1354 Botha

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1354 Botha
Discovery [1]
Discovered by C. Jackson
Discovery site Johannesburg Obs.
Discovery date 3 April 1935
MPC designation (1354) Botha
Named after
Louis Botha[2]
(South African prime minister)
1935 GK · 1925 RF
1930 KG · 1931 TP
1935 JK · 1953 TO1
1953 TY2
main-belt · (outer)[3]
background [4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 85.55 yr (31,248 days)
Aphelion 3.8022 AU
Perihelion 2.4451 AU
3.1237 AU
Eccentricity 0.2172
5.52 yr (2,017 days)
0° 10m 42.6s / day
Inclination 5.9581°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 38.41±12.74 km[5]
41.732±0.504 km[6]
42.54±0.69 km[7]
46.567±0.550 km[8]
48.75±5.8 km[9]
48.82 km (derived)[3]
70.34±0.88 km[10]
4 h (poor)[11]
0.0295 (derived)[3]
C (assumed)[3]
11.00[1][3][10] · 11.03[5] · 11.20±0.35[12] · 11.30[7][8][9]

1354 Botha, provisional designation 1935 GK, is an exceptionally dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 46 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 3 April 1935, by South-African astronomer Cyril Jackson at the Union Observatory in Johannesburg.[13] The asteroid was named after South African prime minister Louis Botha.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Botha is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population.[4] It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.4–3.8 AU once every 5 years and 6 months (2,017 days; semi-major axis of 3.12 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.22 and an inclination of 6° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The asteroid was first identified as 1925 RF at Heidelberg Observatory in September 1929. The body's observation arc begins at with its identification as 1931 TP at Simeiz Observatory in October 1931, more than three years prior to its official discovery observation at Johannesburge.[13]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Botha is an assumed carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[3]

Rotation period[edit]

In September 2003, a fragmentary rotational lightcurve of Botha was obtained from photometric observations by Swiss astronomers Stefano Sposetti and Raoul Behrend. Lightcurve analysis gave a tentative rotation period of 4 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.21 magnitude (U=1+).[11] As of 2017, no secure period has been obtained.[3]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Botha measures between 38.41 and 70.34 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.014 and 0.05.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0295 and a diameter of 48.82 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.0.[3]


This minor planet was named after Louis Botha (1862–1919), the first Prime Minister of South Africa of the Union of South Africa, which existed between 1910 and 1961.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 908).[14]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1354 Botha (1935 GK)" (2017-04-30 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1354) Botha. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 110. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (1354) Botha". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1354) Botha". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  12. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  13. ^ a b "1354 Botha (1935 GK)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 

External links[edit]