The Hebrew or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the public reading of Torah portions, yahrzeits. The present Hebrew calendar is the product of evolution, including a Babylonian influence, when to add it was based on observation of natural agriculture-related events in Israel. Through the Amoraic period and into the Geonic period, this system was displaced by the mathematical rules used today. The principles and rules were codified by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah in the 12th century. Maimonides work replaced counting years since the destruction of the Temple with the modern creation-era Anno Mundi, the era used since the Middle Ages is the Anno Mundi epoch. As with Anno Domini, the words or abbreviation for Anno Mundi for the era should properly precede the date rather than follow it, AM5777 began at sunset on 2 October 2016 and will end at sunset on 20 September 2017. The Jewish day is of no fixed length, the Jewish day is modeled on the reference to. there was evening and there was morning.
In the creation account in the first chapter of Genesis, based on the classic rabbinic interpretation of this text, a day in the rabbinic Hebrew calendar runs from sunset to the next sunset. In most populated parts of the world this is always approximately 24 standard hours, halachically, a day ends and a new one starts when three stars are visible in the sky. The time between sunset and the time when the three stars are visible is known as bein hashmashot, and there are differences of opinion as to which day it falls into for some uses. This may be relevant, for example, in determining the date of birth of a child born during that gap, there is no clock in the Jewish scheme, so that the local civil clock is used. The civil clock is used only as a reference point – in expressions such as, Shabbat starts at. In Judaism, an hour is defined as 1/12 of the time from sunrise to sunset, so, during the winter, an hour can be less than 60 minutes. This proportional hour is known as a shaah zmanit, a Jewish hour is divided into 1080 halakim or parts.
A part is 3⅓ seconds or 1/18 minute, the ultimate ancestor of the helek was a small Babylonian time period called a barleycorn, itself equal to 1/72 of a Babylonian time degree. These measures are not generally used for everyday purposes, instead of the international date line convention, there are varying opinions as to where the day changes. One opinion uses the antimeridian of Jerusalem, the weekdays start with Sunday and proceed to Saturday, Shabbat
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 through 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, 1202—Introduction of Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. 1202—Battle of Basian occurred on July 27, between Kingdom of Georgia and Seljuks, 1204—Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204 captures Zara for Venice and sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire. 1204—Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, 1205—The Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14,1205 between Bulgarians under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I, the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 1206—Genghis Khan is declared Great Khan of the Mongols, 1213—France defeats the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1214—France defeats English and Imperial German forces at the Battle of Bouvines, 1215—King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede.
1217–1221—Fifth Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, ultimately the Crusaders withdraw, 1221—Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire. 1222—Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility, 1233—Battle of Ganter, Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, the last king of Kediri, thus established Singhasari kingdom Ken Arok ended the reign of Isyana Dynasty and started his own Rajasa dynasty. 1223-The Signoria, of the Republic of Venice is formed and consists of the Doge, the Minor Council, 1223—The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities at the Battle of the Kalka River. 1223-Volga Bulgaria defeats the army of The Mongol Empire at the Battle of Samara Bend 1227 - Estonians are finally subjugated to German crusader rule during the Livonian Crusade, 1228-1229—Sixth Crusade under the excommunicated Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States. 1228-1230- First clash between Gregory IX and Frederick II, 1226-1250- Dispute between the so-called second Lombard League and Frederick II.
1232—The Mongols besiege Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin dynasty, 1239–1250—Third conflict between Holy Roman Empire–Papacy. 1238—Sukhothai was the first capital of Sukhothai Kingdom, 1241—Mongol Empire defeats Hungary at the Battle of Mohi and defeats Poland at the Battle of Legnica. 1242—Russians defeat the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Lake Peipus, 1244—Ayyubids and Khwarezmians defeat the Crusaders and their Arab allies at the Battle of La Forbie. 1249—End of the Portuguese Reconquista against the Moors, when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve, 1248–1254—Seventh Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, Crusaders ultimately withdraw. 1257—Baab Mashur Malamo established The Kingdom of Ternate in Maluku, 1258—Baghdad captured and destroyed by the Mongols, effective conclusion of the Caliphate 1259—Treaty of Paris. 1260—Toluid Civil War begins between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke for the title of Great Khan, 1261—Byzantines under Michael VIII retake Constantinople from the Crusaders and Venice.
1262—Iceland was brought under Norwegian rule, with the Old Covenant 1265—Dominican friar and theologian, 1268—Fall of the Crusader State of Antioch to the Mamelukes
Ab urbe condita
Ab urbe condita is a Latin phrase meaning from the founding of the City, traditionally dated to 753 BC. AUC is a system used by some ancient Roman historians to identify particular Roman years. Renaissance editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the impression that the Romans usually numbered their years using the AUC system. The dominant method of identifying Roman years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year, the regnal year of the emperor was used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use. The traditional date for the founding of Rome of 21 April 753 BC, was initiated by 1st century BC scholar Marcus Terentius Varro, the correctness of Varros calculation has not been confirmed but it is still used worldwide. From Emperor Claudius onwards, Varros calculation superseded other contemporary calculations, celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda.
Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in honour of the citys anniversary and Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in 121 AD and 147/148 AD respectively. During 248 AD, Philip the Arab celebrated Romes first millennium, coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. The Anno Domini year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome during 525, in his Easter table the year 532 AD was equated with the regnal year 248 of Emperor Diocletian. It was calculated that the year 1 AD corresponds to the Roman year 754 AUC, based on Varros epoch
Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in Hinduism. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle, the names of months. A Hindu calendar is referred to as Panchanga. The ancient Hindu calendar is similar in design to the Jewish calendar. Early Buddhist communities of India adopted the ancient Indian calendar, Vikrami calendar, Buddhist festivals continue to be scheduled according to a lunar system. The Buddhist calendar and the traditional calendars of Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka. Similarly, the ancient Jainism traditions have followed the lunisolar system as the Hindu calendar for festivals, texts. However, the Buddhist and Jaina timekeeping systems have attempted to use the Buddha, the Hindu calendar is important to the practice of Hindu astrology and zodiac system, most of which it adopted from Greece, in centuries after the arrival of Alexander the Great. The Indian national calendar or Saka calendar was introduced in 1952 based on the traditional Hindu calendars and this study was one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.
The ancient Indian culture developed a time keeping methodology and calendars for Vedic rituals. David Pingree has proposed that the field of timekeeping in Jyotisha may have derived from Mesopotamia during the Achaemenid period. Ohashi states that this Vedanga field developed from actual astronomical studies in ancient India, timekeeping as well as the nature of solar and moon movements are mentioned in Vedic texts. For example, Kaushitaki Brahmana chapter 19.3 mentions the shift in the location of the sun towards north for 6 months. The Vikrami calendar is named after king Vikramaditya and starts in 57 BCE, Hindu scholars attempted to keep time by observing and calculating the cycles of sun and the planets. These texts present Surya and various planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion, other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets with deity mythologies.
The manuscripts of texts exist in slightly different versions, present Surya- and planets-based calculation. These vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and they tracked the solar year by observing the entrance and departure of surya in the constellation formed by stars in the sky, which they divided into 12 intervals of 30 degrees each. Like other ancient human cultures, Hindus innovated a number of systems of which intercalary months became most used, as their calendar keeping and astronomical observations became more sophisticated, the Hindu calendar became more sophisticated with complex rules and greater accuracy
Kali Yuga is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of the cycle of yugas described in the Sanskrit scriptures, within the present Mahayuga. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali. The Kali of Kali Yuga means strife, quarrel or contention, according to Puranic sources, Krishnas departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE and this is considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to his heavenly abode. This information is placed at the temple of Bhalka, the place of this incident, according to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE. He finished his book “Aryabhattiya” in 499 CE, in which he gives the year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the year 3600 of the Kali Age at the age of 23.
As it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, and given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, according to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kaliyuga is an extremely rare planetary alignment, which is depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is slightly off, the actual date for this alignment is February 7 of 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE, Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30% of what the modern scholars estimate. The Kali Yuga is thought by some authors to last 6480 years although other durations have been proposed, hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga, which is referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism often symbolically represents morality as an indian bull, in Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter.
By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, the Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the Yuga-Sandhi, the point of transition from one yuga to another. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga, in relation to rulers, it lists, Rulers will become unreasonable, they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects, people will start migrating, seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source. (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to relationships, Markandeyas discourse says, Avarice. Humans will openly display animosity towards each other, people will have thoughts of murder with no justification and will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was the century lasting from January 1,1301, to December 31,1400. Political and natural disasters ravaged Europe, as well as the four khanates of the Mongol Empire and this period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France. The transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age, beginning of the Ottoman Empire, early expansion into the Balkans. Early 14th century, Attributed to Kao Ninga Monk Sewing is made and it is now kept at The Cleveland Museum of Art. 1309, King Jayanegara succeeds Kertarajasa Jayawardhana as ruler of Majapahit, the Avignon papacy transfers the seat of the Popes from Italy to France The Great Famine of 1315-1317 kills millions of people in Europe. 1318, an Italian Franciscan monk, Mattiussi visited Sumatra, Java, in his record he described Majapahit kingdom. 1323, Malietoafaiga ordered cannibalism to be abolished in Tutuila, now known as American Samoa,1325, Forced out of previous locations, the Mexica found the city of Tenochtitlan 1328, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi succeeds Jayanegara as ruler of Majapahit.
Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy The death of the Ilkhan Abu Said in 1335, the Vijayanagara Empire is founded in South India by Harihara in 1336 The Hundred Years War begins when Edward III of England lays claim to the French throne. The French recruit troops and ships in Genoa, Black Death kills around a third of the population of Europe. 1347, Adityawarman moved the capital of Dharmasraya and established the kingdom of Malayupura in Pagarruyung,1350, Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara, succeeds Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi as ruler of Majapahit, his reign is considered the empires Golden Age. Under its military commander Gajah Mada, Majapahit stretches over much of modern-day Indonesia,1357, In the Battle of Bubat, the Sundanese royal family were massacred by the Majapahit army under the order of Gajah Mada. The death toll including Sundanese King Lingga Buana and the princess Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi that committed suicide,1365, The Old Javanese text Nagarakertagama is written. The end of Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty The Lollardy movement rises in England 1377, palembangs prince, Parameswara flees, eventually finding his way to Malacca and establishing it as a major international port.
The Great Schism of the West begins in 1378, eventually leading to 3 simultaneous popes, singapore emerges for the first time as a fortified city and trading centre of some importance. Reunification of Poland under Władysław I of Poland Ciompi Revolt in Florence Peasants Revolt in England Islam reaches Terengganu, the Hausa found several city-states in the south of modern Niger. The Mali Empire expands westward and conquers Tekrur, the Scots win the Scottish Wars of Independence. 1392, Taejo of Joseon established Joseon Dynasty The Kalmar Union is established in 1397, uniting Norway, iwan vault, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Persia, is built. Work begins on the Great Enclosure at Great Zimbabwe, built of un-cemented, dressed stone, the citys population is now between 10,000 and 40,000
The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh, the New Year in the Bengali calendar is known as Pôhela Bôishakh. The Bengali Era or Anno Bengal, the Bengali year is 594 less than the AD or CE year in the Gregorian calendar if it is before Pôhela Bôishakh, the revised version of the Bengali calendar was officially adopted in Bangladesh in 1987. However, it is not followed in India where the traditional version continues to be followed due to occurrence of Hindu festivals based on a particular sidereal solar day. The Bengali calendar is a solar calendar, the calendar was developed by Alauddin Husain Shah, a Hussain Shahi sultan of Bengal by combining the lunar Islamic calendar with the solar calendar, prevalent in Bengal. All theories agree that the Mughal Emperor, Akbar was instrumental in promulgating the Bengali calendar, Akbar modified, developed and re introduced the Bengali Calendar in order to make tax collection easier in Bengal.
The calendar was called as Tarikh-e-Elahi. Sources credit the idea to Alauddin Husain Shah, akbars royal astronomer Fathullah Shirazi developed the Bengali calendar, by synthesizing the Lunar Islamic and Solar calendars. The calendar started with the Islamic calendar value, but the Sanskrit month names were used from the earlier version, the distinctive characteristic of the Bengali year was that rather than being a lunar calendar, it was based on a union of the solar and lunar year. This was essentially a great promotion as the solar and lunar years were formulated in very diverse systems, primarily this calendar was named as Fasli Sôn and Bônggabdô. The Bengali Year was launched on 1584 AD or 992 AH and this was the day that Akbar defeated Hemu in the clash of Panipat to ascend the throne. The month of Muharram in the year 963 AH was equal to the month of Boishakh in the Bengali calendar, in the Tarikh-e-Elahi version of the calendar, each day of the month had a separate name, and the months had different names from what they have now.
The Bengali calendar consists of 6 seasons, known as Rreetu ঋতু or Kal কাল, hence after some centuries the months will shift far away from the actual seasons. But the new revised version of the Bengali calendar used in Bangladesh will continue to maintain the seasons on time as mentioned above. The Bengali Calendar incorporates the seven-day week as used by other calendars. The names of the days of the week in the Bengali Calendar are based on the Navagraha, the day begins and ends at sunrise in the Bengali calendar, unlike in the Gregorian calendar, where the day starts at midnight. Pôhela Bôishakh in West Bengal and other states of India with Bengali diaspora, is celebrated on 14/15 April of the Gregorian calendar, according to the revised version of the calendar, now followed in Bangladesh, Pôhela Bôishakh always falls on 14 April. It is not clear, from what ground they start counting of 1st Bengali calendar year from the 593AD, the length of a year is counted as 365 days, as in the Gregorian calendar
Vikram Samvat Nepali, नेपाली पात्रो, Listen ) is an era used in India and Nepal, just like the Christian era started in 1 CE. The Vikram Samvat started in 58/57 BCE in southern and 57/56 BCE in northern systems of Hindu calendar, the era is named after king Vikramaditya. The Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead of the solar Gregorian calendar, for example, the year 2073 BS began in 2016 CE and will end in 2017 CE. The new year begins with the first day of month Baishakh, the first day of the new year is passionately celebrated in a historical carnival that takes place every year in Bhaktapur, called Bisket Jatra. The Rana rulers of Nepal made it their official calendar, there have been calls for the Vikram Samvat to replace Saka as Indias official calendar. The classical Vikram Samvat uses lunar months and solar sidereal years, because 12 months do not match a sidereal year exactly, correctional months are added or occasionally subtracted. A Tithi or lunar day is defined as the time it takes for the angle between the moon and the Sun to increase by 12°.
Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours, a Paksa or lunar fortnight consists of 15 tithis. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas. Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the account, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan, despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated, although Gandharvasena himself was forgiven, the defeated king retired to the forest, where he was killed by a tiger. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana, on, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the Vikrama era, the Ujjain calendar started around 56-58 BCE, and the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana.
The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE, the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or simply, Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era Vikrama is from 842 CE and this inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, and is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE, the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes
Edward III of England
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, at age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself heir to the French throne in 1337. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years War, following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England, victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny. Edwards years, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity, Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an adventurer by Whig historians such as William Stubbs.
This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements, Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years. The reign of his father, Edward II, was a problematic period of English history. One source of contention was the inactivity, and repeated failure. Another controversial issue was the kings patronage of a small group of royal favourites. The birth of an heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward IIs position in relation to the baronial opposition. To bolster further the independent prestige of the prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age. In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from his brother-in-law, Charles IV of France, Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically, particularly over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger. Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place, the young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, who was the sister of King Charles, and was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French.
While in France, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have Edward deposed, to build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had Prince Edward engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault. An invasion of England was launched and Edward IIs forces deserted him completely, the king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327 and it was not long before the new reign met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, who was now the de facto ruler of England