Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Mitanni called Hanigalbat in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC. Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon and a series of ineffectual Assyrian kings created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. At the beginning of its history, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite Empire and Egypt struck an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination. At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, Mitanni had outposts centred on its capital, whose location has been determined by archaeologists to be on the headwaters of the Khabur River; the Mitanni dynasty ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region between c. 1475 and c. 1275 BC. Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and Assyrian attacks and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. While the Mitanni kings were Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.
Their sphere of influence is shown in Hurrian place names, personal names and the spread through Syria and the Levant of a distinct pottery type. The Mitanni controlled trade routes down the Khabur to Mari and up the Euphrates from there to Carchemish. For a time they controlled the Assyrian territories of the upper Tigris and its headwaters at Nineveh, Erbil and Nuzi, their allies included Kizuwatna in southeastern Anatolia. To the east, they had good relations with the Kassites; the land of Mitanni in northern Syria extended from the Taurus mountains to its west and as far east as Nuzi and the river Tigris in the east. In the south, it extended from Aleppo across to Mari on the Euphrates in the east, its centre was in the Khabur River valley, with two capitals: Taite and Washshukanni, called Taidu and Ushshukana in Assyrian sources. The whole area supported agriculture without artificial irrigation and cattle and goats were raised, it is similar to Assyria in climate, was settled by both indigenous Hurrian and Amoritic-speaking populations.
The Mitanni kingdom was referred to as the Maryannu, Nahrin or Mitanni by the Egyptians, the Hurri by the Hittites, the Hanigalbat by the Assyrians. The different names seem to have referred to the same kingdom and were used interchangeably, according to Michael C. Astour. Hittite annals mention. A Hittite fragment from the time of Mursili I, mentions a "King of the Hurri"; the Assyro-Akkadian version of the text renders "Hurri" as Hanigalbat. Tushratta, who styles himself "king of Mitanni" in his Akkadian Amarna letters, refers to his kingdom as Hanigalbat. Egyptian sources call Mitanni "nhrn", pronounced as Naharin/Naharina from the Assyro-Akkadian word for "river", cf. Aram-Naharaim; the name Mitanni is first found in the "memoirs" of the Syrian wars of the official astronomer and clockmaker Amenemhet, who returned from the "foreign country called Me-ta-ni" at the time of Thutmose I. The expedition to the Naharina announced by Thutmosis I at the beginning of his reign may have taken place during the long previous reign of Amenhotep I.
Helck believes that this was the expedition mentioned by Amenhotep II. The ethnicity of the people of Mitanni is difficult to ascertain. A treatise on the training of chariot horses by Kikkuli, a Mitanni writer, contains a number of Indo-Aryan glosses. Kammenhuber suggested that this vocabulary was derived from the still undivided Indo-Iranian language, but Mayrhofer has shown that Indo-Aryan features are present; the names of the Mitanni aristocracy are of Indo-Aryan origin, their deities show Indo-Aryan roots, though some think that they are more related to the Kassites. The common people's language, the Hurrian language, is neither Semitic. Hurrian is related to Urartian, the language of Urartu, both belonging to the Hurro-Urartian language family, it had been held. A Hurrian passage in the Amarna letters – composed in Akkadian, the lingua franca of the day – indicates that the royal family of Mitanni was by speaking Hurrian as well. Bearers of names in the Hurrian language are attested in wide areas of Syria and the northern Levant that are outside the area of the political entity known to Assyria as Hanilgalbat.
There is no indication. In the 14th century BC numerous city-states in northern Syria and Canaan were ruled by persons with Hurrian and some Indo-Aryan names. If this can be taken to mean that the population of these states was Hurrian as well it is possible that these entities were a part of a larger polity with a shared Hurrian identity; this is assumed, but without a critical examination of the sources. Differences in dialect and regionally different pantheons point to the existence of several groups of Hurrian speakers. No native sources for the history of Mitanni have been found so far; the account is based on Assyrian, Hittite
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history; some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled as Neferneferuaten after her husband's death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate. If Nefertiti did rule as Pharaoh, her reign was marked by the fall of Amarna and relocation of the capital back to the traditional city of Thebes. Nefertiti had many titles including Hereditary Princess, she was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin's Neues Museum. The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt, it was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, it was found in his workshop. Nefertiti, Egyptian Nfr.t-jy.tj, for "the beauty has come". Nefertiti's parentage is not known with certainty, but one cited theory is that she was the daughter of Ay to be pharaoh.
However, this hypothesis is wrong since Ay and his wife Tey are never called the father and mother of Nefertiti and Tey's only connection with her was that she was the "nurse of the great queen" Nefertiti. Nefertiti's Scenes in the tombs of the nobles in Amarna mention the queen's sister, named Mutbenret. Another theory that gained some support identified Nefertiti with the Mitanni princess Tadukhipa. However, Tadukhipa was married to Akhenaten's father and there is no evidence for any reason why this woman would need to alter her name in a proposed marriage to Akhenaten or any evidence of a foreign non-Egyptian background for Nefertiti; the exact dates when Nefertiti married Akhenaten and became the king's great royal wife of Egypt are uncertain. Their six known daughters were: Meritaten: No than year 1 later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. Meketaten: Year 4. Ankhesenpaaten known as Ankhesenamun queen of Tutankhamun Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8 later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. Neferneferure: Year 9.
Setepenre: Year 11. Nefertiti first appears in scenes in Thebes. In the damaged tomb of the royal butler Parennefer, the new king Amenhotep IV is accompanied by a royal woman, this lady is thought to be an early depiction of Nefertiti; the king and queen are shown worshiping the Aten. In the tomb of the vizier Ramose, Nefertiti is shown standing behind Amenhotep IV in the Window of Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier. During the early years in Thebes, Akhenaten had several temples. One of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben, was dedicated to Nefertiti, she is depicted with her daughter Meritaten and in some scenes the princess Meketaten participates as well. In scenes found on the talatat, Nefertiti appears twice as as her husband, she is shown appearing behind her husband the Pharaoh in offering scenes in the role of the queen supporting her husband, but she is depicted in scenes that would have been the prerogative of the king. She is shown smiting the enemy, captive enemies decorate her throne.
In the fourth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV decided to move the capital to Akhetaten. In his fifth year, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten, Nefertiti was henceforth known as Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti; the name change was a sign of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten. It changed Egypt's religion from a polytheistic religion to a religion which may have been better described as a monolatry or henotheism; the boundary stelae of years 4 and 5 mark the boundaries of the new city and suggest that the move to the new city of Akhetaten occurred around that time. The new city contained several large open-air temples dedicated to the Aten. Nefertiti and her family would have resided in the Great Royal Palace in the centre of the city and at the Northern Palace as well. Nefertiti and the rest of the royal family feature prominently in the scenes at the palaces and in the tombs of the nobles. Nefertiti's steward during this time was an official named Meryre II, he would have been in charge of running her household.
Inscriptions in the tombs of Huya and Meryre II dated to Year 12, 2nd month of Peret, Day 8 show a large foreign tribute. The people of Kharu and Kush are shown bringing gifts of gold and precious items to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. In the tomb of Meryre II, Nefertiti's steward, the royal couple is shown seated in a kiosk with their six daughters in attendance; this is one of the last times princess. Two representations of Nefertiti that were excavated by Flinders Petrie appear to show Nefertiti in the middle to part of Akhenaten's reign'after the exaggerated style of the early years had relaxed somewhat'. One is a small piece on limestone and is a preliminary sketch of Nefertiti wearing her distinctive tall crown with carving began around the mouth, chin and tab of the crown. Another is a small inlay head modeled from reddish-brown quartzite, intended to fit into a larger composition. Meketaten may have died in year
13th century BC
The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC. 1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end in the Indus Valley. 1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty. 1282 BC: Pandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion and his sons, his four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica. 1279 BC: Ramesses II becomes leader of Ancient Egypt. 1278 BC: Seti I dies, 1 year after his son, Ramesses II is crowned. 1274 BC: The Battle of Kadesh in Syria. 1258 BC: Ramses II, king of ancient Egypt, Hattusilis III, king of the Hittites, sign the earliest known peace treaty. 1251 BC: A solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes, Greece. C. 1250 BC: Approximately 4,000 men fight a battle at a causeway over the Tollense valley in Northern Germany, the largest prehistoric battle north of the Alps known so far.
1250 BC: Wu Ding King of Shang Dynasty to 1192 BC. 1250 BC: The Lion Gate at Mycene is constructed. C. 1230 BC: Aegeus, legendary King of Athens, receives a false message that his designated heir Theseus, his son by Aethra of Troezena, is dead. Theseus had been sent to his overlord Minos of Crete as an offering to the Minotaur. Medus, Aegeus' only other son, had been exiled in Asia and would become legendary ancestor to the Medes. Believing himself without heirs the King commits suicide after a reign of 48 years, he is succeeded by Theseus, who still lives. The Aegean Sea is named in his honor. 1213 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus; the latter seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.
1212 BC: Death of Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II. 1208 BC: Pharaoh Merneptah defeats a Libyan invasion. 1206 BC: Approximate starting date of Bronze age collapse, a period of migration and destruction in the eastern Mediterranean and Near East. 1204 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erichthonius II of Athens and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds assassinates him. C. 1200 BC: Earliest writing that survived exists in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Chariots appear in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Start of Iron Age in Near East, eastern Mediterranean, India. C. 1200 BC: Collapse of Hittite power in Anatolia with the destruction of their capital Hattusa. C. 1200 BC: Massive migrations of people around the Mediterranean and the Middle-East.
See Sea People for more information. C. 1200 BC: Aramaic nomads and Chaldeans become a big threat to the former Babylonian and Assyrian Empire. C. 1200 BC: Migration and expansion of Dorian Greeks. Destruction of Mycenaean city Pylos. C. 1200 BC: The proto-Scythian Srubna culture expands from the lower Volga region to cover the whole of the North Pontic area. C. 1200 BC: The Cimmerians start settling the steppes of southern Russia?. c. 1200 BC: Olmec culture starts and thrives in Mesoamerica. C. 1200 BC: San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán starts to flourish. C. 1200 BC: Ancient Pueblo Peoples civilization in North America. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical. 1251 BC—A lunar eclipse might mark the birth of Hercules c. 1225 BC—Birth of legendary Helen to King Tyndareus of Sparta and his wife Leda 1212 BC—Death of Ramesses II of Egypt Moses—A Hebrew prophet found in the Old Testament in the Bible called the Exodus.
Merneptah, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Amenmesse, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Pan Geng of Shang dynasty China See: List of sovereign states in the 13th century BC
C. 1356 BC – Amenhotep IV begins the worship of Aten in Ancient Egypt, changing his name to Akhenaten and moving the capital to Akhetaten, starting the Amarna Period. C. 1352 BC – Amenhotep III dies and is succeeded as Pharaoh by Amenhotep IV. 1350 BC – Yin becomes the new capital of Shang dynasty China
Tiryns or is a Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, the location from which mythical hero Heracles performed his 12 labors. Tiryns was a hill fort with occupation ranging back seven thousand years, from before the beginning of the Bronze Age, it reached its height between 1400 and 1200 BC, when it was one of the most important centers of the Mycenaean world, in particular in Argolis. Its most notable features were its palace, its cyclopean tunnels and its walls, which gave the city its Homeric epithet of "mighty walled Tiryns". Tiryns is linked with the myths surrounding Heracles, as the city was the residence of the hero during his labors, some sources cite it as his birthplace; the famous megaron of the palace of Tiryns has a large reception hall, the main room of which had a throne placed against the right wall and a central hearth bordered by four Minoan-style wooden columns that served as supports for the roof. Two of the three walls of the megaron were incorporated into an archaic temple of Hera.
The site went into decline at the end of the Mycenaean period, was deserted by the time Pausanias visited in the 2nd century AD. This site was excavated by Heinrich Schliemann in 1884–1885, is the subject of ongoing excavations by the German Archaeological Institute at Athens and the University of Heidelberg. In 1300 BC the citadel and lower town had a population of 10,000 people covering 20–25 hectares. Despite the destruction of the palace in 1200 BC, the city population continued to increase and by 1150 BC it had a population of 15,000 people. Tiryns was recognized as a World Heritage Site in 1999. Tiryns is first referenced by Homer. Ancient tradition held that the walls were built by the cyclopes because only giants of superhuman strength could have lifted the enormous stones. After viewing the walls of the ruined citadel in the 2nd century AD, the geographer Pausanias wrote that two mules pulling together could not move the smaller stones. Tradition associates the walls with Proetus, the sibling of Acrisius, king of Argos.
According to the legend Proetus, pursued by his brother, fled to Lycia. With the help of the Lycians, he managed to return to Argolis. There, Proetus fortified it with the assistance of the cyclopes, thus Greek legend links the three Argolic centers with three mythical heroes: Acrisius, founder of the Doric colony of Argos. But this tradition was born at the beginning of the historical period, when Argos was fighting to become the hegemonic power in the area and needed a glorious past to compete with the other two cities; the area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. A lesser neolithic settlement was followed, in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, by a flourishing early pre-Hellenic settlement located about 15 km southeast of Mycenae, on a hill 300 m long, 45–100 m wide, no more than 18 meters high. From this period survived under the yard of a Mycenaean palace, an imposing circular structure 28 meters in diameter, which appears to be a fortified place of refuge for the city's inhabitants in time of war, and/or a residence of a king.
Its base was powerful, was constructed from two concentric stone walls, among which there were others cross-cutting, so that the thickness reached 45 m. The superstructure was clay and the roof was made from fire-baked tiles; the first Greek inhabitants—the creators of the Middle Helladic civilization and the Mycenaean civilization after that—settled Tiryns at the beginning of the Middle period, though the city underwent its greatest growth during the Mycenaean period. The Acropolis was constructed in three phases, the first at the end of the Late Helladic II period, the second in Late Helladic III, the third at the end of the Late Helladic III B; the surviving ruins of the Mycenaean citadel date to the end of the third period. The city proper surrounded the acropolis on the plain below; the disaster that struck the Mycenaean centers at the end of the Bronze Age affected Tiryns, but it is certain that the area of the palace was inhabited continuously until the middle of the 8th century BC. At the beginning of the classical period Tiryns, like Mycenae, became a insignificant city.
When Cleomenes I of Sparta defeated the Argives, their slaves occupied Tiryns for many years, according to Herodotus. Herodotus mentions that Tiryns took part in the Battle of Plataea in 480 BC with 400 hoplites. In decline and Tiryns were disturbing to the Argives, who in their political propaganda wanted to monopolize the glory of legendary ancestors. In 468 BC Argos destroyed both Mycenae and Tiryns, and—according to Pausanias—transferred the residents to Argos, to increase the population of the city. However, Strabo says that many Tirynthians moved to found the city of modern Porto Heli. Despite its importance, little value was given to Tiryns and its mythical rulers and traditions by epics and drama. Pausanias dedicated a short piece to Tiryns, newer travelers, traveling to Greece in search of places where the heroes of the ancient texts lived, did not understand the significance of the city; the Acropolis was first excavated by the German scholar Friedrich Thiersch in 1831. In 1876, Heinrich Schliemann considered the palace of Tiryns to be medieval, so he came close to destroying the remains to excavate deeper for Mycenaean treasures.
However, the next period of excavation was under Wilhelm Dörpfeld, a director of the German Archaeological Institute.
Kiya was one of the wives of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Little is known about her, her actions and roles are poorly documented in the historical record, in contrast to those of Akhenaten's first royal wife, Nefertiti, her unusual name suggests that she may have been a Mitanni princess. Surviving evidence demonstrates that Kiya was an important figure at Akhenaten's court during the middle years of his reign, when she bore him a daughter, she disappears from history a few years before her royal husband's death. In previous years, she was thought to be mother of Tutankhamun, but recent DNA evidence suggests this is unlikely; the name Kiya. It has been suggested that it is a "pet" form, rather than a full name, as such could be a contraction of a foreign name, such as the Mitanni name "Tadukhipa," referring to the daughter of King Tushratta. Tadukhipa married Amenhotep III at the end of his reign, the Amarna Letters indicate that she was a nubile young woman at that time. In particular, Amarna Letters 27 through 29 confirm.
Thus some Egyptologists have proposed that Kiya might be the same person. However, there is no confirming evidence. In fact, Cyril Aldred proposed that her unusual name is a variant of the Ancient Egyptian word for "monkey," making it unnecessary to assume a foreign origin for her. In inscriptions, Kiya is given the titles of "The Favorite" and "The Greatly Beloved," but never of "Heiress" or "Great Royal Wife", which suggests that she was not of royal Egyptian blood, her full titles read, "The wife and beloved of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Living in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, Neferkheperure Waenre, the Goodly Child of the Living Aten, who shall be living for and Kiya." All artifacts relating to Kiya derive from Amarna, Akhenaten's short-lived capital city, or from Tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. She is not attested during the reign of any other pharaoh. Kiya's existence was unknown until 1959, when her name and titles were noted on a small cosmetic container in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
It had been bought thirty years without provenance, from Egyptologist Howard Carter. The British Egyptologists Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton wrote: "Kiya is named and depicted on various blocks originating at Amarna, on vases in London and New York, four fragmentary kohl-tubes in Berlin and London, a wine-jar docket, she may be depicted by three uninscribed sculptor's studies. Her coffin and canopic jars were taken over for the burial of a king, discovered in tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. All of Kiya's monuments were usurped for daughters of Akhenaten, making it certain that she was disgraced some time after Year 11." Akhenaten and his family were based in Thebes for the first four years of his reign, establishing the new capital city at Amarna in Year 5. Kiya is not attested during this early period. Only after the move to Amarna does she emerge through inscriptional evidence as one of Akhenaten's wives. Kiya's name appeared prominently in the temple installation known as the Maru-Aten, at the southern edge of the city, according to epigraphic studies.
The inscriptions in the Maru-Aten were recarved to replace the name and titles of Kiya with those of Akhenaten's eldest daughter, Meritaten. One or more "sunshades" or side-chapels in the city's largest temple to the Aten, the Per-Aten originally bore the name of Kiya; these sunshades were reinscribed for Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten, the third daughter of Akhenaten. Some of the recarved inscriptions indicate. Marc Gabolde proposes that Kiya's daughter was Beketaten, more identified as a daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye; the most spectacular of Kiya's monuments is a gilded wooden coffin of costly and intricate workmanship, discovered in Tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. The coffin's footboard contains an Atenist prayer, intended for a woman, but was revised to a refer to a man – with enough grammatical errors to betray the gender of the original speaker; the style of the coffin and the language of its surviving inscriptions place its manufacture in the reign of Akhenaten. Scholarly opinion now makes Kiya its original owner.
The richness of this coffin, comparable in style to the middle coffin of Tutankhamun, provides further evidence of Kiya's exalted status at Amarna. Many Egyptologists have tried to produce an explanation for her prominence. Numerous scholarly discussions of Tutankhamun's parentage during the late twentieth century, the early years of the twenty-first, have mentioned the hypothesis that Kiya was Tutankhamun's mother. If she had indeed borne a male heir to Akhenaten, this distinction might well merit unique honors. However, genetic studies of the Egyptian royal mummies, led by Zahi Hawass and Carsten Pusch, have now established that Tutankhamun's biological mother was KV35YL, the "Younger Lady" discovered in the mummy cache in the tomb of Amenhotep II. Kiya disappears from history during the last third of Akhenaten's reign, her name and images were replaced by those of Akhenaten's daughters. The exact year of her disappearance is unknown, with recent authorities suggesting dates that range from Year 11 or 12 to Year 16 of Akhenaten.
One of the last datable instances of her name is a wine docket from Amarna that mentions Akhenaten's Year 11, indicating that Kiya's estate produced a vintage in that year. Whether she died, was exiled, or suffered some other misfortune, Egyptologists have interpreted the er