Berlin State Museums
The Berlin State Museums are a group of institutions in Berlin, comprising seventeen museums in five clusters, several research institutes and supporting facilities. They are overseen by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation and funded by the German federal government in collaboration with Germany's federal states; the central complex on Museum Island was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1999. By 2007 the Berlin State Museums had grown into the largest complex of museums in Europe. Director-general of the Berlin State Museums is Michael Eissenhauer. Museum Island Altes Museum: Roman and Greek Classical Antiquities Alte Nationalgalerie: 19th century sculptures and paintings. Bode-Museum: the Numismatic Collection, Sculpture Collection and the Museum of Byzantine Art Neues Museum: the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and its Papyrus Collection, the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte Pergamon Museum: the Antikensammlung Berlin, Museum of Islamic art, Museum of the Ancient Near East and the Central Archive Friedrichswerder Church: early 19th century sculptures Kulturforum Gemäldegalerie: Old Masters paintings Kunstgewerbemuseum: Museum of decorative art Kupferstichkabinett: Drawings and print room Kunstbibliothek: Art Library Neue Nationalgalerie: New National Gallery Hamburger Bahnhof: Museum for contemporary art including the Flick Collection Museum Berggruen: classic modern art Museum of Photography / Helmut Newton Foundation Museum Scharf-Gerstenberg: surrealist art Gipsformerei Ethnological Museum of Berlin: American Archaeology, Music Ethnology, North American Indians, South Sea, East Asia, Junior Museum Museum of Asian Art: Collection of South and Central Asian Art.
Institute for Museum Research Rathgen Research Laboratory Center for Provenance Research and Investigation List of museums in Berlin Berlin State Museums website Museumsportal Berlin: All museums, memorials and collections with detailed information
C. 1356 BC – Amenhotep IV begins the worship of Aten in Ancient Egypt, changing his name to Akhenaten and moving the capital to Akhetaten, starting the Amarna Period. C. 1352 BC – Amenhotep III dies and is succeeded as Pharaoh by Amenhotep IV. 1350 BC – Yin becomes the new capital of Shang dynasty China
Yuya was a powerful Egyptian courtier during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He was married to Tjuyu, an Egyptian noblewoman associated with the royal family, who held high offices in the governmental and religious hierarchies, their daughter, became the Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III. They may have been the parents of Ay, an Egyptian courtier active during the reign of pharaoh Akhenaten, who became pharaoh, as Kheperkheprure Ay. There is no conclusive evidence, regarding the kinship of Yuya and Ay, although both men came from the town of Akhmim. Yuya and Tjuyu are known to have had a son named Anen, who carried the titles."Chancellor of Lower Egypt", "Second Prophet of Amun","sm-priest of Heliopolis, "Divine Father". The tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu was, until the discovery of Tutankhamun's, one of the most spectacular found in the Valley of the Kings despite Yuya not being a pharaoh. Although the burial site was robbed in antiquity, many objects not considered worth plundering by the robbers remained.
Both the mummies were intact and were in an amazing state of preservation. Their faces in particular were undistorted by the process of mummification, provide an extraordinary insight into the actual appearance of the deceased while alive. Yuya came from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmim, where he owned an estate and was a wealthy member of the town's local nobility, his origins remain unclear. The study of his mummy showed that Yuya had been a man of taller than average stature and the anatomist Grafton Elliot Smith considered that his appearance was not Egyptian. Taking into account his unusual name and features, some Egyptologists believe that Yuya was of foreign origin, although this is far from certain; the name Yuya may be spelled in a number of different ways as Gaston Maspero noted in Theodore Davis's 1907 book—The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou. These include "iAy", ywiA", yw A, ywiw" and, in orthography—normally a sign of something foreign—"yiA"; the Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt suggests that foreign origin.
"it is conceivable that he had some Mitannian ancestry, since it is known that knowledge of horses and chariotry was introduced into Egypt from the northern lands and Yuya was the king's'Master of the Horse'." It discusses the possibility that Yuya was the brother of queen Mutemwiya, the mother of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and may have had Mitannian royal origins. However, this hypothesis can not be substantiated. While Yuya lived in Upper Egypt, an area, predominantly native Egyptian, he could have been an assimilated descendant of Asiatic immigrants or slaves who rose to become a member of the local nobility at Akhmin. If he was not a foreigner, however Yuya would have been the native Egyptian whose daughter was married to Amenhotep III. Yuya is believed to have died around 1374 BC in his mid 50s. Yuya served as a key adviser for Amenhotep III, held posts such as "King’s Lieutenant" and "Master of the Horse". In his native town of Akhmin, Yuya was a prophet of Min, the chief god of the area, served as this deity's "Superintendent of Cattle".
Yuya and his wife were buried in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes, where their private KV46 tomb was discovered in 1905 by James Quibell, working on behalf of Theodore M. Davis. Although the tomb had been penetrated by tomb-robbers they were disturbed as Quibell found most of the funerary goods and the two mummies intact; as the Egyptologist Cyril Aldred noted: Though the tomb had been rifled in antiquity, the opulent funerary furniture was intact, there was no doubt as to the identity of the pair, who were found resting among their torn linen wrappings, within their nests of coffins. The goods buried with Yuya and Tjuyu constituted the finest ensemble of high-class New Kingdom furniture, etc. recovered before the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun seventeen years later. Journalist Ahmed Osman in his book Stranger in the Valley of the Kings has suggested an identification between Joseph, the ancient Hebrew patriarch who led the tribe of Israel into Egypt during a famine, Yuya; this theory has not been accepted in mainstream Egyptology.
Donald B. Redford wrote a scathing review of Stranger in the Valley of the Kings for Biblical Archaeology Review. Deborah Sweeney has expressed great doubt toward the proposed identification. Sweeney states that the title "God's father of the Lord of the Two Lands" is an extension of the title "God's Father,", not exclusive to Yuya; the Bible states clearly that Joseph's mummified body was exhumed and transported to Canaan by the Israelites, while Yuya's remained undisturbed in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, where his mummy was discovered in 1906. "Discussion and images of the mummies of Yuya and Tjuyu". Tripod homepage. Retrieved March 2, 2006; the Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu Who Was Joseph? The Mummy of the Patriarch Joseph in the Cairo Museum
El Lahun is a village in Faiyum, Egypt. El Lahun is associated with the Pyramid of Senusret II, located near the modern town, is called the Pyramid of Lahun; the ancient name of the site was rꜣ-ḥn.t "Mouth of the Canal"). Like the other Twelfth Dynasty pyramids in the Faiyum, the Pyramid of Lahun is made of mud brick, but here the core of the pyramid consists of a network of stone walls that were infilled by mud brick; this approach was intended to ensure the stability of the brick structure. Unusually, despite a Pyramid Temple on the east side, the entrance to the pyramid is on the south; the archaeologist Flinders Petrie spent considerable time searching for it on the east side. He discovered the entrance only when workmen clearing the nearby tombs of the nobles discovered a small tunnel at the bottom of a 40-foot shaft, which led to the royal burial chamber. Evidently the original workmen on the tomb had used their legitimate activity as a cover for digging this tunnel, which enabled them to rob the pyramid.
Once he was in the burial chamber, Petrie was able to work backwards to the entrance. The pyramid stands on an artificial terrace cut from sloping ground. On the north side eight rectangular blocks of stone were left to serve as mastabas for the burial of personages associated with the royal court. In front of each mastaba is a narrow shaft leading down to the burial chamber underneath. On the north side is the Queen's Pyramid or subsidiary pyramid; the most remarkable discovery was that of the village of the workers who both constructed the pyramid and served the funerary cult of the king. The village, conventionally known as Kahun, is about 800 meters from the pyramid and lies in the desert a short distance from the edge of cultivation; when found, many of the buildings were extant up to roof height, Petrie confirmed that the true arch was known and used by the workmen in the village. However, all the buildings found were demolished in the process of excavation, which proceeded in long strips down the length of the village.
When the first strip had been cleared and drawn, the next strip was excavated and the spoil dumped in the previous strip. As a result, there is little to be seen on the site today; the village was excavated by Petrie in 1888-90 and again in 1914. The excavation was remarkable for the number and quality of objects of everyday life that were found in the houses. According to Dr Rosalie David's Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt, "the quantity and type of articles of everyday use which were left behind in the houses may indeed suggest that the departure was sudden and unpremeditated". Among the curiosities found there were wooden boxes buried beneath the floors of many of the houses; when opened they were found to contain the skeletons of infants, sometimes two or three in a box, aged only a few months at death. Petrie reburied. Found in the town were the Kahun papyri, comprising about 1000 fragments, covering legal and medical matters. Re-excavation of the area in 2009 by Egyptian archaeologists revealed a cache of pharaonic-era mummies in brightly painted wooden coffins in the sand-covered desert rock surrounding the pyramid.
The site was occupied into the late Thirteenth Dynasty, again in the New Kingdom, when there were large land reclamation schemes in the area. The town was laid out with mud-brick town walls on 3 sides. No evidence was found of a fourth wall, which may have collapsed and been washed away during the annual inundation; the town was rectangular in shape and was divided internally by a mudbrick wall as large and strong as the exterior walls. This wall divided about one third of the area of the town and in this smaller area the houses consisted of rows of back-to-back, side-by-side single room houses; the larger area, higher up the slope and thus benefited from whatever breeze was blowing, contained a much smaller number of large, multi-room villas. The size of the houses ranged from 2,520 square meters for the elite houses to 120 square meters for small houses. Petrie compared the village to a Welsh mining village, where the workers lived in terraces in the valley while the mine owner and overseers lived in larger houses up the hill.
A major feature of the town was the so-called ‘acropolis’ building. This was an important building. Petrie suggested that this may have been the King’s residence whilst he was visiting construction work; the building seems to have been out of derelict before the end of occupation. Other records show that there were a large number of Semitic slaves in Egypt during the Twelfth Dynasty, it is interesting that some of the villas were constructed of layers of mudbrick separated by layers of reed matting, a technique used in Mesopotamia. Furthermore, burial beneath the living quarters of a house was a custom noted at Ur by Woolley, it is possible that the workers who were so guarded by the village wall and separated from the overseers by an strong wall were Semitic slaves not trusted by their overseers. It was announced by the Supreme Council of Antiquities on 26 April 2009 that an anthology of pharaonic-era mummies in vividly painted wooden coffins were uncovered near the Lahun pyramid in Egypt; the sarcophagi were decorated with bright hues of green and white bearing images of their occupants.
Archaeologists unearthed dozens of mummies, thirty of which were well preserved with prayers purposed to help the dece
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East; the Assyrians emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest attested Indo-European language.
Hittites referred to their native language as nešili "in the language of Nesa" but called their native land as Kingdom of Hattusa. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic; the history of the Hittite civilization is known from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria, Babylonia and the Middle East, the decipherment of, a key event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots, although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; the Hittites were the first of the Indo-European people to make use of iron.
Due to the widespread availability of iron ore, this allowed them to create weapons that were much stronger and cheaper. The Hittite empire fell victim to the Bronze Age Collapse around the beginning of the 12th century BC. Ethnic Hittite dynasties survived in small kingdoms scattered around modern Syria and Israel. Lacking a unifying continuity, their descendants are scattered and have merged into the modern populations of the Levant and Mesopotamia. During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank, the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world. Before the archeological discoveries that revealed the Hittite civilization, the only source of information about the Hittites had been the Old Testament.
Francis William Newman expressed the critical view, common in the early 19th century, that, "no Hittite king could have compared in power to the King of Judah...". As the discoveries in the second half of the 19th century revealed the scale of the Hittite kingdom, Archibald Sayce asserted that, rather than being compared to Judah, the Anatolian civilization " worthy of comparison to the divided Kingdom of Egypt", was "infinitely more powerful than that of Judah". Sayce and other scholars noted that Judah and the Hittites were never enemies in the Hebrew texts. Uriah the Hittite was a captain in King David's army and counted as one of his "mighty men" in 1 Chronicles 11. French scholar Charles Texier found the first Hittite ruins in 1834 but did not identify them as Hittite; the first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the karum of Kanesh, containing records of trade between Assyrian merchants and a certain "land of Hatti". Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but Indo-European.
The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria. In 1887, excavations at Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. Two of the letters from a "kingdom of Kheta"—apparently located in the same general region as the Mesopotamian references to "land of Hatti"—were written in standard Akkadian cuneiform, but in an unknown language. Shortly after this, Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the "kingdom of Kheta" mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was Kheta, but proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim rather than with the Biblical Hittites. Sayce's identification came to be accepted over the course of the early 20th century.
Arnuwanda I was a king of the Hittite empire. He became a ruler by marriage and was religious. Arnuwanda became a king by marriage, his wife was Ašmu-nikal, daughter of king Tudhaliya I. He became a successor of Tudhaliya as his son-in-law, he began his reign under a co-regency with Tudhaliya. His campaigns include an unsuccessful expedition against the kingdom of Arawa. Arnuwanda's parents are not known, he was a son-in-law of Nikal-mati. He had two sons, prince Ašmi-Šarruma and king Tudhaliya II. There is a fragmentary text in which Arnuwanda names his son Tudhaliya as his future successor. History of the Hittites Reign of Arnuwanda I
Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
The Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, headquartered in Berlin, was established in 1957 by German Federal law with the mission to acquire and preserve the cultural legacy of the former State of Prussia. Its purview encompasses over 27 institutions, including all of Berlin's State-run Museums, the Berlin State Library, the Prussian Privy State Archives and a variety of institutes and research centers; as such it has become one of largest cultural organizations in the world. The Federal Government and the German States are jointly responsible for the Foundation and financially, its operations include preservation and care of the collections, their structure and development, the continuation of academic and scientific research with a mission to encourage learning and understanding between different peoples. During World War II, the cultural artifacts and fine arts in Prussia in Berlin, came under increasing threat of loss. To protect them from Allied bombing, millions of items were evacuated to relative safety in monasteries and abandoned mines around Germany starting in 1941.
With the collapse of the Third Reich in 1945, many of these collections wound up damaged, destroyed, or variously hidden in the Allied occupation zones. All the former Prussian institutions ceased to exist when the State of Prussia was abolished in 1947, placing these assets in further doubt; as Germany became divided into West and East, what remained of the buildings and scattered collections were separated by the Iron Curtain. The Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation began in 1957 by a West German constitutional mandate to find and preserve the collections still stored throughout the former western occupation zones. In 1961, efforts began to move these materials to West Berlin. From the mid-1960s onward, a series of Modernist buildings were constructed at the Kulturforum to serve as new homes for the collections, including the Gemäldegalerie, the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Berlin State Library. Upon German Reunification in 1990, the Foundation's role expanded to encompass many of the most important cultural properties of the former East Germany.
The most important tasks today are in the consolidation of collections, reconstruction of physical space, conservation-restoration and Provenance research. In 1980 the Foundation's headquarters moved into a historic building at Von-der-Heydt-Straße 16; the Villa Von Der Heydt was built between 1860 and 1862 in neo-renaissance style by the architect Hermann Ende for Baron August von der Heydt, Minister of Finance under Otto von Bismarck in the last Prussian cabinet before the founding of the German Empire in 1871. After Von der Heydt's death in 1874 the building became home to the first Chinese ambassador to Wilhelm II, who decorated its splendid rooms with valuable works of art. In 1938 the villa was bought by the Nazi government and used as an official residence by Hans Lammers, Cabinet Minister in the Reich Chancellery; the house was damaged in World War II, with only the basement and the outer walls remaining. In the immediate post-war years it was occupied by an illicit still; the villa's gloomy ruins once formed the backdrop for a spy film.
It was not until 1971 that plans for reconstruction of the building began under the aegis of the German Federal Buildings Authority. Renovations completed in 1980; the Foundation has since expanded operations to a new office building at Von-der-Heydt-Straße 16 52°30′24.83″N 13°21′10.18″E. The Heritage Foundation has overall responsibility for the following institutions and facilities: The foundation awards the annual Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy Prize to the winner of a competition between the best students from Germany's conservatories; each year a different instrument is chosen. The Ernst Waldschmidt Prize is awarded every five years for academically valuable achievements in the field of Indology, in particular in the fields in which Waldschmidt himself specialized: Buddhism and Central Asian archaeology and art. Since 2004, the Foundation sponsors positions for the Voluntary Social Year in Culture, a program of National Service for teenagers and young adults who meet certain educational requirements.
There is a position each at the Directorate-General of the Berlin State Museums, Ibero-American Institute, Berlin State Library and the Central Archive of the Berlin State Museums. The Heritage Foundation awards scholarships for one- to three-month research and work residencies in Berlin; the scholarships are intended to enable foreign scholars to work at the museums and archives and make professional contacts with staff. Hermann Parzinger, President of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, co-chairs the German/American Provenance Research Exchange Program for Museum Professionals for 2017-2019. 1967–1977: Hans-Georg Wormit 1977–1998: Werner Knopp 1999–2008: Klaus-Dieter Lehmann Since 2008: Hermann Parzinger Humboldt Box Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation website