Amenhotep III known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was Thutmose's son by Mutemwiya, his reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its artistic and international power. When he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son ruled as Amenhotep IV, but changed his own royal name to Akhenaten; the son of the future Thutmose IV and a minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep III was born around 1401 BC. He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye, their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV known as Akhenaten succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne.
Amenhotep III may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, who would succeed Akhenaten and ruled Egypt as pharaoh. Amenhotep III and Tiye may have had four daughters: Sitamun, Isis or Iset, Nebetah, they appear on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father and are represented by smaller objects—with the exception of Nebetah. Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu; this huge sculpture, seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne—Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre. Evidence that Sitamun was promoted to this office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. Egypt's theological paradigm encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him.
The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and wife and daughter of the god when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion. Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women: Gilukhepa, the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign. A daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon. A daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa. A daughter of the ruler of Ammia. Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep III's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria through to Soleb in Nubia.
Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. Five other scarabs state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women, she was the first of many such princesses. Another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of... Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life, the Great Royal Wife Tiye, his Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiye—may she live—in her town of Djakaru.. Its length is 3,700 and its width is 700. Celebrated the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen, his Majesty was rowed in the royal barge Aten-tjehen in it. Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child between the ages of 6 and 12.
It is that a regent acted for him if he was made pharaoh at that early age. He married Tiye two years and she lived twelve years after his death, his lengthy reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni and Hatti, preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; the letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence—Amarna letter EA 4—Amenhotep III is quoted by the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I in rejecting the latter's entreaty to marry one of this pharaoh's daughters: From time immemorial, no daughter of the king of Egy is given to anyone. Amenhotep III's refusal to allow one of his daughters to be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be connect
Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East, the 15th-largest in the world, is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC. Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Middle East, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media and organizations have regional headquarters in the city.
With a population of over 9 million spread over 3,085 square kilometers, Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of traffic. Cairo's metro, one of two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides; the economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East in 2005, 43rd globally on Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Egyptians refer to Cairo as Maṣr, the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country, its official name al-Qāhirah means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror" due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir, was rising at the time when the city was founded also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. The location of the ancient city of Heliopolis is the suburb of Ain Shams.
The Coptic name of the city is Kashromi which means "man breaker", akin to Arabic al-Qāhirah . Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro by people from Alexandria; the area around present-day Cairo Memphis, the old capital of Egypt, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta. However, the origins of the modern city are traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile; this fortress, known as Babylon, was the nucleus of the Roman and the Byzantine city and is the oldest structure in the city today. It is situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.
Following the Muslim conquest in 640 AD, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat. A tented camp Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt. In 750, following the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital; this was known as al-Askar. A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government; this was al-Qatta ` closer to the river. Al Qatta'i was centred around a ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun. In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground. Since 1860s, Cairo expanded west as far as what is called now In 968, the Fatimids were led by general Jawhar al-Siqilli to establish a new capital for the Fatimid dynasty.
Egypt was conquered from their base in Ifriqiya and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was established. It took four years to build the city known as al-Manṣūriyyah, to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. During that time, Jawhar commissioned the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo would become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books; when Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in Tunisia in 973, he gave the city its present name, al-Qāhiratu. For nearly 200 years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in Fustat. However, in 1168 the Fatimids under the leadership of vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent Cairo's capture by the Crusaders. Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of
Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as King Tut, his original name, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence, he is also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome. The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb, funded by Lord Carnarvon, received worldwide press coverage, it sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol.
Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of the mummy found in the tomb KV55, believed by some to be Akhenaten, his mother was his father's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35. The deaths of a few involved in the discovery of Tutankhamun's mummy have been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or one of his cousins; as a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperure, his wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most Sennedjem; when he became king, he married his half-sister, who changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters. Computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter was born prematurely at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at full-term, 9 months.
The daughter born at 9 months gestation had spina bifida and Sprengel's deformity. Given his age, the king had powerful advisers including General Horemheb and Grand Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law, he noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared. In his third regnal year, under the influence of his advisors, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign, he restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood; the capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned. This is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, "Living image of Amun", reinforcing the restoration of Amun; as part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were erected, an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods".
The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull and Opet. His restoration stela says: The temples of the goddesses... were in ruins. Their shrines were overgrown, their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads... the gods turned their backs upon this land... If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond; the country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes, his tomb contained body armor, folding stools appropriate for military campaigns, bows, he was trained in archery. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk, most historians speculate that he did not take part in these battles.
Tutankhamun was slight of build, 167 cm tall. He had large front incisors and an overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. Between September 2007 and October 2009, various mummies were subjected to detailed anthropological and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project; the research showed that Tutankhamun had "a cleft palate" and a mild case of scoliosis, a medical condition in which the spine deviates to the side from the normal position. It was posited in a 2002 documentary'Assassination of King Tut' for the Discovery Channel that he suffered from Klippel-Feil syndrome, but subsequent analysis excluded this as an acceptable diagnosis. Examination of Tutankhamun's body has revealed deformations in his left foot, caused by necrosis of bone tissue; the affliction may have forced Tutankhamun to walk with the use of a cane, many of which were found in his tomb. In DNA tests of Tutankhamun's mummy, scientists found DNA from the mosquito-borne parasites that cause mala
2nd millennium BC
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East, it marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age; the Ancient Near Eastern cultures are well within the historical era: The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. At the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Minoan Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire; the end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age. Other regions of the world are still in the prehistoric period. In Europe, the Beaker culture introduces the Bronze Age associated with Indo-European expansion; the Indo-Iranian expansion reaches the Iranian plateau and onto the Indian subcontinent, propagating the use of the chariot. Mesoamerica enters the Pre-Classic period. North America is in the late Archaic stage. In Maritime Southeast Asia, the Austronesian expansion reaches Micronesia. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion begins.
World population rises possibly surpassing the 100 million mark for the first time. Please see the article on Chronology of the ancient Near East for a discussion regarding the accuracy and resolution of dates for events of the 2nd millennium BC in the Near East. Spending much of their energies in trying to recuperate from the chaotic situation that existed at the turn of the millennium, the most powerful civilizations of the time and Mesopotamia, turned their attention to more modest goals; the Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and their contemporary Kings of Babylon, of Amorite origin, brought good governance without much tyranny, favoured elegant art and architecture. Farther east, the Indus Valley civilization was in a period of decline as a result of intense, ruinous flooding. Egypt and Babylonia's military tactics were still based on foot soldiers transporting their equipment on donkeys. Combined with a weak economy and difficulty in maintaining order, this was a fragile situation that crumbled under the pressure of external forces they could not oppose.
About a century before the middle of the millennium, bands of Indo-European invaders came from the Central Asian plains and swept through Western Asia and Northeast Africa. They were riding fast two-wheeled chariots powered by horses, a system of weaponry developed earlier in the context of plains warfare; this tool of war was unknown among the classical civilizations. Egypt and Babylonia's foot soldiers were unable to defend against the invaders: in 1630 BC, the Hyksos swept into the Nile Delta, in 1595 BC, the Hittites swept into Mesopotamia; the people in place were quick to adapt to the new tactics, a new international situation resulted from the change. Though during most of the second half of the 2nd millennium BC several regional powers competed relentlessly for hegemony, many developments occurred: there was new emphasis on grandiose architecture, new clothing fashions, vivid diplomatic correspondence on clay tablets, renewed economic exchanges, the New Kingdom of Egypt played the role of the main superpower.
Among the great states of the time, only Babylon refrained from taking part in battles due to its new position as the world's religious and intellectual capital. The Bronze Age civilization at its final period of time, displayed all its characteristic social traits: low level of urbanization, small cities centered on temples or royal palaces, strict separation of classes between an illiterate mass of peasants and craftsmen, a powerful military elite, knowledge of writing and education reserved to a tiny minority of scribes, pronounced aristocratic life. Near the end of the 2nd millennium BC, new waves of barbarians, this time riding on horseback, wholly destroyed the Bronze Age world, were to be followed by waves of social changes that marked the beginning of different times. Contributing to the changes were the Sea Peoples, ship-faring raiders of the Mediterranean. Ancient Near East Middle Kingdom of Egypt New Kingdom of Egypt Old Assyrian Empire Middle Assyrian Empire Elam Hittites Old Kingdom in Anatolia Vedic India Kuru Kingdom Bronze Age China Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Most people known by name from this period are kings or emperors: First Babylonian Dynasty: Hammurabi Middle Assyrian Empire: see List of Assyrian kings Ancient Egypt: see list of pharaohs Bronze Age China: Shang dynasty, Zhou dynastyAn exception is may be Sinhue, protagonist of an Egyptian tale set in the 20th century BC, although the general consensus considers him a fictional character.
EuropeEurope is still within the prehistoric era. Aegean civilization Cycladic culture Helladic period Minoan civilization Mycenaean Greece Beaker culture Terramare culture Tumulus culture Unetice culture Urnfield cultureCentral AsiaAndronovo culture Oxus civilizationEast AsiaErlitou culture Wucheng cultureSouth AsiaOchre Coloured Pottery cultureAmericasOlmecSub-Saharan AfricaThe desiccation of the Sahara is complete. Neolithisation of Sub-Saharan Africa is initiated via expansion from the dried Sahara, reaching West and East Africa. In the 2nd millennium, pastoralism is spread to Central Africa via the Bantu migration. Iron metallurgy in Africa may arise towards the end of the millennium. Kerma culture Savanna Pastoral Neolithic Nok culture c. 2000 BC—Seima-Turbino Phenomenon c. 1700 BC–1300 BC—Palace complex in Knossos, was built. C. 1700 BC earthquake damages palaces at Phaistos. 1627 BC Minoan eruption c. 1600 BC–1360 BC Egyptian domination over Canaan and Syria. C. 1575 BC Nubian Kerma sacks Egypt.
1520 BC Egypt conquers Nubia. 1478 BC Battle of Megiddo 1269 BC
13th century BC
The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC. 1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end in the Indus Valley. 1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty. 1282 BC: Pandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion and his sons, his four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica. 1279 BC: Ramesses II becomes leader of Ancient Egypt. 1278 BC: Seti I dies, 1 year after his son, Ramesses II is crowned. 1274 BC: The Battle of Kadesh in Syria. 1258 BC: Ramses II, king of ancient Egypt, Hattusilis III, king of the Hittites, sign the earliest known peace treaty. 1251 BC: A solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes, Greece. C. 1250 BC: Approximately 4,000 men fight a battle at a causeway over the Tollense valley in Northern Germany, the largest prehistoric battle north of the Alps known so far.
1250 BC: Wu Ding King of Shang Dynasty to 1192 BC. 1250 BC: The Lion Gate at Mycene is constructed. C. 1230 BC: Aegeus, legendary King of Athens, receives a false message that his designated heir Theseus, his son by Aethra of Troezena, is dead. Theseus had been sent to his overlord Minos of Crete as an offering to the Minotaur. Medus, Aegeus' only other son, had been exiled in Asia and would become legendary ancestor to the Medes. Believing himself without heirs the King commits suicide after a reign of 48 years, he is succeeded by Theseus, who still lives. The Aegean Sea is named in his honor. 1213 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus; the latter seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.
1212 BC: Death of Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II. 1208 BC: Pharaoh Merneptah defeats a Libyan invasion. 1206 BC: Approximate starting date of Bronze age collapse, a period of migration and destruction in the eastern Mediterranean and Near East. 1204 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erichthonius II of Athens and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds assassinates him. C. 1200 BC: Earliest writing that survived exists in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Chariots appear in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Start of Iron Age in Near East, eastern Mediterranean, India. C. 1200 BC: Collapse of Hittite power in Anatolia with the destruction of their capital Hattusa. C. 1200 BC: Massive migrations of people around the Mediterranean and the Middle-East.
See Sea People for more information. C. 1200 BC: Aramaic nomads and Chaldeans become a big threat to the former Babylonian and Assyrian Empire. C. 1200 BC: Migration and expansion of Dorian Greeks. Destruction of Mycenaean city Pylos. C. 1200 BC: The proto-Scythian Srubna culture expands from the lower Volga region to cover the whole of the North Pontic area. C. 1200 BC: The Cimmerians start settling the steppes of southern Russia?. c. 1200 BC: Olmec culture starts and thrives in Mesoamerica. C. 1200 BC: San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán starts to flourish. C. 1200 BC: Ancient Pueblo Peoples civilization in North America. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical. 1251 BC—A lunar eclipse might mark the birth of Hercules c. 1225 BC—Birth of legendary Helen to King Tyndareus of Sparta and his wife Leda 1212 BC—Death of Ramesses II of Egypt Moses—A Hebrew prophet found in the Old Testament in the Bible called the Exodus.
Merneptah, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Amenmesse, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Pan Geng of Shang dynasty China See: List of sovereign states in the 13th century BC
Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom, it was close to the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday; the site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and the city proper was situated. The Egyptian name for Thebes was wꜣs.t, "City of the wꜣs", the sceptre of the pharaohs, a long staff with an animal's head and a forked base. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known in Egyptian as niwt-'imn, the "City of Amun", the chief of the Theban Triad of deities whose other members were Mut and Khonsu; this name of Thebes appears in the Bible as the "Nōʼ ʼĀmôn" in the Book of Nahum and as "No" mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and Jeremiah.
Thebes is the latinised form of Koine Greek: Θῆβαι, the hellenized form of the Demotic Egyptian ta Pe, from earlier ta Opet. This was the local name not for the city itself but for the Karnak temple complex on the northeast bank of the city; as early as Homer's Iliad, the Greeks distinguished the Egyptian Thebes as "Thebes of the Hundred Gates" or "Hundred-Gated Thebes", as opposed to the "Thebes of the Seven Gates" in Boeotia, Greece. In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was rendered as Zeus Ammon; the name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, "City of Zeus". To distinguish it from the numerous other cities by this name, it was known as the "Great Diospolis"; the Greek names came into wider use after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, when the country came to be ruled by the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River in the middle part of Upper Egypt about 800 km from the Delta, it was built on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile.
As a natural consequence, the city was laid in a northeast-southwest axis parallel to the contemporary river channel. Thebes had an area of 93 km2 which included parts of the Theban Hills in the west that culminates at the sacred 420-meter al-Qurn. In the east lies the mountainous Eastern Desert with its wadis draining into the valley. Significant among these wadis is Wadi Hammamat near Thebes, it was used as an overland trade route going to the Red Sea coast. In the fourth Upper Egyptian nome, Thebes was found to have neighboring towns such as Per-Hathor, Djerty, Iuny and Imiotru. According to George Modelski, Thebes had about 40,000 inhabitants in 2000 BC. By 1800 BC, the population of Memphis was down to about 30,000, making Thebes the largest city in Egypt at the time. Historian Ian Morris estimated that by 1500 BC, Thebes may have grown to be the largest city in the world, with a population of about 75,000, a position which it held until about 900 BC, when it was surpassed by Nimrud; the archaeological remains of Thebes offer a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height.
The Greek poet Homer extolled the wealth of Thebes in the Iliad, Book 9: "... in Egyptian Thebes the heaps of precious ingots gleam, the hundred-gated Thebes." More than sixty annual festivals were celebrated in Thebes. The major festivals among these according to the Edfu Geographical Text were: the Beautiful Feast of Opet, the Khoiak, Festival of I Shemu, Festival of II Shemu. Another popular festivity was the halloween-like Beautiful Festival of the Valley. Thebes was inhabited from around 3200 BC, it was the eponymous capital of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. At this time it was still a small trading post while Memphis served as the royal residence of Old Kingdom pharaohs. Although no buildings survive in Thebes older than the portions of the Karnak temple complex, which may date from the Middle Kingdom, the lower part of a statue of Pharaoh Nyuserre of the 5th Dynasty has been found in Karnak. Another statue, dedicated by the 12th Dynasty king Senusret may have been usurped and re-used, since the statue bears a cartouche of Nyuserre on its belt.
Since seven rulers of the 4th to 6th Dynasties appear on the Karnak king list at the least there was a temple in the Theban area which dated to the Old Kingdom. By 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs consolidated Lower Egypt and northern parts of Upper Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. A rival line based at Thebes ruled the remaining part of Upper Egypt; the Theban rulers were descendants of the prince of Thebes, Intef the Elder. His probable grandson Intef I was the first of the family to claim in life a partial pharaonic titulary, though his power did not extend much further than the general Theban region. By c. 2050 BC, Intef III's son Mentuhotep II, took the Herakleopolitans by force and reunited Egypt once again under one ruler, thereby starting the period now known as the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II ruled for 51 years and built the first mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which most served as the inspiration for the and larger temple built next to it by Hat
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeser Kheperu was a short-lived pharaoh in the late 18th dynasty. The names of this pharaoh translate as'Living are the Forms of Re' and'Vigorous is the Soul of Re – Holy of Forms', his or her reign, for it is uncertain whether Smenkhkare was male or female, was during the Amarna Period, a time when Akhenaten sought to impose new religious views. He or she is sometimes distinguished from the immediate predecessor, the female ruler Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. Unlike Neferneferuaten, Smenkhkare did not use epithets in his or her royal cartouche. Little is known of Smenkhkare for certain because kings, beginning with Horemheb, sought to erase the entire Amarna Period from history. For the complete historiography regarding the names, see Neferneferuaten Smenkhkare was known as far back as 1845 from the tomb of Meryre II. There he and Meritaten, bearing the title Great Royal Wife, are shown rewarding the tomb's owner; the names of the king have since been cut out but had been recorded by Lepsius circa 1850.
A different set of names emerged using the same throne name: "Ankhkheperure mery Neferkheperure Neferneferuaten mery Wa en Re ". This led to a great deal of confusion. For the better part of a century, the repetition of throne names was taken to mean that Smenkhare changed his name to Neferneferuaten at some point upon the start of his sole reign. Indeed, Petrie makes that distinction in his excavation notes of 1894. By the 1970s, feminine traces in some versions of the name and more in the epithets led to various theories. Among them, that Nefertiti was masquerading as Smenkhkare before changing her name again to Neferneferuaten; when considered with various stela depicting Akhenaten with another king in familiar, if not intimate poses, the theory that Akhenaten and Smenkhkare were homosexual arose. In 1978, it was proposed that there were two individuals using the same name: a male king Smenkhkare and a female Neferneferuaten. Ten years James Allen pointed out the name'Ankhkheperure' nearly always included an epithet referring to Akhenaten such as'desired of Wa en Re' when coupled with'Neferneferuaten'.
There were no occasions where the'long' versions of the prenomen occurred alongside the nomen'Smenkhkare', nor was the ‘short’ version found associated with the nomen'Neferneferuaten'. The issue of a female Neferneferuaten was settled for the remaining holdouts when James Allen confirmed Marc Gabolde's findings that objects from Tutankhamun's tomb inscribed for Neferneferuaten, read using the epithet "...desired of Akhenaten" were inscribed as Akhet-en-hyes or "effective for her husband". Smenkhkare, as son in law, might be'desired of Akhenaten', but only a female could fit the new reading. By the start of the 21st Century, "a fair degree of consensus" emerged that Neferneferuaten was a female king and Smenkhkare a separate male king among specialists of the period; as important, when presented with just the name Ankhkheperure, it is now accepted that the use of epithets indicates Neferneferuaten while no epithets indicates Smenkhkare. Another reason of confusion is that the hieroglyphs in the cartouche in the picture showing "Smenkhkare" and Meritaten rewarding Meryra II are not to be read as Smenkhkare, but as Saakare, or Saakara or Seaakara, according to the different transliterations.
The cartouche contains s-aa-ka-re like in "Rock Tombs of El Amarna II" by Davies, Norman De Garis where it's possible to see the primary source. In "Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien nach den zeichnungen der von Seiner Majestaet dem koenige von Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm IV" by Lepsius we can see the same cartouches. "Smenkhkare" would appear in a cartouche on object 405 in Carter Archive. The quality of what remains cannot allow to be sure if its Smenkhkare or Saakare and Carter in his notes doesn't express an opinion. A source for the name Smenkhkare is a ring, associated with an other one showing Saakare; the explanation is a probable mistake made by Lepsius copying the cartouches. Norman De Garis Davies mentions an other source, PRISSE Monuments Egyptiens where an other copy of the cartouches is present and the aspect is not so clear. Pendlebury found objects carrying the name Smenkhkare. Aside from the Meryre tomb depiction mentioned there are several pieces of evidence which establish Smenkhkare as king.
A calcite "globular vase" from the tomb of Tutankhamun bears the full double cartouche of Akhenaten alongside the full double cartouche of Smenkhkare. This is the only object to carry both names side by side. A single wine docket,'Year 1, wine of the house of Smenkhkare', indicates he had a short reign. Another dated to Year 1 from'The House of Smenkhkare' was taken to indicate that he died during the harvest of his first year. Line drawings of a block depicting the nearly complete names of King Smenkhkare and Meritaten as Great Royal Wife were recorded before the block was lost. Flinders Petrie documented 6 rings bearing only the Throne Name'Ankhkheperure' and 2 more bearing'Smenkhkare' (with an other one bearing the epithet Djeserkheperu, which belon