1st century BC
The 1st century BC known as the last century BC, started on the first day of 100 BC and ended on the last day of 1 BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero; this is the 100th century in the Holocene calendar. 1st century AD follows. In the course of the century all the remaining independent lands surrounding the Mediterranean were brought under Roman control, being ruled either directly under governors or through puppet kings appointed by Rome; the Roman state itself was plunged into civil war several times resulting in the marginalization of its 500-year-old republic, the embodiment of total state power in a single man—the emperor. The internal turbulence that plagued Rome at this time can be seen as the death throes of the Roman Republic, as it gave way to the autocratic ambitions of powerful men like Sulla, Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and Octavian. Octavian's ascension to total power as the emperor Augustus is considered to mark the point in history where the Roman Republic ends and the Roman Empire begins.
Some scholars refer to this event as the Roman Revolution. It is believed that the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity took place at the close of this century. In the eastern mainland, the Han Dynasty began to decline and the court of China was in chaos in the latter half of this century. Trapped in a difficult situation, the Xiongnu had to begin emigration to the west or attach themselves to the Han. 97 BC: Ariarathes VIII is forced out of Cappadocia by Mithridates VI of Pontus, dies soon afterwards. 96 BC: Cyrene is left to the people of Rome by its ruler Ptolemy Apion. 96 BC: King Alexander Jannaeus of Judea wins the Siege of Gaza. 95 BC: Tigranes the Great becomes king of Armenia 93 BC: Ariobarzanes I Philoromaios becomes king of Cappadocia with Roman backing. 91 BC: The assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus leads to the Social War in Italy 91 BC: Crown Prince Ju Revolt in China. 89 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus's invasion of Cappadocia leads to the First Mithridatic War with the Roman Republic.
89 BC: Valagamba of Anuradhapura gains control of all of Sri Lanka 88 BC: 80,000 Roman civilians killed in the Asiatic Vespers in Asia Minor 87 BC: Emperor Wu of Han dies and is succeeded by his eight-year-old son Zhao, with Jin Midi, Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang as regents. 88-87 BC: Sulla's first civil war - Sulla marches on Rome and defeats Gaius Marius 86 BC: Siege of Athens ends with Roman conquest of Athens. 86 BC: The death of the regent of China Jin Midi unleashes the rivalry of his co-regents Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang. 85 BC: Sulla defeats the forces of Mithridates VI in Greece at the Battle of Orchomenus 85 BC: Aretas III of the Nabataeans conquers Damascus. 83 BC: Sulla makes peace with Mithridates VI and marches on Rome. 83-81 BC: Lucius Licinius Murena wages the Second Mithridatic War. 82 BC: Sertorius flees from Sulla to North Africa via Hispania c.83 BC: Tigranes of Armenia takes control of Syria after the implosion of the Seleucid dynasty. 81 BC: End of Sulla's second civil war - Sulla is appointed dictator of the Roman state, brings about major reforms.
80 BC: Sertorius invades Hispania and sets up his own regime, beginning the Sertorian War. 80 BC: Conflict between the regents Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang results in the destruction of the Shangguang clan and Huo Guang becoming the de facto ruler of China. C.80 BC: Maues, King of the Sakas, conquers Gandhara and Taxila. 77 BC: Fu Jiezi assassinated the king of Loulan on behalf of the Han dynasty. C.75 BC: Kanva dynasty replaces the Shunga dynasty in Magadha. 74 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus disputes Nicomedes IV of Bithynia's bequest of his kingdom to the Roman Republic, beginning the Third Mithridatic War. 74 BC: Emperor Zhao of Han dies and is succeeded by the unsuitable Prince He of Changyi and by Xuan. Huo Guang continues to be de facto ruler of China. 73 BC: A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the Third Servile War. 73-72 BC: Lucullus defeats Mithridates at Tenedos and the Rhyndacus and he flees east to Armenia 71 BC: Pompey the Great ends the Sertorian War and the Third Servile War.
71 BC: Wusun and China attack the Xiongnu. 69 BC: Lucullus invades Armenia and reestablishes the Seleucids in Syria. 68 BC: Pompey replaces Lucullus as leader of the Roman forces in the Third Mithridatic War. 68 BC: Huo Guang dies and Emperor Xuan of Han assumes full power. The Huo clan is eliminated over the following two years. 67 BC: Pompey is given a three-year extraordinary command against the pirates plaguing the Mediterranean and defeats them in forty days. 66 BC: Pompey drives Mithridates VI out of Asia Minor. 66 BC: Aristobulus II seizes power from John Hyrcanus II in Judea. 63 BC: Mithridates VI commits suicide, ending the Third Mithridatic War. 63 BC: Cicero denounces and defeats the Catilinarian Conspiracy. 63 BC: Pompey captures Jerusalem, establishes Roman annexation of Judea as a client kingdom. He permanently abolishes Seleucid Syria. Aristobulus II of Judea removed from John Hyrcanus II restored as Roman vassal. 62 BC: Nabataean kingdom becomes a Roman vassal. 61 BC: Orgetorix and the Helvetii's attempt to migrate into southwestern France leads Julius Caesar to take military action, beginning the Gallic Wars 60 BC: Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great, Marcus Crassus form the First Triumvirate c. 60 BC: The Sakas conquer Mathura.
58 BC: Battle of Bibracte - Julius Caesar conquers the Helvetii 58 BC: Germans invade Gaul and are defeated by Julius Caesar at Battle of Vosges. 58 BC
The Nanakshahi calendar is a tropical solar calendar, used in Sikhism and is based on the'Barah Maha'. Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months", it is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year. The year begins with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March; the first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev. The Nanakshahi Calendar is named after the founder of Guru Nanak Dev. Sikhs have traditionally recognised luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi; the methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was the same as the Bikrami solar year. According to Steel, the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2–3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart.
Kay abbreviates the Khalsa Era as KE. References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents. Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 C. E. after his victory in Sirhind according to which the year 1710 C. E. became Nanakshahi 241. However, Singh states the date of the victory as 14 May 1710 CE. According to Dilagira, Banda "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar". Banda Singh Bahadur minted new coins called Nanakshahi. Herrli states. Although Banda may have proclaimed this era, it cannot be traced in contemporary documents and does not seem to have been used for dating". According to The Panjab Past and Present, it is Gian Singh who "is the first to use Nanak Shahi Samvats along with those of Bikrami Samvats" in the Twarikh Guru Khalsa. According to Singha, Gian Singh was a Punjabi author born in 1822. Gian Singh wrote the Twarikh Guru Khalsa in 1891; the revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar.
The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on; the start of each month is fixed. According to Kapel, the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar; this is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year instead of using the sidereal year, used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars. The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998 but implemented in 2003 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events; the calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership. Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, fixes for all time in the future.
Features of the Original Nanakshahi calendar: Uses the accurate Tropical year rather than the Sidereal year Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak Year 1 is the Year of Guru Nanak's Birth. As an example, April 14, 2019 CE is Nanakshahi 551. Is Based on Gurbani – Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month has an extra day Approved by Akal Takht in 2003 In 2010, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase; this has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar" and others, the 2010 version. By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the original Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted to the Bikrami calendar however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi.
The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the Shiromani Akali Dal. There is some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world. SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current Nanakshahi calendar; the previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 23 Poh as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied; the PSGPC and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth. According to Ahaluwalia, the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory, it begins with the year of birth of
The Ptolemaic dynasty, sometimes known as the Lagids or Lagidae, was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC, they were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I known as Sōter "Saviour"; the Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens regnant, some of whom were married to their brothers, were called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice; the most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, between Octavian and Mark Antony.
Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs, they ruled jointly with their wives, who were also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority. Of these, one of the last and most famous was Cleopatra, with her two brothers and her son serving as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the rulers. Ptolemy I Soter married first Thaïs Artakama Eurydice, Berenice I Ptolemy II Philadelphus married Arsinoe I Arsinoe II. Cleopatra II Philometora Soteira, in opposition to Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros ruled jointly with Ptolemy IX Lathyros and Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy IX Lathyros married Cleopatra IV Cleopatra Selene. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos married Cleopatra V Tryphaena Cleopatra V Tryphaena ruled jointly with Berenice IV Epiphaneia and Cleopatra VI Tryphaena Cleopatra ruled jointly with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV and Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
Arsinoe IV, in opposition to Cleopatra Ptolemy Keraunos - eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter. Became king of Macedonia. Ptolemy Apion - son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon. Made king of Cyrenaica. Bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome. Ptolemy Philadelphus - son of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy of Mauretania - son of King Juba II of Numidia and Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. King of Mauretania. Contemporaries describe a number of the Ptolemaic dynasty members as obese, whilst sculptures and coins reveal prominent eyes and swollen necks. Familial Graves' disease could explain the swollen necks and eye prominence, although this is unlikely to occur in the presence of morbid obesity; this is all due to inbreeding within the Ptolemaic dynasty. In view of the familial nature of these findings, members of this dynasty suffered from a multi-organ fibrotic condition such as Erdheim–Chester disease or a familial multifocal fibrosclerosis where thyroiditis and ocular proptosis may have all occurred concurrently.
List of Seleucid rulers Hellenistic period History of ancient Egypt Donations of Alexandria Ptolemaic Decrees List of Ptolemaic pharaohs On Weights and Measures - contains a chronology of the Ptolemies Susan Stephens, Seeing Double. Intercultural Poetics in Ptolemaic Alexandria. A. Lampela and the Ptolemies of Egypt; the development of their political relations 273-80 B. C.. J. G. Manning, The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC. Livius.org: Ptolemies — by Jona Lendering
1st millennium BC
The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC. It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity. World population doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million; the Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization; the Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and the Carthaginians. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire; the early Celts dominate Central Europe. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire; the Scythians dominate Central Asia.
In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period; the Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica. The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism Zoroastrianism in the Near East, Vedic religion and Vedanta and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese; the term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history. World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170–300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World; the population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica.
The population of Oceania was less than one million people. 10th century BC Near East: Neo-Assyrian Empire Near East: Shoshenq I invades Canaan Aegean: Helladic period ends 9th century BC Egypt: 872 BC: Nile floods the Temple of Luxor Egypt: 836 BC: Civil war in Egypt North Africa: 814 BC: Carthage founded China: 841 BCndash. Greece: Archaic Greece, Greek alphabet Greece: Homer 776 BC: Greece: First Olympiad 753 BC: Europe: foundation of Rome 7th century BC 671 BC: Assyrian conquest of Egypt Near East: 631 BC: Death of Ashurbanipal, decline of the Assyrian Empire 6th century BC Egypt: 592 BC: Psamtik II sacks Napata Sudan: Aspelta moves the Kushite capital to Meroe Near East: 539 BC: Achaemenid conquest of Babylon under Cyrus the Great South Asia: Śramaṇa movement and "second urbanisation" South Asia: Early Buddhism Europe: 509 BC: Roman Republic 5th century BC China: 479 BC: death of Confucius China: 476 BC: Warring States period China: 486 BC: Grand Canal construction begins Near East: Second Temple Judaism, redaction of the Hebrew Bible Greece: beginning of the classical period.
Greece: Greco-Persian Wars Greece: 440 BC: Herodotus' Histories Greece: 431 BC: Peloponnesian War Oceania: Austronesian expansion reaches Western Polynesia 4th century BC Greece: 395 BC: Corinthian War Egypt: 343 BC: Achaemenid conquest Greece/Asia/Egypt: 330s BC: conquests of Alexander the Great, end of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonian Empire, beginning of the Hellenistic period South Asia: Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC China: Qin Unified China China: 206 BC: Han Dynasty South Asia: 261 BC: Kalinga war Rome: Roman expansion in Italy Rome/Carthage: Punic Wars 264 BC: First Punic War 218 BC Second Punic War 2nd century BC Rome/Carthage: 149 BC Third Punic War, Roman province of Africa Rome/Greece: 146 BC Battle of Corinth, beginning of the Roman era South Asia: 185 BC: Fall of the Maurya Empire China: Confucianism became the state ideology of China 1st century BC China: 91 BC: Records of the Grand Historian finished Rome/Europe: 58-50 BC Gallic Wars Rome: 32/30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic Rome/Egypt: 31 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt Rome/Europe/West Asia/Africa: 27 BC: Roman Empire Some of the central figures of the Axial Age are legendary or semi-legendary, with no contemporary written records available RulersChina: Dynasties in Chinese history, List of Chinese monarchs Egypt: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Carthage: List of monarchs of Carthage Assyrian Empire: List of Assyrian kings Babylonia: Neo-Babylonian_dynasty Canaan / Biblical Levant: Kings of Israel and Judah Achaemenid Persia: List of monarchs of Persia Kingdom of Kush: List of monarchs of Kush Classical Greece: Monarchs: List of kings of Sparta, Thirty Tyrants Athenian democracy: Pericles Macedon: List of ancient Macedonians, Argead dynasty Hellenistic period: Ptolemaic Dynasty, Antigonid dynasty, Hasmonean dynasty Rome: kings of Rome, List of Roman consuls Parthian Empire: List of Parthian kings India: List of Indian monarchsReligion, p
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions and daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses. In Israel, it is used for religious purposes, provides a time frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar; the present Hebrew calendar is the product including a Babylonian influence. Until the Tannaitic period, the calendar employed a new crescent moon, with an additional month added every two or three years to correct for the difference between twelve lunar months and the solar year; the year in which it was added was based on observation of natural agriculture-related events in ancient Israel. Through the Amoraic period and into the Geonic period, this system was displaced by the mathematical rules used today; the principles and rules were codified by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah in the 12th century.
Maimonides' work replaced counting "years since the destruction of the Temple" with the modern creation-era Anno Mundi. The Hebrew lunar year is about eleven days shorter than the solar year and uses the 19-year Metonic cycle to bring it into line with the solar year, with the addition of an intercalary month every two or three years, for a total of seven times per 19 years. With this intercalation, the average Hebrew calendar year is longer by about 6 minutes and 40 seconds than the current mean tropical year, so that every 217 years the Hebrew calendar will fall a day behind the current mean tropical year; the era used. As with Anno Domini, the words or abbreviation for Anno Mundi for the era should properly precede the date rather than follow it. AM 5779 began at sunset on 9 September 2018 and will end at sunset on 29 September 2019; the Jewish day is of no fixed length. The Jewish day is modeled on the reference to "...there was evening and there was morning..." in the creation account in the first chapter of Genesis.
Based on the classic rabbinic interpretation of this text, a day in the rabbinic Hebrew calendar runs from sunset to the next sunset. Halachically, a day ends and a new one starts when three stars are visible in the sky; the time between true sunset and the time when the three stars are visible is known as'bein hashmashot', there are differences of opinion as to which day it falls into for some uses. This may be relevant, for example, in determining the date of birth of a child born during that gap. There is no clock in the Jewish scheme. Though the civil clock, including the one in use in Israel, incorporates local adoptions of various conventions such as time zones, standard times and daylight saving, these have no place in the Jewish scheme; the civil clock is used only as a reference point – in expressions such as: "Shabbat starts at...". The steady progression of sunset around the world and seasonal changes results in gradual civil time changes from one day to the next based on observable astronomical phenomena and not on man-made laws and conventions.
In Judaism, an hour is defined as 1/12 of the time from sunrise to sunset, so, during the winter, an hour can be much less than 60 minutes, during the summer, it can be much more than 60 minutes. This proportional hour is known as a sha'ah z'manit. A Jewish hour is divided into parts. A part is 1/18 minute; the ultimate ancestor of the helek was a small Babylonian time period called a barleycorn, itself equal to 1/72 of a Babylonian time degree. These measures are not used for everyday purposes. Instead of the international date line convention, there are varying opinions as to where the day changes. One opinion uses the antimeridian of Jerusalem. Other opinions exist as well; the weekdays proceed to Saturday, Shabbat. Since some calculations use division, a remainder of 0 signifies Saturday. While calculations of days and years are based on fixed hours equal to 1/24 of a day, the beginning of each halachic day is based on the local time of sunset; the end of the Shabbat and other Jewish holidays is based on nightfall which occurs some amount of time 42 to 72 minutes, after sunset.
According to Maimonides, nightfall occurs. By the 17th century, this had become three-second-magnitude stars; the modern definition is when the center of the sun is 7° below the geometric horizon, somewhat than civil twilight at 6°. The beginning of the daytime portion of each day is determined both by sunrise. Most halachic times are based on some combination of these four times and vary from day to day throughout the year and vary depending on location; the daytime hours are divided into Sha'oth Zemaniyoth or "Halachic hours" by taking the time between sunrise and sunset or between dawn and nightfall and dividing it into 12 equal hours. The nighttime hours are s
An Olympiad is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 3rd year of the 699th Olympiad will begin in mid-summer 2019. A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports; the first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, so on. The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD, but as the Gregorian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.
An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed; the sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, by the time of Eratosthenes, it was agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC. The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states; the first to do so was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by historian for events before the 5th century BC are unreliable.
In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius. Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius. Early historians sometimes used the names of Olympic victors as a method of dating events to a specific year. For instance, Thucydides says in his account of the year 428 BC: "It was the Olympiad in which the Rhodian Dorieus gained his second victory". Dionysius of Halicarnassus dates the foundation of Rome to the first year of the seventh Olympiad, 752/1 BC. Since Rome was founded on April 21, in the last half of the ancient Olympic year, it would be 751 BC specifically. In Book 1 chapter 75 Dionysius states: "... Romulus, the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first year of the seventh Olympiad, when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon."
Diodorus Siculus dates the Persian invasion of Greece to 480 BC: "Calliades was archon in Athens, the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the stadion. It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece." Jerome, in his Latin translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius, dates the birth of Jesus Christ to year 3 of Olympiad 194, the 42nd year of the reign of the emperor Augustus, which equates to the year 2 BC. An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August; the games were therefore a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21.. Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians; the Eleians declared such games Anolympiads, but it is assumed the winners were recorded.
During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit deriving from a sport was banned; some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused; the modern Olympiad is a period of four years, beginning at the opening of the Olympic Summer Games and ending at the opening of the next. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896; the XXXI Olympiad began on August 5, 2016 and will end on July 24, 2020. The Summer Olympics are more referred to as the Games of the Olympiad; the first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad Note, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does
The Monkey is the ninth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Monkey is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 申. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Monkey", while bearing the following elemental sign: Peter So. Kaori Working House, ed. Your Fate in 2016 - The Year of the Monkey. Translated by Jay Lowe. Forms Publications. ISBN 978-988-8325-85-6. Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2016: What the Year of the Monkey holds in store for you. 2015-02-22. Thorsons/HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007588268. Suzanne White. 2016 New Astrology Horoscopes - Chinese and Western: Fire Monkey Year - Monthly Horoscopes for All Signs. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 360. ISBN 9781517127749