1364 Safara

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1364 Safara
Discovery [1]
Discovered by L. Boyer
Discovery site Algiers Obs.
Discovery date 18 November 1935
MPC designation (1364) Safara
Named after
André Safar [2]
(discoverer's acquaintance)
1935 VB · 1932 EK
main-belt · (outer) · Eos[3][4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 85.64 yr (31,279 days)
Aphelion 3.2114 AU
Perihelion 2.8133 AU
3.0124 AU
Eccentricity 0.0661
5.23 yr (1,910 days)
0° 11m 18.6s / day
Inclination 11.488°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 21.197±0.201 km[5]
21.508±0.266 km[6]
24.35±0.47 km[7]
25.73 km (calculated)[3]
32.63±0.46 km[8]
7.14908±0.0004 h[9]
7.25±0.05 h[10][a]
0.14 (assumed)[3]
L[11] · S (assumed)[3]
10.60[6][7] · 10.64±0.19[11] · 10.70[1][3][8]

1364 Safara, incorrectly designated 1935 VB, is an Eoan asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 25 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 18 November 1935, by French astronomer Louis Boyer at the Algiers Observatory in Algeria, North Africa.[12] The asteroid should have been designated 1935 WB, as the letter "V" only covers discoveries made during 1–15 November.[1] It was named after André Safar, presumably an acquaintance of the discoverer from Algiers.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Safara is a member the Eos family (606),[4] the largest asteroid family of the outer main belt consisting of nearly 10,000 asteroids.[13]:23 It orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.8–3.2 AU once every 5 years and 3 months (1,910 days; semi-major axis of 3.01 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.07 and an inclination of 11° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The asteroid was first identified as 1932 EK at Heidelberg Observatory in March 1932. The body's observation arc begins at Algiers with its official discovery observation in November 1935.[12]

Physical characteristics[edit]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) assumes Safara to be a stony S-type asteroid,[3] while it has also characterized as a rare L-type asteroid by Pan-STARRS photometric survey.[11] The overall spectral type of the Eos family is that of a K-type.[13]:23

Rotation period and poles[edit]

In February 2002, a rotational lightcurve of Safara was obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer Brian Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory (716) in Colorado. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 7.25 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.36 magnitude (U=3-).[10][a]

In 2018, the body's lightcurve has also been modeled in a focused study of Eoan asteroids. Modeling gave a period of 7.14908 hours and two spin axis in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β) of (197.0°, 32.0°) and (10.0°, 12.0°).[9]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Safara measures between 21.197 and 32.63 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.087 and 0.2231.[5][6][7][8]

CALL assumes an albedo of 0.14 – derived from 221 Eos, the family's largest member and namesake – and calculates a diameter of 25.73 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.7.[3]


This minor planet was named after André Safar, presumably an acquaintance of the discoverer from Algiers. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 124).[2]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of 1364 Safara, Palmer Divide Observatory, Brian D. Warner (2010) Summary figures at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1364 Safara (1935 VB)" (2017-10-29 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1364) Safara. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 111. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1364) Safara". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Delbo', M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Durech, J.; et al. (January 2018). "Spin states of asteroids in the Eos collisional family" (PDF). Icarus. 299: 84–96. arXiv:1707.05507. Bibcode:2018Icar..299...84H. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.07.007. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  10. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (July 2010). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2009 December - 2010 March". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (3): 112–118. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37..112W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  12. ^ a b "1364 Safara (1935 VB)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  13. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.

External links[edit]