Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy, or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to as Dmitry, son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow, reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death. He was the first prince of Moscow to challenge Mongol authority in Russia, his nickname, alludes to his great victory against the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo, which took place on the Don River. He is venerated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church with his feast day on 19 May, or June 1. Dmitry was born in 1350, the son of Ivan the Fair, Grand Prince of Moscow, his second wife, Alexandra Vassilievna Velyaminova, the daughter of the mayor of Moscow. Dmitry was ascended the throne of the Principality of Moscow. Per the terms of Ivan's will, during Dmitry's minority, Metropolitan Aleksey served as regent. In 1360 Khizr-khan, Khan of the Golden Horde, transferred the title most prized among Russian princes, that of Grand Prince of Vladimir, to Dmitry Konstantinovich of Nizhniy Novgorod.
In 1363, after that prince was deposed, Dmitry Ivanovich was crowned at Vladimir. Three years he made peace with Dmitry Konstantinovich and married his daughter Eudoxia; the most important event during Dmitry's early reign was to start building the Moscow Kremlin. Thanks to the new fortress, the city withstood two sieges by Algirdas of Lithuania during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War; the war ended with the Treaty of Lyubutsk. In 1375, Dmitry settled, in a conflict with Mikhail II of Tver over Vladimir. Other princes of Northern Russia acknowledged his authority and contributed troops to the impending struggle against the Horde. By the end of his reign, Dmitry had more than doubled the territory of the Principality of Moscow. Mongol domination of Rus began to crumble during Dmitry's thirty-year reign; the Golden Horde was weakened by civil war and dynastic rivalries. Dmitry took advantage of this lapse in Mongol authority to challenge the Tatars. While he kept the Khan's patent to collect taxes for all of Russia, Dmitry is famous for leading the first Russian military victory over the Mongols.
Mamai, a Mongol general and claimant to the throne, tried to punish Dmitry for attempting to increase his power. In 1378 Mamai sent a Mongol army, but it was defeated by Dmitry's forces in the Battle of Vozha River. Two years Mamai led a large force against Moscow. Sergius of Radonezh blessed Dmitry Donskoy when he went to fight the Tatars in the signal Battle of Kulikovo field, but only after he was certain Dmitry had pursued all peaceful means of resolving the conflict. Sergius sent the two warrior monks Alexander Peresvet and his friend Rodion Oslyabya to join the Russian troops; the battle of Kulikovo was opened by single combat between two champions. The Russian champion was Alexander Peresvet; the Horde champion was Temir-murza. The champions killed each other in the first run. Dmitry met defeated the Horde. In gratitude for the victory, Dmitry established the Dormition monastery on the Dubenka River and built a church in honor of the Nativity of the Holy Theotokos over the graves of the fallen warriors.
The defeated Mamai was presently dethroned by Tokhtamysh. That khan reasserted overran Moscow in 1382 for Dmitry's resistance to Mamai. Dmitry, pledged his loyalty to Tokhtamysh and to the Golden Horde and was reinstated as Mongol principal tax collector and Grand Duke of Vladimir. Upon his death in 1389, Dmitry was the first Grand Duke to bequeath his titles to his son Vasili I of Russia without consulting the Khan, he was married to Eudoxia of Nizhniy Novgorod. She was a daughter of Dmitry of Vasilisa of Rostov, they had at least twelve children: Daniil Dmitriyevich. Vasiliy I of Moscow. Sofia Dmitriyevna. Married Fyodor Olegovich, Prince of Ryazan. Yuriy Dmitriyevich, Duke of Zvenigorod and Galich. Claimed the throne of Moscow against his nephew Vasiliy II of Moscow. Maria Dmitriyevna. Married Lengvenis. Anastasia Dmitriyevna. Married Ivan Vsevolodovich, Prince of Kholm. Simeon Dmitrievich. Ivan Dmitriyevich. Andrey Dmitriyevich, Prince of Mozhaysk. Pyotr Dmitriyevich, Prince of Dmitrov. Anna Dmitriyevna.
Married Yury Patrikiyevich. Her husband was Prince of Starodub and his wife Helena, his paternal grandfather was Narimantas. The marriage solidified his role as a Boyar attached to Moscow. Konstantin Dmitriyevich, Prince of Pskov. Rulers of Russia family tree Dmitry Donskoy, opera by Anton Rubinstein. Dmitri Donskoi Cawley, Charles, RUSSIA, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals, its members have been known as the Teutonic Knights, having a small voluntary and mercenary military membership, serving as a crusading military order for protection of Christians in the Holy Land and the Baltics during the Middle Ages. Purely religious since 1929, the Teutonic Order still confers limited honorary knighthoods; the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order, a Protestant chivalric order, is descended from the same medieval military order and continues to award knighthoods and perform charitable work. The full name of the Order in German is Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem or in Latin Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, thus the term "Teutonic" echoes the German origins of the order in its Latin name.
It is known in German as the Deutscher Orden also as Deutscher Ritterorden, Deutschherrenorden, Deutschritterorden, Die Herren im weißen Mantel, etc. The Teutonic Knights have been known as Zakon Krzyżacki in Polish and as Kryžiuočių Ordinas in Lithuanian, Vācu Ordenis in Latvian, Saksa Ordu or Ordu in Estonian, as well as various names in other languages. Knighthood was associated to service; the knight was always required to help the sick and wounded after a battle and was regarded to be brave and determined. Formed in the year 1192 in Acre, in the Levant, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer, controlling the port tolls of Acre. After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania in 1211 to help defend the South-Eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Cumans; the Knights were expelled by force of arms by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1225, after attempting to place themselves under papal instead of the original Hungarian sovereignty and thus to become independent.
In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians. The Knights had taken steps against their Polish hosts and with the Holy Roman Emperor's support, had changed the status of Chełmno Land, where they were invited by the Polish prince, into their own property. Starting from there, the Order created the independent Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, adding continuously the conquered Prussians' territory, subsequently conquered Livonia. Over time, the kings of Poland denounced the Order for expropriating their lands Chełmno Land and the Polish lands of Pomerelia and Dobrzyń Land; the Order theoretically lost its main purpose in Europe with the Christianization of Lithuania. However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Novgorod Republic; the Teutonic Knights had a strong economic base which enabled them to hire mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies, they became a naval power in the Baltic Sea.
In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald. However, the capital of the Teutonic Knights was defended in the following Siege of Marienburg and the Order was saved from collapse. In 1515, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I made a marriage alliance with Sigismund I of Poland-Lithuania. Thereafter, the empire did not support the Order against Poland. In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg resigned and converted to Lutheranism, becoming Duke of Prussia as a vassal of Poland. Soon after, the Order lost its holdings in the Protestant areas of Germany; the Order did keep its considerable holdings in Catholic areas of Germany until 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered its dissolution and the Order lost its last secular holdings. However, the Order continued to exist as a ceremonial body, it was outlawed by Adolf Hitler in 1938, but re-established in 1945. Today it operates with charitable aims in Central Europe; the Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross.
A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms. The motto of the Order was: "Helfen, Heilen". 1198 Formation 1218 Siege of Damietta 1228–1229 The Sixth Crusade 1237 absorption of The Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1242 The Battle on the Ice 1242–1249 First Prussian Uprising 1249 Treaty of Christburg with the pagan Prussians signed on February 9 1249 Battle of Krücken 1260 Battle of Durbe 1260–1274 Great Prussian Uprising 1262 Siege of Königsberg 1263 Battle of Löbau 1264 Siege of Bartenstein 1270 Battle of Karuse 1271 Battle of Pagastin 1279 Battle of Aizkraukle 1291 Siege of Acre (1291
Charles V of France
Charles V, called "the Wise", was King of France from 1364 to his death, the third from the House of Valois. His reign marked a high point for France during the Hundred Years' War, with his armies recovering much of the territory held by the English, reversed the military losses of his predecessors. In 1349, as a young prince, Charles received from his grandfather King Philip VI the province of Dauphiné to rule; this allowed him to bear the title "Dauphin" until his coronation, which led to the integration of the Dauphiné into the crown lands of France. After 1350, all heirs apparent of France bore the title of Dauphin until their accession. Charles became regent of France when his father John II was captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. To pay for the defense of the kingdom, Charles raised taxes; as a result, he faced hostility from the nobility, led by Charles the Bad, King of Navarre. Charles overcame all of these rebellions, but in order to liberate his father, he had to conclude the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360, in which he abandoned large portions of south-western France to Edward III of England and agreed to pay a huge ransom.
Charles became king in 1364. With the help of talented advisers, his skillful management of the kingdom allowed him to replenish the royal treasury and to restore the prestige of the House of Valois, he established the first permanent army paid with regular wages, which liberated the French populace from the companies of routiers who plundered the country when not employed. Led by Bertrand du Guesclin, the French Army was able to turn the tide of the Hundred Years' War to Charles' advantage, by the end of Charles' reign, they had reconquered all the territories ceded to the English in 1360. Furthermore, the French Navy, led by Jean de Vienne, managed to attack the English coast for the first time since the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. Charles V died in 1380, he was succeeded by his son Charles VI, whose disastrous reign allowed the English to regain control of large parts of France. Charles was born at the Château de Vincennes outside of Paris, the son of Prince John and Princess Bonne of France.
He was educated at court with other boys of his age with whom he would remain close throughout his life: his uncle Philip, Duke of Orléans, his three brothers Louis and Philip, Louis of Bourbon and Robert of Bar, Godfrey of Brabant, Louis I, Count of Étampes, Louis of Évreux, brother of Charles the Bad and Charles of Artois, Charles of Alençon, Philip of Rouvres. The future king was intelligent but physically weak, with pale skin and a thin, ill-proportioned body; this made a sharp contrast to his father, tall and sandy-haired. Humbert II, Dauphin of Viennois, ruined due to his inability to raise taxes after a crusade in the middle east, childless after the death of his only son, decided to sell the Dauphiné, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. Neither the pope nor the emperor wanted to buy and the transaction was concluded with Charles’ grandfather, the reigning King Philip VI. Under the Treaty of Romans, the Dauphiné of Viennois was to be held by a son of the future king John the Good. So it was the eldest son of the latter, who became the first Dauphin.
At the age of twelve, he was vested power while in Grenoble. A few days after his arrival, the people of Grenoble were invited to the Place Notre-Dame, where a platform was erected. Young Charles took his place next to Bishop John of Chissé and received the oath of allegiance of the people. In exchange, he publicly promised to respect the community charter and confirmed the liberties and franchises of Humbert II, which were summed up in a solemn statute before he signed his abdication and granted a last amnesty to all prisoners, except those facing the penalty of death. On April 8, 1350 at Tain-l'Hermitage, the Dauphin married his cousin Joanna of Bourbon at the age of 12; the prior approval of the pope was obtained for this consanguineous marriage. The marriage was delayed by the death of his mother Bonne of Luxembourg and his grandmother Joan the Lame, swept away by the plague; the dauphin himself had been ill from August to December 1349. Gatherings were limited to slow the spread of the plague raging in Europe, so the marriage took place in private.
The control of Dauphiné was valuable to the Kingdom of France, because it occupied the Rhône Valley, a major trade route between the Mediterranean and northern Europe since ancient times, putting them in direct contact with Avignon, a papal territory and diplomatic center of medieval Europe. Despite his young age, the dauphin applied to be recognized by his subjects, interceding to stop a war raging between two vassal families, gaining experience, useful to him. Charles was recalled to Paris at the death of his grandfather Philip VI and participated in the coronation of his father John the Good on 26 September 1350 in Reims; the legitimacy of John the Good, that of the Valois in general, was not unanimous. His father, Philip VI, had lost all credibility with the disasters of Crécy, the ravages of the plague, the monetary changes needed to support the royal finances; the royal clan had to cope with opposition from all sides in the kingdom. The first of these was led by Charles II of Navarre, called "the Bad", whose mother Joan II of Navarre had renounced the crown of France for that
Treaty of Dovydiškės
The Treaty of Dovydiškės, Daudiske, or Daudisken was a secret treaty signed on May 31, 1380 between Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Winrich von Kniprode, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. The treaty was directed against Jogaila's uncle Kęstutis and its effect was to precipitate the Lithuanian Civil War; the treaty was signed soon after Grand Duke Algirdas' death in 1377. Algirdas named his son not Kęstutis, his brother and co-ruler. Kęstutis and his son Vytautas acknowledged Jogaila's title and maintained friendly relations with him when his right of inheritance was challenged by Andrei of Polotsk, Algirdas' eldest son; the Teutonic Knights continued their crusade against pagan Lithuania. A large campaign was organized in winter of 1378. Teutons reached as far as the Pripyat River; the Livonian Order raided Upytė. Another campaign threatened the capital in Vilnius. Kęstutis offered to negotiate a exchange of prisoners. On September 29, 1379, a ten-year truce was signed in Trakai, it was the last treaty that Jogaila signed jointly.
However, the truce protected only Christian lands in the south, thus Kęstutis' pagan realms in northern and western Lithuania were still vulnerable to Teutonic attacks. In February 1380, without Kęstutis, made a five-month truce with the Livonian Order to protect his Lithuanian domains and Polotsk, just taken from his rival Andrei of Polotsk. To cover up the signing of the treaty, the Teutonic Knights organized a five-day hunt in May 1380; the Lithuanian side was represented by Jogaila and his adviser Vaidila and his adviser Ivan Olshanski. Vytautas' presence further complicated explanations of the treaty and it is unclear if he knew about the negotiations; the Teutons sent grosskomtur Rüdiger von Elner, komtur of Elbing Ulrich von Fricke, vogt of Dirschau Albrecht von Luchtenberg. The place where the treaty was signed is not known; the name of Dovydiškės is found only in the chronicles of Wigand of Marburg as Dowidisken. The treaty itself mentions Daudiske. However, no such place is known either in Prussia.
Some theories claim that the treaty was signed somewhere between Kaunas and Insterburg or that the village was named Šiaudiniškė. The clauses of the treaty were, overall and not clear. Jogaila and the Knights agreed not to attack each other. Based on the terms of the accord, Jogaila agreed not to intervene during attacks by the Teutonic Knights against Kęstutis or his children. However, if it was necessary to help to avoid any suspicions, it would not be a violation of the treaty. Historians noted that the treaty was somewhat superfluous as Jogaila's lands were protected by the ten-year Truce of Trakai, signed in 1379; the primary purpose of the treaty was to guarantee the neutrality of the Teutonic Knights in the power struggle between Jogaila and his brothers, Dukes Andrei of Polotsk and Dmitry of Bryansk, their ally Dmitri Donskoi, Grand Duke of Moscow. Jogaila, having secured his western front, directed his attention to the east, where he allied himself with the Golden Horde for the upcoming Battle of Kulikovo against the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
Some historians blamed Uliana of Tver, mother of Jogaila, or his adviser Vaidila, others pointed out generational differences: Kęstutis was about 80 years old and determined not to accept Christianity while Jogaila was about 30 years old and was looking for ways to convert and modernize the country. In 1381, without violating the treaty, the Teutonic Knights raided Duchy of Trakai and Samogitia, lands of Kęstutis. While raiding towards Trakai, the Teutonic Knights used bombards for the first time and destroyed Naujapilis taking some 3,000 prisoners. Subsequently the Teutonic Knights informed Kęstutis about Jogaila's secret pact. Kęstutis asked his son Vytautas for advice. Vytautas replied. At the end of 1381, Kęstutis decided to fight against Jogaila, he declared himself Grand Duke. An internal war erupted which ended in Kęstutis' death in the Kreva Castle and Vytautas' reconciliation with Jogaila in 1384
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. During this period and natural disasters ravaged both Europe and the four khanates of the Mongol Empire; the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed in Persia, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe. In Europe, the Black Death claimed between 75 and 200 million lives – wiping out over 60 percent of European society – while England and France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England; this period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France. The transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Beginning of the Ottoman Empire, early expansion into the Balkans.
Early 14th century: Attributed to Kao Ninga Monk Sewing is made. Kamakura period, it is now kept at The Cleveland Museum of Art. An account of Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by Saint John of Damascus and circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, became so popular that the two were venerated as saints. Singapore emerges for the first time as a fortified trading centre of some importance. Islam reaches Terengganu, on the Malay Peninsula; the Hausa found several city-states in the south of modern Niger. The poet Petrarch coins the term Dark Ages to describe the preceding 900 years in Europe, beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 through to the renewal embodied in the Renaissance. Iwan vault, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Persia, is built. Work begins on the Great Enclosure at Great Zimbabwe, built of dressed stone; the city's population is now between 10,000 and 40,000. 1309 — King Jayanegara succeeds Kertarajasa Jayawardhana as ruler of Majapahit. 1309-1377 — The Avignon papacy transfers the seat of the Popes from Italy to France The Great Famine of 1315-1317 kills millions of people in Europe.
1318-1330 — An Italian Franciscan friar, Mattiussi visited Sumatra and Banjarmasin in Borneo. In his record he described the kingdom of Majapahit. 1320 — Władysław I the Elbow-high is crowned King of Poland which leads to its unification 1323 — Malietoafaiga ordered cannibalism to be abolished in Tutuila, now known as American Samoa. 1325 — Forced out of previous locations, the Mexica found the city of Tenochtitlan 1328 — Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi succeeds Jayanegara as ruler of Majapahit. Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy 1335 — The death of the Ilkhan Abu Said, causes the disintegration of the Mongol rule in Persia. 1336 — The Vijayanagara Empire is founded in South India by Harihara 1337 — The Hundred Years' War begins when Edward III of England lays claim to the French throne. 1345–1346 — The French recruit troops and ships in Genoa and Nice. 1346 — English forces led by Edward III defeat a French army led by Philip VI in The Battle of Crécy, a major point in the Hundred Years' War which marks the rise of the longbow as a dominant weapon in Western Europe.
1347–1351 — The Black Death kills around a third of the population of Europe. 1347 — Adityawarman moved the capital of Dharmasraya and established the kingdom of Malayupura in Pagarruyung, West Sumatra. 1350 — Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara, succeeds Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi as ruler of Majapahit. Under its military commander Gajah Mada, Majapahit stretches over much of modern-day Indonesia. 1356 — The Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire headed by Emperor Charles IV issues the Golden Bull of 1356, establishing various constitutional aspects of the Empire, the most significant being the electoral college to elect future emperors. 1356 — The Diet of the Hansa is held in Lübeck, formalising what up until had only been a loose alliance of trading cities in northern Europe and founding the Hanseatic League. 1357 — Scotland retains its independence with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick, thus ending the Wars of Scottish Independence. 1357 — In the Battle of Bubat, the Sundanese royal family is massacred by the Majapahit army by the order of Gajah Mada.
1363 — The Battle of Lake Poyang, a naval conflict between Chinese rebel groups led by Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang, takes place from August to October, constituting one of the largest naval battles in history. 1365 — The Old Javanese text Nagarakertagama is written. 1366 — Tepanec Tlatoani Acolnahuácatl accepts Acamapichtli as the first tlatoani of Tenochtitlan for the Mexica Empire. 1368 — The end of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. 1377 — Majapahit sends a punitive expedition against Palembang in Sumatra. Palembang's prince, Parameswara flees finding his way to Malacca and establishing it as a major international port. 1378 — The Great Schism of the West begins leading to 3 simultaneous popes. 1378-1382 — Ciompi Revolt occurs in Florence 1381 — John Wycliffe is dismissed from the University of Oxford for criticism of the Roman Catholic Church thus, the Lollardy movement rises in England. 1381 — Peasants' Revolt in England. 1385 — Battle of Aljubarrota between Portugal and Castile.
Portugal maintains independence. 1385 — Union of Krewo between Poland and Lithuania. 1389 — Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottoman Turks, Prince Lazar, sultan Murat I and Miloš Obilić were killed. 1389 — Wikramawardhana succeeds Sri Rajasanagara as ruler of Majapahit. 1392 — Taejo
Winchelsea is a small town in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex, within the historic county of Sussex, located between the High Weald and the Romney Marsh 2 miles south west of Rye and 7 miles north east of Hastings. The town stands on the site of a medieval town, founded in 1288, to replace an earlier town of the same name, sometimes known as Old Winchelsea, lost to the sea; the town is part of the civil parish of Icklesham. It is claimed by some residents that the town is in fact the smallest town in Britain, as there is a mayor and corporation in Winchelsea, but that claim is disputed by places such as Fordwich; the mayor of Winchelsea is chosen each year from amongst the members of the corporation, who are known as freemen, rather than being elected by public vote. New freemen are themselves chosen by existing members of the corporation. Thus, in its current form, the corporation is a relic of Winchelsea's days as a'rotten borough'; the corporation lost its remaining civil and judicial powers in 1886 but was preserved as a charity by an Act of Parliament to maintain the membership of the Cinque Port Confederation.
The mayor and corporation in Winchelsea now have a ceremonial role, together with responsibility for the ongoing care and maintenance of the main listed ancient monuments in the town and the Winchelsea museum. Winchelsea constitutes neither civil parish nor charter trustees area. Old Winchelsea was on a massive shingle bank that protected the confluence of the estuaries of the Rivers Brede and Tillingham and provided a sheltered anchorage called the Camber; the old town was recorded as Winceleseia in 1130 and Old Wynchchelse in 1321. After the Norman Conquest, Winchelsea was of great importance in cross-Channel trade and as a naval base. In the 13th century, it became famous in the wine trade from Gascony. There may have been, in the 1260s, over 700 houses, two churches and over 50 inns and taverns thus implying a population of thousands of people at the time. Prior to 1280 incursions by the sea destroyed much of the town until a massive flood destroyed it in 1287. Today's Winchelsea was the result of the old town's population moving to the present site, when in 1281 King Edward I ordered a planned town, based on a grid, to be built.
The names of the town planners are recorded as Thomas Alard. The new town inherited the title of "Antient Town" from Old Winchelsea and retained its affiliation to the Cinque Ports confederation together with Rye and the five head-ports. Winchelsea was involved in the wine trade with Guyenne and the extensive wine cellars under the town may still be visited on open days; the town had a tidal harbour on the River Brede. It flourished until the middle of the 14th century, it suffered French and Spanish raids during the Hundred Years' War until the 15th century and was hit by the Black Death. In 1350, the Battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer was fought nearby. In 1360 the town was sacked and burnt by a French expeditionary force, sent in an unsuccessful attempt to retrieve their King John II of France captured at the Battle of Poitiers four years earlier; the town remained prosperous, although reduced in size until the 1520s. The silting of the harbour destroyed its prosperity. Camber Castle was built by Henry VIII in the early 16th century halfway between Winchelsea and Rye to guard the approach to the Camber.
Much of the stone used in its construction may have been taken from the demolition of the Franciscan monastery of Greyfriars. Winchelsea retains its medieval setting on a hill surrounded by empty marsh, the original layout of the planned town and the largest collection of medieval wine cellars in the country with the possible exception of Norwich and Southampton, it retains three of the four town gates and several original buildings, including the parish church, dedicated to St Thomas the Martyr. Another church, St Leonard's, was the site of a windmill, blown down in the Great Storm of 1987; some of the original 13th/14th-century fortifications can still be seen at the Strand Gate and Pipewell or Ferry Gate. The scale of the original plan for New Winchelsea can be judged by the site of the "New Gate", over half a mile outside the current town. Across the road from the churchyard stands the Court Hall, one of Winchelsea's oldest buildings, the lower floor once being the gaol; the first floor is now a museum, full of relics of the history of Winchelsea, the Corporation, a model of the town.
Nearby is the town well, dug in 1851 to save water being carried up the hill. It is thought to be 80 feet deep. At the foot of Strand Hill stands the town workhouse Strand House just behind the port area of Winchelsea which runs along the river bank on the far side of the main road; this area contains the remains of several old buildings, such as the Old Malt House and Appletree Wick while Strand House itself was built around 1425 according to dendrochronology. These buildings made up the workhouse of the parish of Winchelsea being known as "The Old Poor Houses"; the area was a subject of archaeological investigation in 2013 which found the remains of the medieval wharf and a medieval boat next to the Bridge Inn. Winchelsea stands on the main south coast road, the A259; the Royal Military Canal built in the early 19th century as a defence-line against the anticipated invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte passes the eastern side of the town and connects to the river Brede. The town lends its name to the nearby seaside village of Winchelsea Beach.
In 2006 a group of local residents requested Rother Di
Lithuania the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people; the official language, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania, was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state personal union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and by Nazi Germany; as World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania. Lithuania is a developed country, it is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It is a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries; the United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very high human development" country.
The first known record of the name of Lithuania is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle. The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions. Since Lietuva has a suffix, the original word should have no suffix. A candidate is Lietā; because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym. Lietava, a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is credited as the source of the name. However, the river is small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such a naming is not unprecedented in world history.
Artūras Dubonis proposed another hypothesis. From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct warrior social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself; the word leičiai is used in the 14–16th-century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians and is still used poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, related to Lithuanian. The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda and Narva cultures, they did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, forests developed; the inhabitants of what is now Lithuania traveled less and engaged in local hunting and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land. Crafts and trade started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.
The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire, but they did maintain trade contacts. Tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were Balts, around the year 97 AD; the Western Balts became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians, early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians and Semigallians; the Lithuanian language is considered to be conservative for its close connection to Indo-European roots. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most related existing language, around the 7th century. Traditional Lithuanian pagan customs and mythology, with many archaic elements, were long preserved. Rulers' bodies were cremated up until the conversion to Christianity: the descriptions of the cremation ceremonies of the grand d