135 Squadron (Israel)
The 135 Squadron of the Israeli Air Force, also known as the Air Kings Squadron.
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The 135 Squadron of the Israeli Air Force, also known as the Air Kings Squadron.
|This military aviation article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Beechcraft Bonanza – The Beechcraft Bonanza is an American general aviation aircraft introduced in 1947 by Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. The six-seater, single-engined aircraft is still being produced by Beechcraft and has been in production longer than any other airplane in history. More than 17,000 Bonanzas of all variants have been built, designed by a team led by Ralph Harmon, the model 35 Bonanza was a relatively fast, low-wing monoplane at a time when most light aircraft were still made of wood and fabric. The Model 35 featured retractable landing gear, and its signature V-tail, the prototype 35 Bonanza made its first flight on December 22,1945, with the first production aircraft debuting as 1947 models. The first 30–40 Bonanzas produced had fabric-covered flaps and ailerons, after which, the V-tail design gained a reputation as the forked-tail doctor killer, due to crashes by overconfident amateur pilots with high-level skills outside aviation, fatal accidents, and inflight breakups. Doctor killer has sometimes used to describe the conventional-tailed version. Still built today is the Model 36 Bonanza, a longer-bodied, straight-tail variant of the original design, all Bonanzas share an unusual feature, The yoke and rudder pedals are interconnected by a system of bungee cords that assist in keeping the airplane in coordinated flight during turns. The bungee system allows the pilot to make coordinated turns using the yoke alone, or with minimal rudder input, increased right-rudder pressure is still required on takeoff to overcome engine torque and P-factor. This feature started with the V-tail and persists on the current production model, the twin-engined variant of the Bonanza is called the Baron, whereas the Twin Bonanza is a different design not based on the original single-engined Bonanza fuselage. At the time of the grounding, some Bonanzas had reached 64 years in service, Aircraft with frayed cables were grounded until the cables were replaced and those that passed inspection were required to have their cables replaced within 60 days regardless. The AD affected only Australian aircraft and was not adopted by the authority responsible for the type certificate. The FAA instead opted to issue a Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin requesting that the control cables be inspected during the annual inspection. The QU-22 was a Beech 36/A36 Bonanza modified during the Vietnam War to be an electronic monitoring signal relay aircraft, an AiResearch turbocharged, reduction-geared Continental GTSIO-520-G engine was used to reduce its noise signature, much like the later Army-Lockheed YO-3A. These aircraft were intended to be used as unmanned drones to monitor seismic and acoustic sensors dropped along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos and report troop and supply movements. When the project was put into operation in 1968, however, a separate operation Compass Flag monitored the General Directorate of Rear Services along the Ho Chi Minh Trail linking to the 6908th security squadron. Six YQU-22A prototypes were combat-tested in 1968, and two were lost during operations, with a civilian test pilot killed, twenty-seven QU-22Bs were modified,13 in 1969 and 14 in 1970, with six lost in combat. Two Air Force pilots were killed in action, all of the losses were due to engine failures or effects of turbulence. A large cowl bump above the spinner was faired-in for an AC current generator, Continental Voyager Bonanza standard aircraft with a liquid-cooled Continental Motors TSIOL-550-B engine
2. Israeli Air Force – The Israeli Air Force operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28,1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, as of May 2012 Aluf Amir Eshel serves as the Air Force Commander. The Israeli Air Force formed on May 28,1948, using commandeered or donated civilian aircraft and obsolete, eventually, more aircraft were procured, including Boeing B-17s, Bristol Beaufighters, de Havilland Mosquitoes and P-51D Mustangs. The Israeli Air Force played an important part in Operation Kadesh, on June 5,1967, the first day of the Six-Day War, the Israeli Air Force executed Operation Focus, crippling the opposing Arab air forces and attaining air supremacy for the remainder of the war. Shortly after the end of the Six-Day War, Egypt initiated the War of Attrition, on October 7,1973, the IAF conducted Operation Tagar against Egyptian air bases of the Egyptian Air Defence Force. Although initially successful, with 10 bases hit, the urgency of the fighting on the Golan heights forced the operations suspension, since that war most of Israels military aircraft have been obtained from the United States. Among these are the F-4 Phantom II, A-4 Skyhawk, F-15 Eagle, the Israeli Air Force has also operated a number of domestically produced types such as the IAI Nesher, and later, the more advanced IAI Kfir. On June 7,1981, eight IAF F-16A fighters covered by six F-15A jets carried out Operation Opera to destroy the Iraqi nuclear facilities at Osiraq, on June 9,1982, the Israeli Air Force carried out Operation Mole Cricket 19, crippling the Syrian air defence array. The IAF continued to mount attacks on Hezbollah and PLO positions in south Lebanon, on October 1,1985, In response to a PLO terrorist attack which murdered three Israeli civilians in Cyprus, the Israeli air force carried out Operation Wooden Leg. The strike involved the bombing of PLO Headquarters in Tunis, by F-15 Eagles, in 1991, the IAF carried out Operation Solomon which brought Ethiopian Jews to Israel. In 1993 and 1996, the IAF participated in Operation Accountability and Operation Grapes of Wrath and it took part in many missions since, including during the 2006 Lebanon War, Operation Cast Lead, Operation Pillar of Cloud and Operation Protective Edge. On September 6,2007, the Israeli Air Force successfully bombed an alleged Syrian nuclear reactor in Operation Orchard, squadron markings usually go on the tail fin. Forerunners of the Israeli Air Force were the Palestine Flying Service established by the Irgun in 1937, and Sherut Avir, the Israeli Air Force formed on May 28,1948, shortly after Israel declared statehood and found itself under attack. The force consisted of a hodge-podge of commandeered or donated civilian aircraft converted to military use, a variety of obsolete and surplus ex-World War II combat-aircraft were quickly sourced by various means to supplement this fleet. Creativity and resourcefulness were the foundations of early Israeli military success in the air, Israels new fighter-arm first went into action on May 29,1948, assisting efforts to halt the Egyptian advance from Gaza northwards. Four newly arrived Avia S-199s, flown by Lou Lenart, Modi Alon, Ezer Weizman and Eddie Cohen, although damage to the enemy was minimal, two aircraft were lost and Cohen killed, nevertheless the attack achieved its goal and stopped the Egyptians. After un-assembled planes were strafed on the ground on May 30th at Ekron airfield the fighters were moved to makeshift strip located around the current Herzliya Airport. The Israeli Air Force scored its first aerial victories on June 3 when Modi Alon, flying Avia D.112, the first dogfight against enemy fighters took place a few days later, on June 8, when Gideon Lichtaman shot down an Egyptian Spitfire
3. Beechcraft Super King Air – The Beechcraft Super King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by Beechcraft. The King Air line comprises a number of series that fall into four families. The latter two models were marketed as the Super King Air family, but the Super was dropped in 1996. The Super King Air family has been in production since 1974. It has outlasted all of its previous competitors and as of 2009 the only aircraft in its class is the Piaggio P.180 Avanti. At the present, the B200GT, B200CGT and the larger B300, special mission derivative versions of these models are also available for order. The Beechcraft 1900 regional airliner was derived from the Model B200 King Air, the Model 200 was originally conceived as the Model 101 in 1969, and was a development of the Model 100 King Air. The Model 200 had essentially the same fuselage as the Model 100, with changes to the fuselage to accommodate a new T-tail. Overall, the 200 was 3 ft 10 in longer than the A100, with wingspan 4 ft 3 in greater, maximum Take-Off Weight was increased by 1,000 lb. The 200 received civil certification in December 1973 and the first civil delivery took place in February 1974, in 1976, Beechcraft developed the Model 200T, a version configured for aerial surveying or reconnaissance. Customers could specify any combination of these modifications when ordering a 200T, all 200Ts were Model 200s modified at the factory and given new constructors numbers. The next model to appear was the Model 200C in 1979, the door opening was 4 ft 4 in high and 4 ft 4 in wide, allowing a large range of items to be loaded into the cabin. The Model 200C found favour with many operators who fitted them out internally as Air Ambulances, the 200C was built from scratch rather than as a modification of the Model 200. The Model A200C military version was developed concurrently and this updated and improved version was the Model B200, which entered production in 1981. It was fitted with PT6A-42 engines, still rated at 850 shp, other changes included increased maximum pressurization and changes to the cockpit layout. The Model 200C gave way to the Model B200C the same year, with the first Model B200T and Model B200CT being modified from a B200 and B200C respectively, the following year. Commencing in 1984 the B200, B200C and their derivatives were fitted with a landing gear retraction mechanism. This replaced the earlier electro-mechanical retraction system of gearboxes, driveshafts and chains, at the same time the propellers fitted were changed from 3-bladed Hartzells to 3-bladed McCauleys
4. Israel – Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians, Maronites and Samaritans. Israel also hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam
5. History of the Israeli Air Force – The History of the Israel Air Force begins in May 1948, shortly after the formation of the State of Israel. Following Israels declaration of independence on May 14, its national institutions transformed into the agencies of a state, and on May 26,1948. Beginning with a collection of light aircraft, the force soon transformed into a comprehensive fighting force. It has since participated in wars and numerous engagements, becoming what has been described as The mightiest air force in the Middle East. Preceded by the Sherut Avir, the air wing of the Haganah, at first, it was assembled from a hodge-podge collection of civilian aircraft commandeered or donated and converted to military use. A variety of obsolete and surplus ex-World War II combat aircraft were quickly sourced by various means – both legal and illegal – to supplement this fleet, some spitfires were ferried from Žatec base code-named Zebra where pilots also received preliminary flight training, while others were transported by sea. Creativity and resourcefulness were the foundations of Israeli military success in the air. Many of the first IAFs pilots in 1948 were foreign volunteers and World War II veterans, the IAFs humble beginnings made its first air victories particularly impressive and noteworthy. Similarly the Air Transport Command begun its existence as the Panamanian registered Lineos Aeros de Panama Society Anonyme or LAPSA acquired C-46, of the 607 IAF servicemen who served in the IAF during the War of Independence, over 414 of them were volunteers from overseas. Israels new fighter arm first went into action on May 29,1948, four newly arrived Avia S-199s, flown by Lou Lenart, Modi Alon, Ezer Weizman and Eddie Cohen, struck Egyptian forces near Isdud. Although damage was minimal, two aircraft were lost and Cohen killed, the attack achieved its goal and the Egyptians stopped. The Avias were back in action on May 30, attacking Jordanian forces near Tulkarem, after un-assembled planes were strafed on the ground on May 30th at Ekron airfield the fighters were moved to makeshift strip located around the current Herzliya Airport. The Israeli Air Force scored its first aerial victories on June 3 when Modi Alon, flying Avia D.112, the first dogfight against enemy fighters took place a few days later, on June 8, when Gideon Lichtaman shot down an Egyptian Spitfire. During these initial operations, the squadron operated with a few planes versus almost complete Arab theater Air supremacy and the airplanes were parked dispersed between the orange trees. As the war progressed, more and more aircraft were procured, including Boeing B-17s, Bristol Beaufighters, de Havilland Mosquitoes and P-51D Mustangs, although the IAF had never secured complete aerial supremacy, by the end of the war it had proven decisive in the air. The war also saw the IAF clash with Britains Royal Air Force, during the summer and autumn of 1948 RAF photo-reconnaissance De Havilland Mosquitos of No.13 Squadron RAF flew routine reconnaissance overflights over Israel. These high-altitude flights remained unchallenged until Israel acquired the Mustang, on November 20,1948 one such reconnaissance aircraft was spotted over the Galilee and was shot down by Wayne Peake, crashing in the Mediterranean off Ashdod. The IAF and RAF clashed again on January 7,1949, during Operation Horev, the Israeli Air Force played an important part in Operation Kadesh, Israels part in the 1956 Suez Crisis
6. Israeli Air Force flight academy – The Israeli Air Force Flight Academy trains aircrew to operate Israeli Air Force aircraft, qualifying fighter, helicopter and transport pilots as well as combat and transport navigators. The IAF flight course is considered one of the most prestigious courses in the IDF and it lasts for three years and is held largely in the Hatzerim Airbase near Beer Sheva. Graduates of the course receive the rank of lieutenant and a BA from the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, after their training, the graduates must undertake mandatory military service of nine years. On average, only one out of nine students completes the course successfully, the first IAF flight course was completed in March 1949 in Hatzor Airbase. The first four graduates, including Mordechai Hod and Danny Shapira, had received their training in Czechoslovakia, in May 194912 more graduates completed the second IAF flight course, which also took place mostly in Czechoslovakia. The first flight course held entirely in Israel was held at Camp Sirkin, near Petah Tikva, most of the flight instructors at the time were foreign and the official language of the course was English. The course ended on 10 August 1950 and had 13 pilot graduates, in order to prepare them as fighter pilots, in December 1950 a separate operational training squadron was established, flying the Supermarine Spitfire. Until 1955 the flight took place at the Sirkin Airbase. In April 1966 the IAF flight course was transferred more to Hatzerim Airbase. With the increasing need for pilots, in 1965 a helicopter flight school was established within the IAF flight school. Until then all the pilots were trained in Europe and the United States. In 2002 the structure of the course changed, it was extended from two years to three years, and included undergraduate academic studies. In addition, since 2002 the flight course graduates receive the rank of lieutenant, the selection process for IAF pilots can be traced to Ezer Weizman, widely considered the architect of the modern Israeli Air Force, and his aim of recruiting only the best for pilots. His reasoning was that the skill and bravery of the forces would be for naught if they could be attacked at will from the air. Those who meet these and other criteria are invited to participate in a six-day gibush, a selection phase involving physical, mental, as many as 50% percent of those who commence the gibush will be dropped from further consideration at its conclusion. Those who pass the gibush embark on a journey to earn their wings, which includes extensive flight training, infantry training, an officers course. The prospective pilots are evaluated constantly, and the vast majority of those who begin flight training do not make it through the full program and those expelled from the course will either remain in the air force in a non-flying capacity, or transfer to an army unit. While in flying school, future pilots are sorted and assigned to train on different types of aircraft, relatively few become fighter pilots, while the remainder learn to fly helicopters, transport aircraft, or train as navigators