divisors of 6 are 2, −2,3, the positive divisors of 42 are 1,2,3,6,7,14,21,42. 5 ∣0, because 5 ×0 =0, if a ∣ b and b ∣ a, then a = b or a = − b. If a ∣ b and a ∣ c, then a ∣ holds, however, if a ∣ b and c ∣ b, then ∣ b does not always hold. If a ∣ b c, and gcd =1, then a ∣ c, if p is a prime number and p ∣ a b then p ∣ a or p ∣ b. A positive divisor of n which is different from n is called a proper divisor or a part of n. A number that does not evenly divide n but leaves a remainder is called an aliquant part of n, an integer n >1 whose only proper divisor is 1 is called a prime number
Divisor
–
The divisors of 10 illustrated with
Cuisenaire rods: 1, 2, 5, and 10
6.
Greek numerals
–
Greek numerals are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. These alphabetic numerals are known as Ionic or Ionian numerals, Milesian numerals. In modern Greece, they are used for ordinal numbers. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, Greece uses Arabic numerals, attic numerals, which were later adopted as the basis for Roman numerals, were the first alphabetic set. They were acrophonic, derived from the first letters of the names of the numbers represented and they ran =1, =5, =10, =100, =1000, and =10000. 50,500,5000, and 50000 were represented by the letter with minuscule powers of ten written in the top right corner, the same system was used outside of Attica, but the symbols varied with the local alphabets, in Boeotia, was 1000. The present system probably developed around Miletus in Ionia, 19th-century classicists placed its development in the 3rd century BC, the occasion of its first widespread use. The present system uses the 24 letters adopted by Euclid as well as three Phoenician and Ionic ones that were not carried over, digamma, koppa, and sampi. The position of characters within the numbering system imply that the first two were still in use while the third was not. Greek numerals are decimal, based on powers of 10, the units from 1 to 9 are assigned to the first nine letters of the old Ionic alphabet from alpha to theta. Each multiple of one hundred from 100 to 900 was then assigned its own separate letter as well and this alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to obtain the total. For example,241 was represented as, in ancient and medieval manuscripts, these numerals were eventually distinguished from letters using overbars, α, β, γ, etc. In medieval manuscripts of the Book of Revelation, the number of the Beast 666 is written as χξϛ, although the Greek alphabet began with only majuscule forms, surviving papyrus manuscripts from Egypt show that uncial and cursive minuscule forms began early. These new letter forms sometimes replaced the ones, especially in the case of the obscure numerals. The old Q-shaped koppa began to be broken up and simplified, the numeral for 6 changed several times. During antiquity, the letter form of digamma came to be avoided in favor of a special numerical one. By the Byzantine era, the letter was known as episemon and this eventually merged with the sigma-tau ligature stigma. In modern Greek, a number of changes have been made
Greek numerals
–
Numeral systems
Greek numerals
–
A
Constantinopolitan map of the British Isles from
Ptolemy 's
Geography (c. 1300), using Greek numerals for its
graticule: 52–63°N of the
equator and 6–33°E from Ptolemy's
Prime Meridian at the
Fortunate Isles.
7.
Roman numerals
–
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols, The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two and XIII is thirteen. Symbols are placed left to right in order of value. Named after the year of its release,2014 as MMXIV, the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The standard forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than a universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval, Roman inscriptions, especially in official contexts, seem to show a preference for additive forms such as IIII and VIIII instead of subtractive forms such as IV and IX. Both methods appear in documents from the Roman era, even within the same document, double subtractives also occur, such as XIIX or even IIXX instead of XVIII. Sometimes V and L are not used, with such as IIIIII. Such variation and inconsistency continued through the period and into modern times. Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show IIII for four o’clock but IX for nine o’clock, however, this is far from universal, for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster in London uses IV. Similarly, at the beginning of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance,1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, although Roman numerals came to be written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used
Roman numerals
–
Entrance to section LII (52) of the
Colosseum, with numerals still visible
Roman numerals
–
Numeral systems
Roman numerals
–
A typical
clock face with Roman numerals in
Bad Salzdetfurth, Germany
Roman numerals
–
An inscription on
Admiralty Arch, London. The number is 1910, for which MCMX would be more usual
8.
Binary number
–
The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. Each digit is referred to as a bit, the modern binary number system was devised by Gottfried Leibniz in 1679 and appears in his article Explication de lArithmétique Binaire. Systems related to binary numbers have appeared earlier in multiple cultures including ancient Egypt, China, Leibniz was specifically inspired by the Chinese I Ching. The scribes of ancient Egypt used two different systems for their fractions, Egyptian fractions and Horus-Eye fractions, the method used for ancient Egyptian multiplication is also closely related to binary numbers. This method can be seen in use, for instance, in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the I Ching dates from the 9th century BC in China. The binary notation in the I Ching is used to interpret its quaternary divination technique and it is based on taoistic duality of yin and yang. Eight trigrams and a set of 64 hexagrams, analogous to the three-bit and six-bit binary numerals, were in use at least as early as the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. The Song Dynasty scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, the Indian scholar Pingala developed a binary system for describing prosody. He used binary numbers in the form of short and long syllables, Pingalas Hindu classic titled Chandaḥśāstra describes the formation of a matrix in order to give a unique value to each meter. The binary representations in Pingalas system increases towards the right, the residents of the island of Mangareva in French Polynesia were using a hybrid binary-decimal system before 1450. Slit drums with binary tones are used to encode messages across Africa, sets of binary combinations similar to the I Ching have also been used in traditional African divination systems such as Ifá as well as in medieval Western geomancy. The base-2 system utilized in geomancy had long been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. Leibnizs system uses 0 and 1, like the modern binary numeral system, Leibniz was first introduced to the I Ching through his contact with the French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet, who visited China in 1685 as a missionary. Leibniz saw the I Ching hexagrams as an affirmation of the universality of his own beliefs as a Christian. Binary numerals were central to Leibnizs theology and he believed that binary numbers were symbolic of the Christian idea of creatio ex nihilo or creation out of nothing. Is not easy to impart to the pagans, is the ex nihilo through Gods almighty power. In 1854, British mathematician George Boole published a paper detailing an algebraic system of logic that would become known as Boolean algebra
Binary number
–
Numeral systems
Binary number
–
Arithmetic values represented by parts of the Eye of Horus
Binary number
–
Gottfried Leibniz
Binary number
–
George Boole
9.
Ternary numeral system
–
The ternary numeral system has three as its base. Analogous to a bit, a digit is a trit. One trit is equivalent to bits of information. Representations of integer numbers in ternary do not get uncomfortably lengthy as quickly as in binary, for example, decimal 365 corresponds to binary 101101101 and to ternary 111112. However, they are far less compact than the corresponding representations in bases such as decimal – see below for a compact way to codify ternary using nonary. The value of a number with n bits that are all 1 is 2n −1. Then N = M, N = /, and N = bd −1, for a three-digit ternary number, N =33 −1 =26 =2 ×32 +2 ×31 +2 ×30 =18 +6 +2. Nonary or septemvigesimal can be used for representation of ternary. A base-three system is used in Islam to keep track of counting Tasbih to 99 or to 100 on a hand for counting prayers. In certain analog logic, the state of the circuit is often expressed ternary and this is most commonly seen in Transistor–transistor logic using 7406 open collector logic. The output is said to either be low, high, or open, in this configuration the output of the circuit is actually not connected to any voltage reference at all. Where the signal is usually grounded to a reference, or at a certain voltage level. Thus, the voltage level is sometimes unpredictable. A rare ternary point is used to denote fractional parts of an inning in baseball, since each inning consists of three outs, each out is considered one third of an inning and is denoted as.1. For example, if a player pitched all of the 4th, 5th and 6th innings, plus 2 outs of the 7th inning, his Innings pitched column for that game would be listed as 3.2, meaning 3⅔. In this usage, only the part of the number is written in ternary form. Ternary numbers can be used to convey self-similar structures like the Sierpinski triangle or the Cantor set conveniently, additionally, it turns out that the ternary representation is useful for defining the Cantor set and related point sets, because of the way the Cantor set is constructed. The Cantor set consists of the points from 0 to 1 that have an expression that does not contain any instance of the digit 1
Ternary numeral system
–
Numeral systems
10.
Quaternary numeral system
–
Quaternary is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0,1,2 and 3 to represent any real number. Four is the largest number within the range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number, making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its economy is equal to that of binary. However, it no better in the localization of prime numbers. See decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties, as with the octal and hexadecimal numeral systems, quaternary has a special relation to the binary numeral system. Each radix 4,8 and 16 is a power of 2, so the conversion to and from binary is implemented by matching each digit with 2,3 or 4 binary digits, for example, in base 4,302104 =11001001002. Although octal and hexadecimal are widely used in computing and computer programming in the discussion and analysis of binary arithmetic and logic, by analogy with byte and nybble, a quaternary digit is sometimes called a crumb. There is a surviving list of Ventureño language number words up to 32 written down by a Spanish priest ca, the Kharosthi numerals have a partial base 4 counting system from 1 to decimal 10. Quaternary numbers are used in the representation of 2D Hilbert curves, here a real number between 0 and 1 is converted into the quaternary system. Every single digit now indicates in which of the respective 4 sub-quadrants the number will be projected, parallels can be drawn between quaternary numerals and the way genetic code is represented by DNA. The four DNA nucleotides in order, abbreviated A, C, G and T, can be taken to represent the quaternary digits in numerical order 0,1,2. With this encoding, the complementary digit pairs 0↔3, and 1↔2 match the complementation of the pairs, A↔T and C↔G. For example, the nucleotide sequence GATTACA can be represented by the quaternary number 2033010, quaternary line codes have been used for transmission, from the invention of the telegraph to the 2B1Q code used in modern ISDN circuits
Quaternary numeral system
–
Numeral systems
11.
Quinary
–
Quinary is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a system is that there are five fingers on either hand. The base five is stated from 0–4, in the quinary place system, five numerals, from 0 to 4, are used to represent any real number. According to this method, five is written as 10, twenty-five is written as 100, today, the main usage of base 5 is as a biquinary system, which is decimal using five as a sub-base. Another example of a system, is sexagesimal, base 60. Each quinary digit has log25 bits of information, many languages use quinary number systems, including Gumatj, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, Luiseño and Saraveca. Gumatj is a true 5–25 language, in which 25 is the group of 5. The Gumatj numerals are shown below, In the video game Riven and subsequent games of the Myst franchise, a decimal system with 2 and 5 as a sub-bases is called biquinary, and is found in Wolof and Khmer. Roman numerals are a biquinary system, the numbers 1,5,10, and 50 are written as I, V, X, and L respectively. Eight is VIII and seventy is LXX, most versions of the abacus use a biquinary system to simulate a decimal system for ease of calculation. Urnfield culture numerals and some tally mark systems are also biquinary, units of currencies are commonly partially or wholly biquinary. A vigesimal system with 4 and 5 as a sub-bases is found in Nahuatl, pentimal system Quibinary Yan Tan Tethera References, Quinary Base Conversion, includes fractional part, from Math Is Fun Media related to Quinary numeral system at Wikimedia Commons
Quinary
–
Numeral systems
12.
Senary
–
The senary numeral system has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the two consecutive numbers that are both prime it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size. As six is a highly composite number, many of the arguments made in favor of the duodecimal system also apply to this base-6. Senary may be considered interesting in the study of numbers, since all primes other than 2 and 3. That is, for every number p greater than 3, one has the modular arithmetic relations that either p ≡1 or 5. This property maximizes the probability that the result of an integer multiplication will end in zero, E. g. if three fingers are extended on the left hand and four on the right, 34senary is represented. This is equivalent to 3 ×6 +4 which is 22decimal, flipping the sixes hand around to its backside may help to further disambiguate which hand represents the sixes and which represents the units. While most developed cultures count by fingers up to 5 in very similar ways, beyond 5 non-Western cultures deviate from Western methods, such as with Chinese number gestures. More abstract finger counting systems, such as chisanbop or finger binary, allow counting to 99,1,023, or even higher depending on the method. The English monk and historian Bede, in the first chapter of De temporum ratione, titled Tractatus de computo, vel loquela per gestum digitorum, the Ndom language of Papua New Guinea is reported to have senary numerals. Mer means 6, mer an thef means 6 ×2 =12, nif means 36, another example from Papua New Guinea are the Morehead-Maro languages. In these languages, counting is connected to ritualized yam-counting and these languages count from a base six, employing words for the powers of six, running up to 66 for some of the languages. One example is Kómnzo with the numerals, nimbo, féta, tarumba, ntamno, wärämäkä. Some Niger-Congo languages have been reported to use a number system, usually in addition to another. For some purposes, base 6 might be too small a base for convenience. The choice of 36 as a radix is convenient in that the digits can be represented using the Arabic numerals 0–9 and the Latin letters A–Z, this choice is the basis of the base36 encoding scheme. Base36 encoding scheme Binary Ternary Duodecimal Sexagesimal Shacks Base Six Dialectic Digital base 6 clock Analog Clock Designer capable of rendering a base 6 clock Senary base conversion
Senary
–
Numeral systems
Senary
–
34 senary = 22 decimal, in senary finger counting
Senary
13.
Octal
–
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping binary digits into groups of three. For example, the representation for decimal 74 is 1001010. Two zeroes can be added at the left,1001010, corresponding the octal digits 112, in the decimal system each decimal place is a power of ten. For example,7410 =7 ×101 +4 ×100 In the octal system each place is a power of eight. The Yuki language in California and the Pamean languages in Mexico have octal systems because the speakers count using the spaces between their fingers rather than the fingers themselves and it has been suggested that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European word for nine might be related to the PIE word for new. Based on this, some have speculated that proto-Indo-Europeans used a number system. In 1716 King Charles XII of Sweden asked Emanuel Swedenborg to elaborate a number based on 64 instead of 10. Swedenborg however argued that for people with less intelligence than the king such a big base would be too difficult, in 1718 Swedenborg wrote a manuscript, En ny rekenkonst som om vexlas wid Thalet 8 i stelle then wanliga wid Thalet 10. The numbers 1-7 are there denoted by the l, s, n, m, t, f, u. Thus 8 = lo,16 = so,24 = no,64 = loo,512 = looo etc, numbers with consecutive consonants are pronounced with vowel sounds between in accordance with a special rule. Writing under the pseudonym Hirossa Ap-Iccim in The Gentlemans Magazine, July 1745, Hugh Jones proposed a system for British coins, weights. In 1801, James Anderson criticized the French for basing the Metric system on decimal arithmetic and he suggested base 8 for which he coined the term octal. In the mid 19th century, Alfred B. Taylor concluded that Our octonary radix is, therefore, so, for example, the number 65 would be spoken in octonary as under-un. Taylor also republished some of Swedenborgs work on octonary as an appendix to the above-cited publications, in the 2009 film Avatar, the language of the extraterrestrial Navi race employs an octal numeral system, probably due to the fact that they have four fingers on each hand. In the TV series Stargate SG-1, the Ancients, a race of beings responsible for the invention of the Stargates, in the tabletop game series Warhammer 40,000, the Tau race use an octal number system. Octal became widely used in computing systems such as the PDP-8, ICL1900. Octal was an abbreviation of binary for these machines because their word size is divisible by three
Octal
–
Numeral systems
14.
Duodecimal
–
The duodecimal system is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base. In this system, the number ten may be written by a rotated 2 and this notation was introduced by Sir Isaac Pitman. These digit forms are available as Unicode characters on computerized systems since June 2015 as ↊ and ↋, other notations use A, T, or X for ten and B or E for eleven. The number twelve is written as 10 in duodecimal, whereas the digit string 12 means 1 dozen and 2 units. Similarly, in duodecimal 100 means 1 gross,1000 means 1 great gross, the number twelve, a superior highly composite number, is the smallest number with four non-trivial factors, and the smallest to include as factors all four numbers within the subitizing range. As a result, duodecimal has been described as the number system. Of its factors,2 and 3 are prime, which means the reciprocals of all 3-smooth numbers have a representation in duodecimal. In particular, the five most elementary fractions all have a terminating representation in duodecimal. This all makes it a convenient number system for computing fractions than most other number systems in common use, such as the decimal, vigesimal, binary. Although the trigesimal and sexagesimal systems do even better in respect, this is at the cost of unwieldy multiplication tables. In this section, numerals are based on decimal places, for example,10 means ten,12 means twelve. Languages using duodecimal number systems are uncommon, germanic languages have special words for 11 and 12, such as eleven and twelve in English. However, they are considered to come from Proto-Germanic *ainlif and *twalif, historically, units of time in many civilizations are duodecimal. There are twelve signs of the zodiac, twelve months in a year, traditional Chinese calendars, clocks, and compasses are based on the twelve Earthly Branches. There are 12 inches in a foot,12 troy ounces in a troy pound,12 old British pence in a shilling,24 hours in a day. The Romans used a system based on 12, including the uncia which became both the English words ounce and inch. The importance of 12 has been attributed to the number of cycles in a year. It is possible to count to 12 with the acting as a pointer
Duodecimal
–
Numeral systems
Duodecimal
–
A duodecimal multiplication table
15.
Hexadecimal
–
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, Hexadecimal numerals are widely used by computer system designers and programmers. As each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits, it allows a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values, one hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte. For example, a byte can have values ranging from 00000000 to 11111111 in binary form. In a non-programming context, a subscript is typically used to give the radix, several notations are used to support hexadecimal representation of constants in programming languages, usually involving a prefix or suffix. The prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, where this value might be denoted as 0x2AF3, in contexts where the base is not clear, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously, a numerical subscript can give the base explicitly,15910 is decimal 159,15916 is hexadecimal 159, which is equal to 34510. Some authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159d and 159h. example. com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space character, thus ’, represents the right single quotation mark, Unicode code point number 2019 in hex,8217. In the Unicode standard, a value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value. Color references in HTML, CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits prefixed with #, white, CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component, #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33. *nix shells, AT&T assembly language and likewise the C programming language, to output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In Intel-derived assembly languages and Modula-2, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h, some assembly languages use the notation HABCD. Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based numeric quotes, 16#5A3#, for bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x5A3. Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value, the Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r, 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#, 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs, in early systems when a Macintosh crashed, one or two lines of hexadecimal code would be displayed under the Sad Mac to tell the user what went wrong. Common Lisp uses the prefixes #x and #16r, setting the variables *read-base* and *print-base* to 16 can also used to switch the reader and printer of a Common Lisp system to Hexadecimal number representation for reading and printing numbers. Thus Hexadecimal numbers can be represented without the #x or #16r prefix code, MSX BASIC, QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H, &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex. TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix, 0h5A3 ALGOL68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers, binary, quaternary and octal numbers can be specified similarly
Hexadecimal
–
Numeral systems
Hexadecimal
–
Bruce Alan Martin's hexadecimal notation proposal
Hexadecimal
–
Hexadecimal finger-counting scheme.
16.
Vigesimal
–
The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty. In a vigesimal system, twenty individual numerals are used. One modern method of finding the extra needed symbols is to write ten as the letter A20, to write nineteen as J20, and this is similar to the common computer-science practice of writing hexadecimal numerals over 9 with the letters A–F. Another method skips over the letter I, in order to avoid confusion between I20 as eighteen and one, so that the number eighteen is written as J20, the number twenty is written as 1020. According to this notation,2020 means forty in decimal = + D020 means two hundred and sixty in decimal = +10020 means four hundred in decimal = + +, in the rest of this article below, numbers are expressed in decimal notation, unless specified otherwise. For example,10 means ten,20 means twenty, in decimal, dividing by three twice only gives one digit periods because 9 is the number below ten. 21, however, the adjacent to 20 that is divisible by 3, is not divisible by 9. Ninths in vigesimal have six-digit periods, the prime factorization of twenty is 22 ×5, so it is not a perfect power. However, its part,5, is congruent to 1. Thus, according to Artins conjecture on primitive roots, vigesimal has infinitely many cyclic primes, but the fraction of primes that are cyclic is not necessarily ~37. 395%. An UnrealScript program that computes the lengths of recurring periods of various fractions in a set of bases found that, of the first 15,456 primes. In many European languages,20 is used as a base, vigesimal systems are common in Africa, for example in Yoruba. Ogún,20, is the basic numeric block, ogójì,40, =20 multiplied by 2. Ogota,60, =20 multiplied by 3, ogorin,80, =20 multiplied by 4. Ogorun,100, =20 multiplied by 5, twenty was a base in the Maya and Aztec number systems. The Maya used the names for the powers of twenty, kal, bak, pic, calab, kinchil. See also Maya numerals and Maya calendar, Mayan languages, Yucatec, the Aztec called them, cempoalli, centzontli, cenxiquipilli, cempoalxiquipilli, centzonxiquipilli and cempoaltzonxiquipilli. Note that the ce prefix at the beginning means one and is replaced with the number to get the names of other multiples of the power
Vigesimal
–
Numeral systems
Vigesimal
–
The
Maya numerals are a base-20 system.
17.
Base 36
–
The senary numeral system has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the two consecutive numbers that are both prime it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size. As six is a highly composite number, many of the arguments made in favor of the duodecimal system also apply to this base-6. Senary may be considered interesting in the study of numbers, since all primes other than 2 and 3. That is, for every number p greater than 3, one has the modular arithmetic relations that either p ≡1 or 5. This property maximizes the probability that the result of an integer multiplication will end in zero, E. g. if three fingers are extended on the left hand and four on the right, 34senary is represented. This is equivalent to 3 ×6 +4 which is 22decimal, flipping the sixes hand around to its backside may help to further disambiguate which hand represents the sixes and which represents the units. While most developed cultures count by fingers up to 5 in very similar ways, beyond 5 non-Western cultures deviate from Western methods, such as with Chinese number gestures. More abstract finger counting systems, such as chisanbop or finger binary, allow counting to 99,1,023, or even higher depending on the method. The English monk and historian Bede, in the first chapter of De temporum ratione, titled Tractatus de computo, vel loquela per gestum digitorum, the Ndom language of Papua New Guinea is reported to have senary numerals. Mer means 6, mer an thef means 6 ×2 =12, nif means 36, another example from Papua New Guinea are the Morehead-Maro languages. In these languages, counting is connected to ritualized yam-counting and these languages count from a base six, employing words for the powers of six, running up to 66 for some of the languages. One example is Kómnzo with the numerals, nimbo, féta, tarumba, ntamno, wärämäkä. Some Niger-Congo languages have been reported to use a number system, usually in addition to another. For some purposes, base 6 might be too small a base for convenience. The choice of 36 as a radix is convenient in that the digits can be represented using the Arabic numerals 0–9 and the Latin letters A–Z, this choice is the basis of the base36 encoding scheme. Base36 encoding scheme Binary Ternary Duodecimal Sexagesimal Shacks Base Six Dialectic Digital base 6 clock Analog Clock Designer capable of rendering a base 6 clock Senary base conversion
Base 36
–
Numeral systems
Base 36
–
34 senary = 22 decimal, in senary finger counting
Base 36
18.
Natural number
–
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting and ordering. In common language, words used for counting are cardinal numbers, texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, but in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers. These chains of extensions make the natural numbers canonically embedded in the number systems. Properties of the numbers, such as divisibility and the distribution of prime numbers, are studied in number theory. Problems concerning counting and ordering, such as partitioning and enumerations, are studied in combinatorics, the most primitive method of representing a natural number is to put down a mark for each object. Later, a set of objects could be tested for equality, excess or shortage, by striking out a mark, the first major advance in abstraction was the use of numerals to represent numbers. This allowed systems to be developed for recording large numbers, the ancient Egyptians developed a powerful system of numerals with distinct hieroglyphs for 1,10, and all the powers of 10 up to over 1 million. A stone carving from Karnak, dating from around 1500 BC and now at the Louvre in Paris, depicts 276 as 2 hundreds,7 tens, and 6 ones, and similarly for the number 4,622. A much later advance was the development of the idea that 0 can be considered as a number, with its own numeral. The use of a 0 digit in place-value notation dates back as early as 700 BC by the Babylonians, the Olmec and Maya civilizations used 0 as a separate number as early as the 1st century BC, but this usage did not spread beyond Mesoamerica. The use of a numeral 0 in modern times originated with the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta in 628, the first systematic study of numbers as abstractions is usually credited to the Greek philosophers Pythagoras and Archimedes. Some Greek mathematicians treated the number 1 differently than larger numbers, independent studies also occurred at around the same time in India, China, and Mesoamerica. In 19th century Europe, there was mathematical and philosophical discussion about the nature of the natural numbers. A school of Naturalism stated that the numbers were a direct consequence of the human psyche. Henri Poincaré was one of its advocates, as was Leopold Kronecker who summarized God made the integers, in opposition to the Naturalists, the constructivists saw a need to improve the logical rigor in the foundations of mathematics. In the 1860s, Hermann Grassmann suggested a recursive definition for natural numbers thus stating they were not really natural, later, two classes of such formal definitions were constructed, later, they were shown to be equivalent in most practical applications. The second class of definitions was introduced by Giuseppe Peano and is now called Peano arithmetic and it is based on an axiomatization of the properties of ordinal numbers, each natural number has a successor and every non-zero natural number has a unique predecessor. Peano arithmetic is equiconsistent with several systems of set theory
Natural number
–
The
Ishango bone (on exhibition at the
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences) is believed to have been used 20,000 years ago for natural number arithmetic.
Natural number
–
Natural numbers can be used for counting (one
apple, two apples, three apples, …)
19.
Catalan number
–
In combinatorial mathematics, the Catalan numbers form a sequence of natural numbers that occur in various counting problems, often involving recursively-defined objects. They are named after the Belgian mathematician Eugène Charles Catalan, using zero-based numbering, the nth Catalan number is given directly in terms of binomial coefficients by C n =1 n +1 =. = ∏ k =2 n n + k k for n ≥0, an alternative expression for Cn is C n = − =1 n +1 for n ≥0, which is equivalent to the expression given above because = n n +1. This shows that Cn is an integer, which is not immediately obvious from the first formula given and this expression forms the basis for a proof of the correctness of the formula. They also satisfy, C0 =1 and C n +1 =2 n +2 C n, which can be a more efficient way to calculate them. Asymptotically, the Catalan numbers grow as C n ∼4 n n 3 /2 π in the sense that the quotient of the nth Catalan number, some sources use just C n ≈4 n n 3 /2. The only Catalan numbers Cn that are odd are those for which n = 2k −1, the only prime Catalan numbers are C2 =2 and C3 =5. The Catalan numbers have an integral representation C n = ∫04 x n ρ d x where ρ =12 π4 − x x and this means that the Catalan numbers are a solution of the Hausdorff moment problem on the interval instead of. The orthogonal polynomials having the weight function ρ on are H n = ∑ k =0 n k, there are many counting problems in combinatorics whose solution is given by the Catalan numbers. The book Enumerative Combinatorics, Volume 2 by combinatorialist Richard P. Stanley contains a set of exercises which describe 66 different interpretations of the Catalan numbers, following are some examples, with illustrations of the cases C3 =5 and C4 =14. Cn is the number of Dyck words of length 2n, a Dyck word is a string consisting of n Xs and n Ys such that no initial segment of the string has more Ys than Xs. For n =3, for example, we have the five different parenthesizations of four factors. It follows that Cn is the number of binary trees with n +1 leaves. Cn is the number of lattice paths along the edges of a grid with n × n square cells. A monotonic path is one which starts in the left corner, finishes in the upper right corner. Counting such paths is equivalent to counting Dyck words, X stands for move right, the following hexagons illustrate the case n =4, Cn is the number of stack-sortable permutations of. These are the permutations that avoid the pattern 231, Cn is the number of permutations of that avoid the pattern 123, that is, the number of permutations with no three-term increasing subsequence. For n =3, these permutations are 132,213,231,312 and 321
Catalan number
–
Catalan numbers in Mingantu's book The Quick Method for Obtaining the Precise Ratio of Division of a Circle volume III
Catalan number
–
Lattice of the 14 Dyck words of length 8 - (and) interpreted as up and down
20.
Pronic number
–
A pronic number is a number which is the product of two consecutive integers, that is, a number of the form n. The study of these dates back to Aristotle. They are also called oblong numbers, heteromecic numbers, or rectangular numbers, however, the rectangular number name has also been applied to the composite numbers. The first few numbers are,0,2,6,12,20,30,42,56,72,90,110,132,156,182,210,240,272,306,342,380,420,462 …. The nth pronic number is also the difference between the odd square 2 and the st centered hexagonal number. The sum of the reciprocals of the numbers is a telescoping series that sums to 1,1 =12 +16 +112 ⋯ = ∑ i =1 ∞1 i. The partial sum of the first n terms in this series is ∑ i =1 n 1 i = n n +1, the nth pronic number is the sum of the first n even integers. It follows that all numbers are even, and that 2 is the only prime pronic number. It is also the only number in the Fibonacci sequence. The number of entries in a square matrix is always a pronic number. The fact that consecutive integers are coprime and that a number is the product of two consecutive integers leads to a number of properties. Each distinct prime factor of a number is present in only one of the factors n or n+1. Thus a pronic number is squarefree if and only if n and n +1 are also squarefree, the number of distinct prime factors of a pronic number is the sum of the number of distinct prime factors of n and n +1. If 25 is appended to the representation of any pronic number. This is because 2 =100 n 2 +100 n +25 =100 n +25
Pronic number
–
Overview
21.
Decimal numbers
–
This article aims to be an accessible introduction. For the mathematical definition, see Decimal representation, the decimal numeral system has ten as its base, which, in decimal, is written 10, as is the base in every positional numeral system. It is the base most widely used by modern civilizations. Decimal fractions have terminating decimal representations and other fractions have repeating decimal representations, Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in a base-ten numeral system. Examples are Brahmi numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Roman numerals, Roman numerals have symbols for the decimal powers and secondary symbols for half these values. Brahmi numerals have symbols for the nine numbers 1–9, the nine decades 10–90, plus a symbol for 100, Chinese numerals have symbols for 1–9, and additional symbols for powers of ten, which in modern usage reach 1072. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols for the ten values to represent any number, positional notation uses positions for each power of ten, units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. The position of each digit within a number denotes the multiplier multiplied with that position has a value ten times that of the position to its right. There were at least two independent sources of positional decimal systems in ancient civilization, the Chinese counting rod system. Ten is the number which is the count of fingers and thumbs on both hands, the English word digit as well as its translation in many languages is also the anatomical term for fingers and toes. In English, decimal means tenth, decimate means reduce by a tenth, however, the symbols used in different areas are not identical, for instance, Western Arabic numerals differ from the forms used by other Arab cultures. A decimal fraction is a fraction the denominator of which is a power of ten. g, Decimal fractions 8/10, 1489/100, 24/100000, and 58900/10000 are expressed in decimal notation as 0.8,14.89,0.00024,5.8900 respectively. In English-speaking, some Latin American and many Asian countries, a period or raised period is used as the separator, in many other countries, particularly in Europe. The integer part, or integral part of a number is the part to the left of the decimal separator. The part from the separator to the right is the fractional part. It is usual for a number that consists only of a fractional part to have a leading zero in its notation. Any rational number with a denominator whose only prime factors are 2 and/or 5 may be expressed as a decimal fraction and has a finite decimal expansion. 1/2 =0.5 1/20 =0.05 1/5 =0.2 1/50 =0.02 1/4 =0.25 1/40 =0.025 1/25 =0.04 1/8 =0.125 1/125 =0.008 1/10 =0
Decimal numbers
–
The world's earliest decimal multiplication table was made from bamboo slips, dating from 305 BC, during the
Warring States period in China.
Decimal numbers
–
Numeral systems
Decimal numbers
–
Ten fingers on two hands, the possible starting point of the decimal counting.
Decimal numbers
–
Diagram of the world's earliest decimal multiplication table (c. 305 BC) from the Warring States period
22.
Royal Artillery
–
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery, is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name Royal Regiment of Artillery it actually consists of 13 Regular Regiments and 5 Reserve Regiments, the introduction of artillery into the English army came as early as the Battle of Crécy in 1346. Henry VIII made the armys artillery semi-permanent in the sixteenth century, before the 18th century, artillery traynes were raised by royal warrant for specific campaigns and disbanded again when they were over. On 26 May 1716, however, by warrant of George I two regular companies of field artillery, each 100 men strong, were raised at Woolwich. The title Royal Artillery was first used in 1720, in 1741 the Royal Military Academy was formed in the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich to provide training for RA and Royal Engineers officers. The regiment expanded rapidly and, by 1757, had 24 companies divided into two battalions, as well as a company formed in 1741. During 1748, the presidential artilleries of Bengal, Madras and Bombay were formed,1756 saw the creation of the Royal Irish Regiment of Artillery. In 1762 the Royal Artillery Band was formed at Minden, by 1771 there were 32 companies in four battalions, as well as two invalid companies comprising older and unfit men employed in garrison duties. During 1782, the regiment moved to the Royal Artillery Barracks on Woolwich Common, in January 1793, two troops of Royal Horse Artillery were raised to provide fire support for the cavalry, augmented by two more in November 1793. The Royal Irish Artillery was absorbed into the RA in 1801, during 1805, the Royal Military Academy moved to Woolwich Common. In 1819, the Rotunda was given to the regiment by the Prince Regent to celebrate end of the Napoleonic Wars, in 1832, the regimental motto, Ubique Quo Fas Et Gloria Ducunt, was granted. The motto signified that the regiment had seen action in all the conflicts of the British Army. The regiment was under the control of the Board of Ordnance until the board was abolished in 1855, thereafter the regiment came under the War Office along with the rest of the army. The School of Gunnery established at Shoeburyness, Essex in 1859, the third group continued to be titled simply Royal Artillery, and was responsible for ammunition storage and supply. Which branch a gunner belonged to was indicated by metal shoulder titles, the RFA and RHA also dressed as mounted men, whereas the RGA dressed like foot soldiers. In 1920 the rank of Bombardier was instituted in the Royal Artillery, the three sections effectively functioned as separate corps. This arrangement lasted until 1924, when the three amalgamated once more to one regiment. In 1938, RA Brigades were renamed Regiments, during the World War II there were over 1 million men serving in 960 gunner regiments
Royal Artillery
–
Cap Badge of the Royal Regiment of Artillery
Royal Artillery
–
General George Campbell of Inverneill CB., Esquire, commander of the Royal Artillery from 1874.
Royal Artillery
–
Red and Blue
Tactical Recognition Flash of the Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
–
BL 8-inch Howitzer Mk 1 – 5 8 in (200 mm) howitzers of the 39th Siege Battery,
Royal Garrison Artillery, in action near
Fricourt in
WWI.
23.
AIM-132 ASRAAM
–
The Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile, also known by its United States identifier AIM-132, is an imaging infrared homing air-to-air missile, produced by MBDA. It is currently in service in the Royal Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force, ASRAAM is designed to outrange and outrun any other IR missile in service, allowing the pilot to fire and then turn away long before the opposing aircraft can close for a shot. It flies at well over Mach 3 to ranges as great as 50 kilometres and it retains a 50g manoeuvrability provided by body lift technology coupled with tail control. The project started as a British-German collaboration in the 1980s, Germany left the programme after examining the latest Soviet designs of the 1980s, deciding that a missile with far greater short-range maneuverability was more important than range. The British proceeded on their own, and the missile was introduced into RAF service in 1998 and it has since been selected to replace Sidewinder in the Royal Australian Air Force and is being introduced to the Indian Air Force. Parts of the missile have been used in the Common Anti-aircraft Modular Missile, the first extensive use of IR missiles took place during the Vietnam War, where the results were dismal. The AIM-4 Falcon, the USAFs primary missile, scored hits only 9% of the time it was fired, the US Navys AIM-9 Sidewinder fared only slightly better, achieving hits in 14 to 19% of firings, depending on the model. It became clear that the issue was that the pilots were firing as soon as the missile saw the target in the seeker. However, the seekers had a limited field of view so if the target aircraft was flying at right angles to the launcher. An attempt to address this problem was made starting in the late 1960s by the Hawker Siddeley Taildog, initially a private project, sRAAMs basic premise is that if pilots wanted to fire when the target was anywhere in front, then the missile should work in those situations. The result was a short range but extremely maneuverable weapon that could turn rapidly enough to keep the target in view no matter the launch parameters. However, by 1974 the program had been downgraded to a development project. The US started a project, AIM-95 Agile, to arm the new F-14. This was similar to SRAAM in concept, but somewhat larger in order to range about the same or better than Sidewinder. Meanwhile, a different set of criteria led to the Dornier Viper. The main reason these projects were cancelled was that a new version of the Sidewinder was introduced which added all-aspect capabilities and wider seeker angles. A variety of changes gave the L slightly better maneuverability, speed and range but the change was that the seeker had much higher tracking angles. Although not nearly as great a step forward as the other designs, British pilots achieved an 80% kill ratio with the L model during the Falklands War, a number matched by the Israeli Air Force a few months later over the Bekaa Valley
AIM-132 ASRAAM
–
Two ASRAAM (centre) on a RAF Typhoon in 2007
AIM-132 ASRAAM
–
RAF Typhoon of
3 Squadron fires ASRAAM in 2007
AIM-132 ASRAAM
–
ASRAAM at
ILA 2006
24.
United Kingdom
–
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
United Kingdom
–
Stonehenge, in
Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
United Kingdom
–
Flag
United Kingdom
–
The
Bayeux Tapestry depicts the
Battle of Hastings, 1066, and the events leading to it.
United Kingdom
–
The
Treaty of Union led to a single united kingdom encompassing all Great Britain.
25.
Infrared homing
–
Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared light emission from a target to track and follow it. Missiles which use infrared seeking are often referred to as heat-seekers, many objects such as people, vehicle engines and aircraft generate and emit heat, and as such, are especially visible in the infrared wavelengths of light compared to objects in the background. Infrared seekers are passive devices, which, unlike radar, provide no indication that they are tracking a target and this makes them suitable for sneak attacks during visual encounters, or over longer ranges when used with a forward looking infrared system or similar cuing system. This makes heat-seekers extremely deadly, 90% of all United States air combat losses over the past 25 years have been due to infrared-homing missiles and they are, however, subject to a number of simple countermeasures, most notably dropping flares behind the target to provide false heat sources. This only works if the pilot is aware of the missile, the first IR devices were experimented with in the pre-World War II era. During the war, German engineers were working on heat seeking missiles and proximity fuses, truly practical designs did not become possible until the introduction of conical scanning and miniaturized vacuum tubes during the war. These early examples had significant limitations and achieved very low rates in combat during the 1960s. A new generation developed in the 1970s and 80s made great strides, the latest examples from the 1990s and on have the ability to attack targets out of their field of view, behind them, and even pick out vehicles on the ground. The infrared sensor package on the tip or head of a missile is known as the seeker head. The NATO brevity code for an air-to-air infrared-guided missile launch is Fox Two, there was little application at the time, and he allowed his 1904 patent to lapse. Nevertheless, it was used for time by the US Navy as a secure communications system. In 1930 the introduction of the Ag-O-Cs photomultiplier provided the first practical solution to the detection of IR, amplifying the signal emitted by the galena, the photomultiplier produced a useful output that could be used for detection of hot objects at long ranges. This sparked developments in a number of nations, notably the UK, eventually they dissolved the Committee and reformed, leaving Lindemann off the roster, and filling his position with well known radio expert Edward Victor Appleton. In Germany, radar research was not given nearly the same level of support as in the UK, IR research was led primarily by Edgar Kutzscher at the University of Berlin working in concert with AEG. This provided enough light to see the target at short range and these proved largely useless in practice and the pilots complained that the target often only became visible at 200 metres, at which point they would have seen it anyway. Only 15 were built and were removed as German airborne radar systems improved though 1942, AEG had been working with the same systems for use on tanks, and deployed a number of models through the war, with limited production of the FG1250 beginning in 1943. This work culminated in the Zielgerät 1229 Vampir riflescope which was used with the StG44 assault rifle for night use, the devices mentioned previously were all detectors, not seekers. They produce either a signal indicating the direction of the target, or in the case of later devices
Infrared homing
–
A modern
German Air Force IRIS-T infrared homing air-to-air missile
Infrared homing
–
The Vampir nightscope used a photomultiplier as the sighting system and provided illumination with an IR lamp mounted above the scope.
Infrared homing
–
An IR seeker known as Hamburg would have equipped the BV 143 in the anti-shipping role.
Infrared homing
–
The Madrid seeker was being developed for the
Enzian surface-to-air missile.
26.
Air-to-air missile
–
An air-to-air missile is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. AAMs are typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fueled, ramjet engines, as used on the Meteor are emerging as propulsion that will enable future medium-range missiles to maintain higher average speed across their engagement envelope. Air-to-air missiles are broadly put in two groups, most use infrared guidance and are called heat-seeking missiles. In contrast, medium- or long-range missiles, which fall under the category of beyond visual range missiles, tend to rely upon radar guidance. Some modern ones use inertial guidance and/or mid-course updates to get the missile close enough to use an active homing sensor, the air-to-air missile grew out of the unguided air-to-air rockets used during the First World War. Le Prieur rockets were attached to the struts of biplanes and fired electrically, usually against observation balloons, by such early pilots as Albert Ball. Post-war research led the Royal Air Force to introduce Fairey Fireflash into service in 1955, the US Navy and US Air Force began equipping guided missiles in 1956, deploying the USAFs AIM-4 Falcon and the USNs AIM-7 Sparrow and AIM-9 Sidewinder. The Soviet Air Force introduced its K-5 into service in 1957, as missile systems have continued to advance, modern air warfare consists almost entirely of missile firing. The use of Beyond Visual Range combat became so pervasive in the US that early F-4 variants were armed only with missiles in the 1960s. High casualty rates during the Vietnam War caused the US to reintroduce autocannons and traditional dogfighting tactics, in the Falklands War British Harriers, using AIM-9L missiles were able to defeat faster Argentinian opponents. Since the late 20th century all-aspect heat-seeking designs can lock-on to a target from angles, not just from behind. Other types rely on radar guidance, a conventional explosive blast warhead, fragmentation warhead, or continuous rod warhead is typically used in the attempt to disable or destroy the target aircraft. Warheads are typically detonated by a proximity fuze or by an impact if it scores a direct hit. Less commonly, nuclear warheads have been mounted on a number of air-to-air missile types although these are not known to have ever been used in combat. Guided missiles operate by detecting their target, and then homing in on the target on a collision course, although the missile may use radar or infra-red guidance to home on the target, the launching aircraft may detect and track the target before launch by other means. Radar guidance is used for medium- or long-range missiles, where the infra-red signature of the target would be too faint for an infra-red detector to track. There are three types of radar-guided missile – active, semi-active, and passive. Radar-guided missiles can be countered by rapid maneuvering, deploying chaff or using electronic counter-measures, active radar -guided missiles carry their own radar system to detect and track their target
Air-to-air missile
–
A USAF
F-22 fires an
AIM-120 AMRAAM
Air-to-air missile
–
Two F-15Es from the 90th Fighter Squadron USAF, from Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, fire a pair of AIM-7Ms during a training mission.
Air-to-air missile
–
A modern
IRIS-T air-to-air missile of the
German Air Force.
Air-to-air missile
–
A
Royal Air Force AIM-132
ASRAAM on a
Eurofighter Typhoon.
27.
Royal Air Force
–
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdoms aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. The RAF describe its mission statement as, an agile, adaptable and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission. The mission statement is supported by the RAFs definition of air power, Air power is defined as the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events. Today the Royal Air Force maintains a fleet of various types of aircraft. The majority of the RAFs rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces, most of the RAFs aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. It was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time it was the largest air force in the world. The RAFs naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924, the RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War, under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed Article XV squadrons for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from countries, and exiles from occupied Europe. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations, additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe, the largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, during the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Before Britain developed its own nuclear weapons the RAF was provided with American nuclear weapons under Project E and these were initially armed with nuclear gravity bombs, later being equipped with the Blue Steel missile. Following the development of the Royal Navys Polaris submarines, the nuclear deterrent passed to the navys submarines on 30 June 1969. With the introduction of Polaris, the RAFs strategic nuclear role was reduced to a tactical one and this tactical role was continued by the V bombers into the 1980s and until 1998 by Tornado GR1s. For much of the Cold War the primary role of the RAF was the defence of Western Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, with many squadrons based in West Germany. With the decline of the British Empire, global operations were scaled back, despite this, the RAF fought in many battles in the Cold War period
Royal Air Force
–
A later version of the
Spitfires which played a major part in the
Battle of Britain.
Royal Air Force
–
Royal Air Force emblem
Royal Air Force
–
The
Avro Lancaster heavy bomber was extensively used during the strategic bombing of Germany.
Royal Air Force
–
The
Handley Page Victor bomber was a
strategic bomber of the RAF's
V bomber force used to carry both conventional and
nuclear bombs.
28.
United States Navy
–
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows then as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
United States Navy
United States Navy
–
United States Navy portal
United States Navy
–
USS Constellation vs L'Insurgente during the
Quasi-War
United States Navy
–
USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere during the
War of 1812
29.
Cargo ship
–
A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the worlds seas and oceans each year, cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, cargo ships/freighters can be divided into five groups, according to the type of cargo they carry. Tankers carry petroleum products or other liquid cargo, dry bulk carriers carry coal, grain, ore and other similar products in loose form. Multi-purpose vessels, as the name suggests, carry different classes of cargo – e. g. liquid, a Reefer ship is specifically designed and used for shipping perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs. Specialized types of cargo vessels include ships and bulk carriers. Cargo ships fall into two categories that reflect the services they offer to industry, liner and tramp services. Those on a published schedule and fixed tariff rates are cargo liners. Tramp ships do not have fixed schedules, users charter them to haul loads. Generally, the shipping companies and private individuals operate tramp ships. Cargo liners run on fixed schedules published by the shipping companies, each trip a liner takes is called a voyage. However, some cargo liners may carry passengers also, a cargo liner that carries 12 or more passengers is called a combination or passenger-cum-cargo line. The desire to trade routes over longer distances, and throughout more seasons of the year. Before the middle of the 19th century, the incidence of piracy resulted in most cargo ships being armed, sometimes heavily, as in the case of the Manila galleons. They were also escorted by warships. Piracy is still common in some waters, particularly in the Malacca Straits. In 2004, the governments of three nations agreed to provide better protection for the ships passing through the Straits. The waters off Somalia and Nigeria are also prone to piracy, while smaller vessels are also in danger along parts of the South American, Southeast Asian coasts, the words cargo and freight have become interchangeable in casual usage
Cargo ship
–
The
Colombo Express, one of the largest container ships in the world (when she was built in 2005), owned and operated by
Hapag-Lloyd of
Germany
Cargo ship
–
Loading of a general cargo vessel in 1959
Cargo ship
–
A Delmas container ship unloading at the Zanzibar port in Tanzania
30.
World War II
–
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
World War II
–
Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the
Battle of Wanjialing, Australian
25-pounder guns during the
First Battle of El Alamein, German
Stuka dive bombers on the
Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the
Lingayen Gulf,
Wilhelm Keitel signing the
German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the
Battle of Stalingrad
World War II
–
The
League of Nations assembly, held in
Geneva,
Switzerland, 1930
World War II
–
Adolf Hitler at a German
National Socialist political rally in
Weimar, October 1930
World War II
–
Italian soldiers recruited in 1935, on their way to fight the
Second Italo-Abyssinian War
31.
Fleet oiler
–
Replenishment at sea or Underway replenishment is a method of transferring fuel, munitions, and stores from one ship to another while under way. Prior to underway replenishment, coaling stations were the way to refuel ships far from home. The Royal Navy had a global logistics network of coaling stations. This capability allowed the Navy to project naval power around the world and this however had two disadvantages, the infrastructure was vulnerable to disruption or attack, and its use introduced a predictable pattern to naval operations that an enemy could exploit. Early attempts at refuelling and restocking at sea had been made as far back as 1870, however, the speed was far too slow to be generally practicable and calm weather was required to keep the neighbouring ships together. Lieutenant Robert Lowry was the first to suggest the use of large-scale underway replenishment techniques in an 1883 paper to the think tank Royal United Services Institute. He argued that a system would provide a minimum rate of 20 tons per hour while the ships maintain a speed of five knots. His proposal was for transfer to be effected through watertight coal carriers suspended from a cable between the two ships, although his concept was rejected by the Admiralty, the advantages of such a system were made apparent to strategists on both sides of the Atlantic. Over 20 submissions were made to the RN between 1888-90 alone, the main technical problem was ensuring a constant distance between the two ships throughout the process. According to a report from The Times, a French collier had been able to provision two warships with 200 tons of coal at a speed of six knots using a Temperley transporter in 1898, the United States Navy also became interested in the potential of underway replenishment. His device kept a cable suspended between the two ships taut, with a hook that could travel up and down the line with the use of a winch. The first test of the device involved the collier Marcellus and battleship Massachusetts, the RN embarked on more extensive trials in 1901, and reached a speed of 19 tons per hour. Miller also collaborated with the British Temperley Company, producing an enhanced version, RN trials with this new system in 1902 achieved an unprecedented average rate of forty-seven tons per hour and a peak rate of sixty tons per hour. The Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company also patented its Express equipment, the company offered the system to the Admiralty, claiming that it had achieved a rate of 150 tons per hour, but the offer was turned down. A Royal Navy engineer, Metcalf, put forward a system in 1903. Trials were held in 1903, which demonstrated an optimal operating speed of 10 knots with a rate of 54 tph. Although it was a system and met with a formal endorsement from the Admiralty there is little evidence that such equipment was ultimately put to any operational use by any Navy. In May 1905, the U. S. Navy tested an improved Miller-Lidgerwood rig using the Marcellus and these coaling tests achieved 35 tph while steaming at seven knots, which still fell short of expectations
Fleet oiler
–
Attaching a fueling probe while underway
Fleet oiler
–
Early ship resupplying at sea, such as an attempt with
HMS Captain in 1870, was slow and often hazardous.
Fleet oiler
–
Trials of the Metcalfe system in 1902 between the battleship
HMS Trafalgar and collier.
Fleet oiler
–
The
USS Maumee oil tanker achieved the first operational UR in 1917.
32.
USS Aaron Ward (DD-132)
–
The first ship named in honor of Rear Admiral Aaron Ward, USS Aaron Ward was a Wickes-class destroyer in service with the United States Navy. In 1940, she was transferred to the Royal Navy and renamed HMS Castleton, the ship was commissioned on 21 April 1919 with Commander Raymond A. Spruance in command. Upon commissioning, the destroyer reported for duty with Destroyer Division 13, Destroyer Squadron 2 and she performed her first significant service for the Navy at Trepassey Bay in May 1919 when she served as one of the pickets for the transatlantic flight attempt by three Curtiss NC flying boats. One of the boats—NC-4—completed the flight successfully, Aaron Ward continued to serve with Atlantic Fleet until September, at which time she was transferred to the Pacific. Her first assignment there consisted of a month of operations in Angeles Bay, Mexico, to recover a sunken Army plane. At the conclusion of that mission, she began training operations with the Battle Fleet, on 17 July 1920, the Navy adopted the alphanumeric system of hull designations, and Aaron Ward became DD-132. Her work with Battle Fleet was interrupted early in 1921 by two rescue missions near the Panama Canal Zone. Between January and March of that year, she cruised the waters along the coast of the Canal Zone searching for the flying boat NC-6, which had crashed in the vicinity. Aaron Ward resumed normal duty with the Battle Fleet in March 1921, the destroyer remained inactive for almost eight years, and then was recommissioned at San Diego on 24 May 1930. After active service until mid-1932, she entered the Rotating Reserve in which she alternated periods at sea with intervals of inactivity at pierside with a minimal crew embarked. The ship continued in that status until December 1934, when she returned to full activity, on 1 April 1937, the destroyer once more was placed out of commission and returned to the Reserve Fleet. On 30 September 1939, Aaron Ward came out of reserve for the final time, recommissioned on that day, she became flagship of DesDiv 65, Pacific Fleet. In December, she was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet and, on the 11th, arrived at Key West, for the rest of her U. S. Navy career, she conducted neutrality patrols in the Gulf of Mexico and in the West Indies. On 9 September 1940, Aaron Ward was decommissioned at Halifax, list of United States Navy destroyers Lenton, H. T. and Colledge J. J. British and Dominion Warships of World War II and this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here
USS Aaron Ward (DD-132)
–
USS Aaron Ward
33.
Wickes class destroyer
–
The Wickes-class destroyers were a class of 111 destroyers built by the United States Navy in 1917–19. Along with the 6 preceding Caldwell-class and 156 subsequent Clemson-class destroyers, only a few were completed in time to serve in World War I, including USS Wickes, the lead ship of the class. While some were scrapped in the 1930s, the rest served through World War II, most of these were converted to other uses, nearly all in U. S. service had half their boilers and one or more stacks removed to increase fuel and range or accommodate troops. Others were transferred to the British Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy, All were scrapped within a few years after World War II. The destroyer type was at time a relatively new class of fighting ship for the U. S. Navy. The type arose in response to torpedo boats that had been developing from 1865, a series of destroyers had been built over the preceding years, designed for high smooth water speed, with indifferent results, especially poor performance in heavy seas and poor fuel economy. The lesson of these destroyers was the appreciation of the need for true seakeeping and seagoing abilities. There were few cruisers in the Navy, which was a fleet of battleships and destroyers so destroyers performed scouting missions. A report of October 1915 by Captain W. S. Sims noted that the smaller destroyers used fuel far too quickly, and that war games showed the need for fast vessels with a larger radius of action. As a result, the size of U. S. destroyer classes increased steadily, starting at 450 tons and rising to over 1,000 tons between 1905 and 1916. The increase in size has never stopped, with some US Arleigh Burke-class destroyers now up to 10,800 tons full load. With World War I then in its year and tensions between the U. S. and Germany increasing, the U. S. needed to expand its navy. The Naval Appropriation Act of 1916 called for a second to none. The Act authorized 10 battleships,6 Lexington-class battlecruisers,10 Omaha-class scout cruisers, a subsequent General Board recommendation for further destroyers to combat the submarine threat resulted in a total of 267 Wickes- and Clemson-class destroyers completed. However, the design of the ships remained optimized for operation with the battleship fleet, the requirements of the new design were high speed and mass production. The development of warfare during World War I created a requirement for destroyers in numbers that had not been contemplated before the war. A top speed of 35 knots was needed for operation with the Lexington battlecruisers, the final design had a flush deck and four smokestacks. It was a fairly straightforward evolution of the preceding Caldwell class, General dissatisfaction with the earlier 1,000 ton designs led to the fuller hull form of the flush deck type
Wickes class destroyer
–
USS Wickes (DD-75)
Wickes class destroyer
–
8 ships of Wickes class destroyer, New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey, 1919.
34.
Destroyer
–
Before World War II, destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations, typically a number of destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. After the war, the advent of the missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles previously filled by battleships. This resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation, the emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy an enemy battle fleet using steam launches to launch torpedoes. Fast boats armed with torpedoes were built and called torpedo boats, the first seagoing vessel designed to fire the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, in response to this new threat, more heavily gunned picket boats called catchers were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Italian, Portuguese, Czech, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. At that time, and even into World War I, the function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future, an important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884, later redesignated TB81. This was a torpedo boat with four 47 mm quick-firing guns. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage torpedo boats reliably. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the London Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887. The 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, in her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, and was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas. The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for the Kotaka, the first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Essentially very small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes, by the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster. The first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, the gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying smaller torpedo boats. Exactly 200 feet long and 23 feet in beam, she displaced 550 tons, built of steel, Rattlesnake was un-armoured with the exception of a 3⁄4-inch protective deck
Destroyer
–
USS Winston S. Churchill, an
Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer of the
United States Navy
Destroyer
Destroyer
–
The
Imperial Japanese Navy 's Kotaka (1887)
Destroyer
–
HMS Havock the first modern destroyer, commissioned in 1894
35.
USS Balduck (APD-132)
–
USS Balduck was a Crosley-class high speed transport of the United States Navy, named after Marine Corporal Remi A. Balduck, who was killed during the Battle of Guadalcanal. For his actions he was awarded the Navy Cross. Balducks keel was laid down on 17 June 1944 at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company in Bay City, Michigan as a Rudderow-class destroyer escort, designated DE-716. She was re-designated as APD-132, a fast transport, on 17 July 1944, builders trials before her pre-commissioning cruise were done in Lake Huron. After completion, Balduck sailed from the yard at Bay City to Chicago. T. Newell, Jr. USNR, in command, as an APD, her primary role was to land raiding parties on enemy beaches and Underwater Demolition Team personnel on beach obstacle clearance operations. APDs also retained the sound gear and some weapons of destroyer escorts. Because they could take on personnel, they were often designated as rescue ships if a transport went down. Departing Oceanside, California, on 16 August 1945, Balduck steamed to Okinawa and she participated in the occupation of Korea and Tsingtao, China, until 12 October 1945. She departed on 19 October for San Diego, arriving there on 7 November, as a member of Transport Division 112, she conducted five voyages between San Diego and San Pedro, California, carrying personnel, before commencing her pre-inactivation overhaul. She went out of commission in reserve at San Diego on 31 May 1946, Balduck was recommissioned on 5 November 1953, and assigned to Amphibious Control Division 12. Between 8 December 1953 and 25 March 1954, she was at San Francisco Naval Shipyard undergoing repairs, upon return to San Diego, Balduck joined Amphibious Control Division 11. She exercised in the area with Underwater Demolition Teams and on anti-submarine warfare training, on 1 September 1954, Balduck departed San Diego and steamed to Yokosuka, Japan, reporting to Amphibious Transport Division 31. She arrived on 14 October 1954 at Hai Phong, Indochina and she then steamed to the Tachen Islands, arriving there on 9 February 1955, where she operated with units of Task Force 77 during the evacuation of Nationalist Chinese soldiers and civilians. Between 1 March and 17 March, Balduck steamed with a task unit between Yokosuka and San Diego, following repairs, she operated out of San Diego on anti-submarine, amphibious, and air defense training exercises. Arriving at Yokosuka, Japan, on 15 September 1955, Balduck cruised in Japanese and Philippine waters, Balduck was decommissioned on 28 February 1958. While in reserve, her designation changed to Amphibious Transport, Small, LPR-132 and she was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 15 July 1975 and sold for scrapping,6 December 1976, for $60,000, to National Metal and Steel Corp. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, the entries can be found here and here
USS Balduck (APD-132)
–
USS Balduck, USN Photo National Archives #80-6-6371218
36.
USS Barnwell (APA-132)
–
USS Barnwell was a Haskell-class attack transport of the US Navy. She was built and used during World War II and she was of the VC2-S-AP5 Victory ship design type. Barnwell was named for Barnwell County, South Carolina, the attack transport spent the rest of the month getting ready for her shakedown by holding drills and taking on supplies. On 30 January, she out of San Francisco Bay. There, shakedown training took up the first two weeks of February, and type training occupied the remainder, on 2 March, she put in at Terminal Island for a three-week post-shakedown availability. On 21 March, Barnwell got underway for San Diego where she embarked passengers and she reached Pearl Harbor on 29 March and spent April conducting amphibious training in the islands. Early in May, troops and cargo filled her spaces, and she first stopped in the Marshall Islands then moved on to Guam to unload part of her cargo and to disembark some of her passengers, before delivering the remainder of both to Saipan. Next, she sailed to the Caroline Islands where she took troops on board at Ulithi for passage to Leyte. After stopping at Tacloban on Leyte, Barnwell transferred 23 landing craft to the pool at Samar and then headed back to the United States, carrying sailors. Following a stop at Pearl Harbor en route, she disembarked her passengers, at the works conclusion, Barnwell embarked over 1,800 troops and took on a cargo of 15,000 mailbags. Underway on 14 July, Barnwell proceeded via Eniwetok and Ulithi to the Philippines, after delivering passengers and mail to both Guinan Harbor on Samar and Tacloban on Leyte, the attack transport sailed for the Admiralty Islands on 10 August. She reached Manus on the 14th and, while disembarking the rest of her troops there, departing Manus on the 16th, she touched briefly at Ulithi before continuing on to New Caledonia. At Noumea, she took on cargo and embarked part of a Construction Battalion. Early in September, she picked up the rest of the Seabees, from there, the attack transport set sail for the Philippines. At Lingayen, she embarked an Army medical unit bound for duty in Japan. She then set sail for Sasebo on 20 September, Barnwell made one more troop lift for the Army, a round-trip voyage from Japan to Lingayan and back, in October. Then, after touching at Kure and Hiroshima, Barnwell sailed to Guam, assigned to the Magic Carpet fleet on 23 October, Barnwell departed Guam with returning servicemen on the last day of October. Bound for San Francisco at first, she received orders diverting her to Seattle while en route, for the remainder of 1945, she operated in coastwise service, visiting Seattle, Washington, Portland, Oregon, as well as San Francisco and San Pedro
USS Barnwell (APA-132)
–
USS Barnwell, c. 1945, location unknown, picture taken by member of ship's crew
37.
Haskell class attack transport
–
Haskell-class attack transports were amphibious assault ships of the United States Navy created in 1944. They were designed to transport 1,500 troops and their combat equipment, the Haskells were very active in the World War II Pacific Theater of Operations, landing Marines and Army troops and transporting casualties at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Ships of the class were among the first Allied ships to enter Tokyo Bay at the end of World War II, after the end of World War II, most participated in Operation Magic Carpet, the massive sealift of US personnel back to the United States. A few of the Haskell class were reactivated for the Korean War, the Haskell class, Maritime Commission standard type VC2-S-AP5, is a sub‑type of the World War II Victory ship design. 117 were launched in 1944 and 1945, with 14 more being finished as another VC2 type or canceled, the VC2-S-AP5 design was intended for the transport and assault landing of over 1,500 troops and their heavy combat equipment. During Operation Magic Carpet, up to 1,900 personnel per ship were carried homeward, the Haskells carried 25 landing craft to deliver the troops and equipment right onto the beach. The 23 main boats were the 36 feet long, LCVP, the LCVP was designed to carry 36 equipped troops. The other 2 landing craft were the 50 foot long LCM, capable of carrying 60 troops or 30 tons of cargo, the Haskell-class ships were armed with one 5/38 caliber gun, twelve Bofors 40 mm guns, and ten Oerlikon 20 mm guns. See List of Haskell-class attack transports, Haskell-class attack transports included APA-117, USS Haskell, the lead ship, through APA-247, the never completed USS Mecklenburg. The hulls for APA-181 through APA-186 were repurposed to be hospital ships before they were named, ultimately those hospital ships were built on larger C4 plan and the six VC2 hulls were built in a merchant configuration. APA-240 through APA-247 were named, but cancelled in 1945 when the war ended, with the special exception of the USS Marvin H. McIntyre, the Haskell-class ships were all named after counties of the United States. Most of the Haskell-class ships were mothballed in 1946, with only a few remaining in service, many of the Haskell class were scrapped in 1973-75. A few were converted into Missile Range Instrumentation Ships, the USS Gage, the last remaining ship in the Haskell configuration, was scrapped in 2009 at ESCO Marine, in Brownsville, Tx. The USS Sherburne, which was converted and renamed USS Range Sentinel, lasted until she was scrapped in 2012
Haskell class attack transport
–
USS Noble, a ship of the Haskell class, in 1956
Haskell class attack transport
–
The
USS St. Mary's in
San Francisco Bay,
California, in late 1945 or early 1946. She is returning troops from the western Pacific to the United States as part of Operation Magic Carpet. Note the long homeward bound pennant trailing from her after mast, and the sign on shore (in the right distance) stating " Welcome Home, Well Done."
Haskell class attack transport
–
The
USS Rutland lowering an LCM off
Iwo Jima, 1945.
38.
Attack transport
–
Attack transport is a United States Navy ship classification for a variant of ocean-going troopship adapted to transporting invasion forces ashore. Unlike standard troopships – often drafted from commercial shipping fleets – that rely on either a quay or tenders and they are not to be confused with landing ships, which beach themselves to bring their troops directly ashore, or their general British equivalent, the Landing ship, infantry. A total of 388 APA and AKA attack transports were built for service in World War II in at least fifteen classes, depending on class they were armed with one or two 5-inch guns and a variety of 40 mm and 20 mm anti-aircraft weapons. Some of these were outfitted with heavy boat davits and other arrangements to enable them to handle landing craft] for amphibious assault operations. In 1942, when the AP number series had extended beyond 100. Therefore, the new classification of attack transport was created and numbers assigned to fifty-eight APs then in commission or under construction, the actual reclassification of these ships was not implemented until February 1943, by which time two ships that had APA numbers assigned had been lost. Another two transports sunk in 1942, USS George F. Elliott and USS Leedstown, were configured as attack transports. In addition, as part of the 1950s modernization of the Navys amphibious force with faster ships, as a result, only attack transport ships were assigned for the assault, without support from any companion attack cargo ships. This created extreme logistics burdens for the force because it resulted in considerable overloading of the transports with both men and equipment. To compound problems, these forces were not able to assemble or train together before executing the Aleutian invasion on 11 May 1943, lack of equipment and training subsequently resulted in confusion during the landings on Attu. By the end of the 1950s, it was clear that boats would soon be superseded by amphibious tractors and helicopters for landing assault troops. These could not be supported by attack transports in the numbers required, by 1969, when the surviving attack transports were redesignated LPA, only a few remained in commissioned service. The last of these were decommissioned in 1980 and sold abroad, the APA/LPA designation may, therefore, now be safely considered extinct. Nearly identical ships used to transport vehicles, supplies and landing craft, Landing Ship Infantry This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. APA/LPA -- Attack Transports by the US Naval Historical Center
Attack transport
–
The
USS American Legion was a
Harris-class attack transport launched in 1919 that saw extensive service in World War II
Attack transport
–
Soldiers climb down netting on the sides of the attack transport
USS McCawley (APA-4) on 14 June 1943, rehearsing for landings on
New Georgia
Attack transport
–
A loaded
Bayfield-class attack transport underway, the
USS Hamblen (APA-114)
39.
USS General J. R. Brooke (AP-132)
–
USS General J. R. Brooke was a General G. O. Squier-class transport ship for the U. S. Navy in World War II. She was named in honor of U. S. Army general John Rutter Brooke, decommissioned in 1946, she was sold privately in 1964 and renamed SS Marymar, and was scrapped in 1979. General J. R. Brooke was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract 29 June 1942 by the Kaiser Co. Inc. Yard 3, Richmond, California, launched 21 February 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Helen Thompson, acquired by the Navy 10 December 1943, San Francisco, and commissioned 20 January 1944 at San Francisco, Captain David L. Nutter in command. On her maiden voyage, General J. R. Brooke sailed from Port Hueneme 24 February 1944 with more than 3,600 troops, mostly Seabees, for Pearl Harbor and returned to San Francisco 8 March. From 19 March to 23 April she made a round-trip voyage out of San Francisco to bring 3,600 men to Nouméa and Espiritu Santo. Following her return, the ship sailed again 12 May for New Guinea to debark 3,400 troops at Oro Bay, and steamed thence to New York, where she arrived 3 July 1944. Convoyed by ships and planes and under constant threat of submarine attack, after the wars end, General J. R. Brooke made two Magic-Carpet and troop-rotation voyages from New York to Calcutta and Ceylon via the Suez Canal from 11 September 1945 to 3 January 1946. Subsequently, she made five identical troop-carrying voyages from New York to Le Havre between 19 January and 10 June 1946, in May 1946 she transported over 2,700 German POWs back to France. General J. R. Brooke moored at Norfolk 13 June, returned to the WSA on 18 July 1946, she entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet, James River, Virginia. She was sold to Bethlehem Steel Corp. of Wilmington, Delaware in April 1964, rebuilt as a cargo ship for Bethlehems subsidiary Calmar Line. The ship was sold and renamed Mary in 1976 and was scrapped in 1979, World War II U. S. Navy Vessels in Private Hands. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, the entry can be found here. Photo gallery of General J. R. Brooke at NavSource Naval History
USS General J. R. Brooke (AP-132)
–
History
40.
General G. O. Squier class transport ship
–
The General G. O. Squier class of transport ships was built for the U. S. Navy during World War II. The class was based upon the Maritime Commission’s Type C4 ship, the class was named for United States Army Major General George Owen Squier. The first ship was launched in November 1942, while the last was launched in April 1945, over that period the United States produced 30 General G. O. Squier-class transports. All of the ships were designated with hull classification symbol AP. The 24 still in service in 1950 were transferred back to the Navy as part of the Military Sea Transportation Service. All but two were transferred on 1 March 1950, and all were reinstated on the Naval Vessel Register as United States Naval Ships, and redesignated with hull classification symbol T-AP. Most of the General G. O. Squier class were deactivated in 1958 for two reasons, the introduction of jet airliners, and a decision to use berthing space on U. S. -flagged passenger ships. They were later transferred back to MSTS under their new names, the last General G. O. Squier-class ship afloat, the ex-General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, was sunk as an artificial reef off of the Florida Keys on 27 May 2009. O. Squier USS General T. H, bliss USS General J. R. Brooke USS General O. H. Ernst USS General R. L. Howze USS General W. M. Black, later USS Green Forest, Central Gulf Lines. USS General H. L. Scott USS General S. D. Sturgis USS General C. G. Morton USS General R. E. Callan, later USNS General H. H. Langfitt USS General Omar Bundy USS General R. M. Blatchford USS General LeRoy Eltinge USS General A. W. Brewster USS General D. E. Aultman USS General C. C. Ballou USS General W. G. Haan USS General Stuart Heintzelman Type C4 class ship Haven-class hospital ship of the U. S. Navy were also based on the Type C4 hull design
General G. O. Squier class transport ship
–
Squier -class
USNS General A.W. Greely (T-AP-141) in the early 1950s
41.
USS Macon (CA-132)
–
USS Macon, a Baltimore-class heavy cruiser of the United States Navy was laid down on 14 June 1943 by the New York Shipbuilding Corp. Macon’s first fleet assignment was with the 8th Fleet, which she joined soon after her shakedown cruise, sailing with the fleet for maneuvers in the Caribbean, she departed Norfolk on 19 April 1946, returning to New York on 7 May. On 4 June Macon arrived at Norfolk for duty as a test ship for the development force. She also participated in a summer cruise to Europe in 1948. Her experimental duties continued until 12 April 1950 when she decommissioned, with the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950, Macon was ordered reactivated. As she had just entered into a status in April her reactivation went extremely quickly, and in reality consisted minor repairs, loading a crew, stores. She recommissioned at Philadelphia 16 October 1950, Capt, victor Dismukes Long in command and, upon completion of refresher training, became the flagship of Cruiser Division 6 in the Atlantic. Besides these duties, Macon continued to receive experimental equipment for testing throughout the period, on the night of 19–20 January 1959, Macon, steaming from Cartagena to Marseille, diverted from her course and sped to the aid of burning Italian merchant ship Maria Amata. Macons crew fought the flames, but the ship was soon beyond salvage, Macon then carried the merchantmans crew to Valencia, Spain. USS Macon CA-132 participated in Operation Inland Seas which was a United States Navy operation to celebrate the completion of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959. By the end of 1959 Macon had conducted six midshipmen summer cruises and had spent the fall, the following January, Macon, carrying the U. S. Navy Band, departed Norfolk for a goodwill cruise to South American ports. While on this tour,19 members of the band perished in a plane en route to perform at a state dinner for Brazilian President Juscelino Kubitschek. With Argentine Naval personnel participating, Macons crew held memorial services in Buenos Aires Harbor on 28 February, completing this cruise at Rio de Janeiro on 10 March, Macon returned to Boston to resume her cycle of operations with the Atlantic Fleet. Macon was placed out of commission in reserve at Philadelphia on 10 March 1961, stricken on 1 November 1969, and sold to the Union Minerals and Alloys Corporation, New York City, on 5 July 1973 and scrapped in Port Newark, New Jersey. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, the entry can be found here. This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, the entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Macon at NavSource Naval History
USS Macon (CA-132)
–
History
USS Macon (CA-132)
–
Macon in the Mediterranean, 1953
42.
Baltimore class cruiser
–
The Baltimore-class cruiser was a large class of heavy cruisers in the United States Navy commissioned during or shortly after World War II. Fourteen Baltimores were completed, more than any class of heavy cruiser. Fast and heavily armed, the Baltimore cruisers were used in World War II to protect the fast aircraft carriers in battle groups from air attack. Additionally, their 8-inch main guns and secondary 5-inch guns were used to bombard land targets in support of amphibious landings. After the war, only six Baltimores and two Oregon City-class ships remained in service, while the rest were moved to the reserve fleet, however, all ships except Boston, Canberra, Chicago and Fall River were reactivated for the Korean War. Except for St Paul, all the ships retaining all-gun configurations had very short lives, and by 1971 were decommissioned. However, four Baltimore-class cruisers were refitted and converted some of the first guided missile cruisers in the world. The last of these was decommissioned in 1980, with the Chicago lasting until 1991 in reserve, no example of the Baltimore class still exists. With the start of the war, the limitations instituted by the Second London Naval Treaty, the Baltimore class was based partly on USS Wichita, a heavy cruiser from 1937, which represented the transition from inter-war to World War II designs. It was also based partly on the Cleveland class, a cruiser that was then being built. The construction of the first four ships of the Baltimore class began on July 1,1940, a second order, which consisted of 16 more ships, was approved on August 7,1942. With the construction of the first eight Baltimore-class ships moving slowly, the new, modified design was itself delayed, so that construction had begun on a further six ships—for a total of 14—using the original design before the revisions were completed. The final three ships ordered were converted to the design, known as the Oregon City class. Between 1943 and 1947,17 ships of the Baltimore and Oregon City classes entered service, construction of the eighteenth ship was suspended, to eventually be completed as a flagship/command ship in 1950. Five more were laid down, but cancelled and scrapped before launch, the largest contractor for the construction of the Baltimore-class ships was Bethlehem Steel, which produced eight ships at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. New York Shipbuilding in Camden, New Jersey, built four, the ships were named after cities in the United States, the only exception being USS Canberra, which was named in honor of HMAS Canberra, which had been named after Canberra, the Australian capital. The classification CA originally stood for armored cruiser but was used for heavy cruisers. By 1947, nine of the Baltimores had been decommissioned and placed in the reserve fleet, however, at the start of the 1950s, six were reactivated, making thirteen available for deployment in the Korean War
Baltimore class cruiser
–
USS Baltimore (CA-68)
Baltimore class cruiser
–
USS Bremerton in drydock
Baltimore class cruiser
–
USS Baltimore during her reactivation
Baltimore class cruiser
–
USS Pittsburgh with her bow ripped off
43.
Edsall-class
–
The Edsall-class destroyer escorts were destroyer escorts built primarily for ocean anti-submarine escort service during World War II. The lead ship, USS Edsall, was commissioned on 10 April 1943 at Orange, the class was also known as the FMR type from their Fairbanks-Morse reduction-geared diesel drive, with a type of engine used in the submarines of the time. The FMRs substitution for a power plant was the essential difference from the predecessor Cannon class. This was the only World War II destroyer escort class in all the ships originally ordered were completed as United States Navy destroyer escorts. Destroyer escorts were regular companions escorting the cargo ships. Late in the war, plans were made to replace the 3-inch guns with 5-inch guns, in total, all 85 were completed by three shipbuilding companies, Beth Staten Island, Consolidated Orange, and Houston. Most were en route to the Pacific Theater when Japan surrendered, one of the ships participated in Operation Dragoon and two were attacked by German guided missiles A total of 85 Edsall-class destroyer escorts were built. DE-129 through DE-152 Beth Staten Island DE-238 through DE-255 Consolidated Orange DE-316 through DE-338 Beth Staten Island DE-382 through DE-401 Houston USS Frederick C. Later, to Philippines as BRP Rajah Lakandula USS Thomas J. Gary - transferred to Tunisia USS Forster - transferred to South Vietnam as Tran Khanh Du, later, captured by North Vietnam and used as training vessel USS Pillsbury sister ship of USS Pope. Was in TG22.3 with Pope and participated in the capture of U-boat U-505, USS Joyce Participated in the sinking of U-boat U-550. USS Pope was in Task Force 22.3 that was centered on escort carrier USS Guadalcanal, USS Flaherty was in TG22.3 with Pope, Pillsbury and Chatelain and participated in the capture of U-505. USS Frederick C. Davis and USS Herbert C. Jones each received a Navy Unit Commendation for action during the Anzio campaign, USS Frost sank 5 German U-boats and awarded Presidential Unit Citation,7 battle stars. USS Chatelain was in TG22.3 with Pope and Pillsbury, USS Stewart - the sole surviving example of the Edsall-class, a museum ship in Galveston, Texas. USS Kretchmer received a Navy Unit Commendation for action three days after the war ended, list of Edsall Class Destroyer Escorts USS Fessenden DE/DER-142 Destroyers OnLine, The Destroyer Escorts Edsall class at Destroyer History Foundation
Edsall-class
–
USS Edsall (DE-129)
44.
Destroyer escort
–
Destroyer escort was the United States Navy mid-20th century classification for a 20-knot warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships. Kaibōkan were designed for a role in the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Royal Navy and Commonwealth forces identified such warships as frigates, Destroyer escorts, frigates and kaibōkan were mass-produced for World War II as a less expensive anti-submarine warfare alternative to fleet destroyers. Post-war destroyer escorts and frigates were larger than those produced during wartime, with increased anti-aircraft capability, as Cold War destroyer escorts became as large as wartime destroyers, the United States Navy converted some of their World War II destroyers to escort destroyers. Full-size destroyers must be able to steam as fast or faster than the fast capital ships such as carriers and cruisers. This typically requires a speed of 25–35 knots and they must carry torpedoes and a smaller caliber of cannon to use against enemy ships, as well as anti-submarine detection equipment and weapons. A destroyer escort needed only to be able to maneuver relative to a slow convoy and these lower requirements greatly reduce the size, cost, and crew required for the destroyer escort. Destroyer escorts were optimized for anti-submarine warfare, having a turning radius. Their much slower speed was not a liability in this context, Destroyer escorts were also considerably more sea-kindly than corvettes. Electric drive was selected because it does not need gearboxes to adjust engine speed to the much lower optimum speed for the propellers, Destroyer escorts were also useful for coastal anti-submarine and radar picket ship duty. During World War II, seven destroyer escorts were converted to radar picket destroyer escorts, although these were relegated to secondary roles after the war, in the mid-1950s twelve more DEs were converted to DERs, serving as such until 1960-1965. Their mission was to extend the Distant Early Warning line on coasts, in conjunction with sixteen Guardian-class radar picket ships, which were converted Liberty ships. In World War II, some 95 destroyer escorts were converted by the US to high-speed transports and this involved adding an extra deck which allowed space for about 10 officers and 150 men. Two large davits were installed, one on either side of the ship. This enabled the UK to commission the US to design, build and supply an escort vessel that was suitable for anti-submarine warfare in deep open ocean situations, cochrane of the American Bureau of Shipping came up with a design which was known as the British Destroyer Escort. S. Navy and one to the Royal Navy, after World War II United States Navy destroyer escorts were referred to as ocean escorts, but retained the hull classification symbol DE. However other navies, most notably those of NATO countries and the USSR, in order to remedy this problem the 1975 ship reclassification reclassified ocean escorts as frigates. This brought the USNs nomenclature more in line with NATO, as of 2006 there are no plans for future frigates for the US Navy
Destroyer escort
–
USS Evarts (DE-5), an example of the Evarts subclass.
Destroyer escort
–
USS Dealey (DE-1006)
Destroyer escort
–
HMS Dacres, converted to act as a headquarters ship during
Operation Neptune
45.
USS S-27 (SS-132)
–
USS S–27 was a S-class submarine of the United States Navy. Her construction was authorized in March 1917, and her keel was laid down on 11 April 1919 by the Fore River Plant, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporations Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. She was launched on 18 October 1922 sponsored by Mrs. Frank Baldwin and she remained based in southern California through the decade and, except for fleet maneuvers, operated primarily off that coast. Fleet maneuvers, exercises, and problems took her to the west coast of Central America, to the Panama Canal Zone, into the Caribbean Sea and to Hawaii. In 1931, she was transferred to Hawaii, and on 23 February, she arrived at Pearl Harbor, on 16 June 1939, she sailed east, and on 27 June, she arrived at San Diego and resumed operations off the southern California coast. For the next two and a half years, she conducted exercises and tests off that coast, primarily for the Underwater Sound Training School, in late November 1941, she proceeded to Mare Island, where she was undergoing overhaul when the United States entered World War II. On 23 January 1942, S-27 stood out of San Francisco Bay, three days later, she returned to San Diego, and resumed operations for the Sound School which she continued into the spring. Then ordered north to the Aleutian Islands, she departed San Diego on 20 May, steamed to Port Angeles, Washington, thence, on the night of 16–17 June, she was ordered to Kiska. On 18 June, she reconnoitered Constantine Harbor, found no signs of activity in that evacuated village. In mid-afternoon, she rounded East Cape and that night when she surfaced, lying to charge on both engines, she was carried about 5 mi from her estimated dead-reckoned position. The fog prevented knowledge of the drift, at midnight, she got underway, slowly, on one engine and continued to charge on the other. Soon after 00,43 on 19 June, breakers were sighted about 25 yd forward of the bow, seconds later, she grounded on rocks off St. Makarius Point. Waves bumped her violently against the rocks, rolling her 10-15° on each side and her motors were continued at back emergency, but she was held firm by a submerged rock. Efforts to back off were continued, but the ship swung harder against the rocks. Her starboard screw struck a rock and was disabled, efforts were made to force the ship ahead to clear the stern, but she could only move about 20 ft forward before she was again held fast. By 03,30, the pounding of the sea had increased, dispatches of her plight, sent first at 01,15, were continued. One, giving no position, was received at Dutch Harbor, a ferry system, using a rubber boat and lines rigged between the ship and the beach, was set up. Men, provisions, clothing, guns, and medical supplies were transferred safely, by 11,00, all but six, the commanding officer, Lieutenant H. L. Jukes, and five others, were ashore
USS S-27 (SS-132)
–
USS S-27
46.
United States S class submarine
–
The United States S-class submarines, often simply called S-boats, were the first class of submarines with a significant number built to United States Navy designs. Others of this class were built to contractor designs, the United States Navy commissioned 51 S-class submarines from 1920 to 1925. The first S-boat, USS S-1, was commissioned in 1920, the last of the class actually commissioned was USS S-47 in 1925. Group II,15 boats, S-3 to S-17, built at the Portsmouth Navy Yard and Lake Torpedo Boat at Bridgeport, Group III,6 boats, S-42 to S-47, built at Fore River. Group IV,4 boats, S-48 to S-51, built by Lake, S-2 was a prototype built by Lake, and was not repeated. S-1, S-2, and S-3 were prototypes built to the specification, S-1 designed by Electric Boat, S-2 by Lake. The S-2 Lake boat was considered inferior, the Electric Boat and BuC&R designs were put into production as Group I and Group II. SS-159 to SS-168 and SS-173 to SS-176 were cancelled and, contrary to later practice, some of the material for these was used by Electric Boat to build the Peruvian Navys four R-boats. The first S-boat, S-1, was launched on 26 September 1918, by Bethlehem at Fore River, there were three distinctly different prototypes for the S-boats. The Electric Boat design formed the basis for the Group I, a single hull design, all of the ballast tanks were contained within the pressure hull. The hull was a rounded shape and the rudder was placed at the very end of the hull. Compared to the previous R-boats, Group I S-boats were 33 feet longer, with 3 feet 3 inches more beam,2 feet 3 inches more draft, and 60% greater displacement. This allowed for greater range, larger engines and higher speed, the Lake design, S-2, was a modified double hull type, with ballast tanks wrapped around the inner pressure hull. The stern ended in a flat shovel shape which gave the stern needed buoyancy, the rudder was mounted beneath the stern and the pivot structure also supported the stern diving planes. To gain surface buoyancy, the superstructure atop the boat was partially watertight, sea trials showed that the bow tended to burrow into the waves so Lake added a buoyancy tank to the bow, which gave it a humped appearance. This boat suffered from poor maneuverability and was overcomplicated and it proved to be unreliable and was not well liked by its crew. The Navy did not choose it for production and no further boats were produced to this design. Seven of the Group II and all the Group IV boats had a stern tube
United States S class submarine
–
S-class submarine S-44
47.
Submarine
–
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability, the term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine. The noun submarine evolved as a form of submarine boat, by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as boats rather than as ships. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, Submarines were first widely used during World War I, and now figure in many navies large and small. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage, exploration and facility inspection, Submarines can also be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are also used in tourism, and for undersea archaeology, most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the sail in American usage, a conning tower was a feature of earlier designs, a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, and various hydrodynamic control fins, smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and also change the amount of water, Submarines have one of the widest ranges of types and capabilities of any vessel. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers, modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle and its unclear whether he ever carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel and it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England, in 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion. His design used leather bags that could fill with water to submerge the craft, a mechanism was used to twist the water out of the bags and cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemens Magazine reported that a design had initially been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. By this point of development, further improvement in design stagnated for over a century, until new industrial technologies for propulsion. The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person and it was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, and the first to use screws for propulsion
Submarine
–
A
Russian Navy Typhoon-class submarine underway. Also known as "Project 941".
Submarine
–
Drebbel, the first navigable submarine
Submarine
–
The French submarine Plongeur
Submarine
–
The
Nordenfelt -designed,
Ottoman submarine
Abdül Hamid
48.
VFA-132
–
Strike Fighter Squadron 132, also known as the Privateers, was an aviation unit of the United States Navy that was based at Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Florida, in service from 1984 to 1992. VFA-132 was established on 3 January 1984 as the first squadron to be assigned the VFA designation, operating the F/A-18A Hornet from NAS Lemoore, California, and moved to NAS Cecil Field in February 1985. They made their inaugural deployment aboard the USS Coral Sea and saw combat operations during Operations Prairie Fire and this was the first use of the F/A-18 in combat. From October 1987 through April 1988 the squadron deployed to MCAS Iwakuni, Japan, while deployed to Japan, the squadron operated detachments at NAS Cubi Point, Tsuiki AB, Clark AB, Yechon AB, Misawa AB and Kadena AB. In early September the squadron provided air cover for the CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters used to evacuate personnel from the U. S. embassy in Beirut, after Coral Sea was decommissioned, VFA-132 was reassigned to CVW-6 aboard USS Forrestal. During June–September 1991, CVW-6 squadrons participated in Operation Provide Comfort, the squadron was disestablished on 1 June 1992. History of the United States Navy List of inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons
VFA-132
–
An
F/A-18A Hornet from VFA-132 landing in rough seas
VFA-132
–
VFA-132 Insignia
49.
Naval Air Station Cecil Field
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Naval Air Station Cecil Field or NAS Cecil Field was a United States Navy air base, located in Duval County, Florida. Prior to October 1999, NAS Cecil Field was the largest military base in terms of acreage in the Jacksonville, Florida area. Including nearly 2,500 acres at OLF Whitehouse, the NAS Cecil Field complex consisted of 22,939 acres, in addition and it is now a civilian, public-use, joint civil-military airfield and industrial park known as Cecil Commerce Center and Cecil Airport. NAS Cecil Field was named in honor of Commander Henry Barton Cecil, USN, who died in 1933 in the crash of the Navy airship USS Akron. Shortly before the United States entry into World War II, a 2,600 acre tract of land was purchased in western Duval County and construction began on the U. S. Naval Auxiliary Air Station, Cecil Field. The base got its start in June 1941 as a field of NAS Jacksonville. From 1943 until the war ended, NAAS Cecil Field was a pilots last stop before assignment to combat in either the Atlantic Fleet or Pacific Fleet and it operated at full capacity during the war years and after the war. Disestablished as NAAS Cecil Field at the end of World War II, the station was rejuvenated as an operating base for fleet aircraft squadrons and air groups, ushering in the jet age for Naval Aviation in the Jacksonville area. In 1951, the area of NAS Cecil Field was increased to 4,600 acres and additional new buildings. Naval Air Station Cecil Field occupied 19,664 acres, and was projected to be Navys largest Master Jet Base. S, Squadrons from NAS Cecil Field were aboard every Atlantic Fleet aircraft carrier deployed to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. During this period, thirteen NAS Cecil Field pilots were listed as POW or MIA, the POW/MIA memorial located behind the base chapel has become the chosen site for many retiring officers and enlisted personnel to hold their retirement ceremonies. The first Atlantic Fleet Squadrons to fly the A-7 Corsair II, the F/A-18 Hornet, the S-3A and S-3B Viking, and the ES-3A Shadow were all based at NAS Cecil Field. NAS Cecil Field squadrons again made history during the Gulf War, marking the final deployment for the A-7E Corsair II. The first weather observations were recorded at NAS Cecil Field in May 1949, in those days, weather observing and forecasting services were provided by the Meteorology Division of the Air Operations Department. In September 1979, almost 14 years later, the changed to Naval Oceanography Command Detachment. Naval Air Station Cecil Field was identified for closure by the 1993 federal Base Realignment and Closure Commission and approved by the U. S. Congress and President Bill Clinton in July 1993. There have been efforts to see the base returned as a Naval Air Station, the FLARNG operates CH-47 Chinook, UH-60 Blackhawk, UH-72 Lakota and C-12 Huron aircraft from AASF #1 at Cecil Field. Also located at Cecil Field is Coast Guard Air Facility Jacksonville, which supports the U. S. Coast Guards Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron and its MH-65C Dolphin helicopters
Naval Air Station Cecil Field
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NAS Cecil Field
Naval Air Station Cecil Field
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An
FJ-3 from VF-62 at NAS Cecil Field, 1956.
Naval Air Station Cecil Field
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Two
F8U-1s of VF-62 over NAS Cecil Field, 1962.
Naval Air Station Cecil Field
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Lockheed S-3A Viking of
VS-31 Squadron at Cecil Field in 1976