13th Brigade (Australia)
The 13th Brigade is an Army Reserve formation of the Australian Army. Originally formed in 1916, the brigade fought on the Western Front during World War I and it is currently headquartered at Perth in Western Australia and has units located across the state in locations such as Geraldton, Albany, Katanning and Rockingham. The current brigade was formed in 1988 and is tasked with the protection of Western Australia and it forms part of the 2nd Division of the Australian Army. This was achieved by splitting the battalions of the first four brigades that had fought at Gallipoli to provide a cadre for the new battalions that were being formed. Through this process, the 3rd Infantry Brigade was divided to form the 13th Infantry Brigade, assigned to the 4th Australian Division, on formation the brigade consisted of four infantry battalions, the 49th, 50th, 51st and 52nd Battalions. After undertaking a period of training in Egypt where it had been formed, upon landing in Marseilles, it was transported north by rail.
In mid-May, the brigade entered the front line for the first time, moving into a sector near Petillon, in France. For the next years, the 13th Brigade took part in the fighting in the trenches along the Western Front in France. They continued operations into late September, attacking the Hindenburg Line, early the following month, the majority of the Australian Corps brigade was withdrawn from the line for rest. Following the end of the war the battalions of the 13th Brigade where returned home, in 1921, following the conclusion of the demobilisation process, Australias part-time military force, the Citizens Force, was reorganised to perpetuate the numerical designations of the AIF. In late 1929, the scheme was suspended completely by the Scullin Labor government, the brigade was mobilised for war service in 1939 after the outbreak of the Second World War, but due to the provisions of the Defence Act it was initially only used as a garrison force. Up until 1942 the brigade was the main formation defending the Western Australian coastline from a possible Japanese invasion, during this time, the 44th Battalion was detached from the brigade and for the remainder of the war its principle units were the 11th, 16th and 28th Infantry Battalions.
In 1943, after the threat of a Japanese landing in the west subsided, after returning to Australia, the brigade was disbanded in 1946. Between 1940 and mid-1945, the brigade was commanded by Brigadier Eric McKenzie, after the Second World War, Australias wartime military was demobilised and in 1948 the part-time force was re-raised under the guise of the Citizens Military Force. The 13th Brigade was re-raised at this time, once headquartered in Western Australia. Upon formation, it consisted of two battalions, the 11th/44th and the 16th/28th. In 1960, when the CMF was reorganised following the adoption of the Pentropic divisional establishment and it was re-raised again in 1988, and is currently responsible for the bulk of Army Reserve formations in Western Australia. Assigned to the 2nd Division, it is headquartered in Perth and commands units across Western Australia, based in such as Joondalup, Geraldton, Albany
New Britain is the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. It is separated from the island of New Guinea by the Dampier and Vitiaz Straits, the main towns of New Britain are Rabaul/Kokopo and Kimbe. The island is roughly the size of Taiwan, while the island was part of German New Guinea, it was named Neupommern. New Britain extends from 148°1831 to 152°2357 E longitude and from 4°0825 to 6°1831 S latitude and it is crescent-shaped, approximately 520 km along its southeastern coastline, and from 29 to 146 km wide, not including a small central peninsula. The air-line distance from west to east is 477 km, the island is the 38th largest in the world, with an area of 36,520 km2. Steep cliffs form some sections of the coastline, in others the mountains are further inland, the highest point, at 2,438 m, is Mount Sinewit in the Baining range in the east. Most of the terrain is covered with tropical rainforest and several rivers are fed by the high rainfall. A major eruption of Tavurvur in 1994 destroyed the East New Britain provincial capital of Rabaul, most of the town still lies under metres of ash, and the capital has been moved to nearby Kokopo.
New Britain forms part of the Islands Region, one of four regions of Papua New Guinea, New Britain became part of German New Guinea. In 1909, the population was estimated at about 190,000. The expatriate population was confined to the northeastern Gazelle Peninsula. At the time 5,448 hectares had been converted to plantations, primarily growing copra, coffee, westerners avoided exploring the interior initially, believing that the indigenous peoples were warlike and would fiercely resist intrusions. On 11 September 1914, New Britain became the site of one of the earliest battles of World War I when the Australian Naval and they quickly overwhelmed the German forces and occupied the island for the duration of the war. After World War I the Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919, in 1920 the League of Nations included New Britain along with the former German colony on New Guinea in the Territory of New Guinea, a mandated territory of Australia. During World War II the Japanese attacked New Britain soon after the outbreak of hostilities in the Pacific Ocean, strategic bases at Rabaul and Kavieng were defended by a small Australian detachment, Lark Force.
During January 1942, the Japanese heavily bombed Rabaul, on 23 January, Japanese marines landed by the thousands, starting the Battle of Rabaul. The Japanese used Rabaul as a key base until 1944, it served as the key point for the invasion of Port Moresby. New Britain was invaded by the U. S, 1st Marine Division in the Cape Gloucester area of the very western end of the island, and by U. S. Army soldiers at some other coastal points
The Helena River is a tributary of the Swan River in Western Australia. The river rises in country east of Mount Dale and flows north-west to Mundaring Weir and it flows west until it reaches the Darling Scarp. It passes through the edge of the Darling Scarp between Gooseberry Hill, and Greenmount Hill before joining the Swan River at the southern edge of the historic town, now suburb. Many of the tributaries of the Helena River are unnamed due to their seasonality, upper Helena catchment has on the north side of Lake C. Y. This has been beneficial for some of the catchment area, as it has been an important buffer between the settlements in the Mundaring and Kalamunda areas. The flora of the Helena valley has been recognised as being of importance because of the relative richness and it is at Darlington, and the locality of Helena Valley that there is housing and agriculture on its banks before it emerges out on to the Swan Coastal Plain. At Bellevue and Midland the river has historically passed hazardous industrial sites and this includes the Midland Railway Workshops site and the Midland livestock sale yards.
It is dammed in two places – the best known is the river dam known as Mundaring Weir which was part of C. Y OConnors Goldfields Water Supply Scheme. Since the lower dam – known as the Pipehead Dam has been constructed in the 1970s, most of the water collected in the Pipehead Dam is pumped back into Mundaring Weir. The bridges design and strength were relevant to higher water flow prior to the construction of the dam, as significant flooding occurred in the early. The main bridges are at, – Below Mundaring Weir Helena Valley Locality Bellevue – Reid Highway Midland – Woodbridge – East Guildford – Guildford – Elliot, Mundaring – A History of the Shire. Siemon, Nicole Foreshore assessment in the Helena River catchment East Perth, Water resource management series, 1326-6934, report no. Life was meant to be here and local government in the Shire of Mundaring
First Australian Imperial Force
The First Australian Imperial Force was the main expeditionary force of the Australian Army during World War I. It was formed on 15 August 1914, following Britains declaration of war on Germany, initially with a strength of one infantry division and one light horse brigade. The infantry division fought at Gallipoli between April and December 1915, being reinforced by a second division which was raised. After being evacuated to Egypt the AIF was expanded to five infantry divisions, a sixth infantry division was partially raised in 1917 in the United Kingdom, but was broken up and used as reinforcements following heavy casualties on the Western Front. Meanwhile, two mounted divisions remained in the Middle East to fight against Turkish forces in the Sinai and Palestine. An all volunteer force, by the end of the war the AIF had gained a reputation as being a well-trained and highly effective military force, this reputation came at a heavy cost with a casualty rate among the highest of any belligerent for the war.
After the war, the AFC evolved into the Royal Australian Air Force, after the war the achievements of the AIF and its soldiers, known colloquially as Diggers, became central to the national mythology of the Anzac legend. Generally known at the time as the AIF, it is referred to as the 1st AIF to it distinguish from the Second Australian Imperial Force raised during World War II. At the start of the war, Australias military forces were focused upon the part-time Militia, the small number of regular personnel were mostly artillerymen or engineers, and were generally assigned to the task of coastal defence. The Australian government pledged to supply 20,000 men organised as one division and one light horse brigade plus supporting units. Officially coming into being on 15 August 1914, the word imperial was chosen to reflect the duty of Australians to both nation and empire, the AIF was initially intended for service in Europe. Meanwhile, a separate 2, 000-man force—known as the Australian Naval, in addition, small military forces were maintained in Australia to defend the country from attack.
Upon formation, the AIF consisted of one infantry division, the 1st Division. The 1st Light Horse Brigade was commanded by Colonel Harry Chauvel, the initial response for recruits was so good that in September 1914 the decision was made to raise the 4th Infantry Brigade and 2nd and 3rd Light Horse Brigades. The 4th Infantry Brigade was commanded by Colonel John Monash, a prominent Melbourne civil engineer, the AIF continued to grow through the war, eventually numbering five infantry divisions, two mounted divisions and a mixture of other units. As the AIF operated within the British war effort, its units were organised along the same lines as comparable British Army formations. However, there were small differences between the structures of British and Australian units, especially in regards to the AIF infantry divisions support units. Hastily deployed, the first contingent of AIF was essentially untrained and suffered from widespread equipment shortages, in early 1915 the AIF was largely an inexperienced force, with only a small percentage of its members having previous combat experience
Darwin, Northern Territory
Darwin /ˈdɑːrwᵻn/ is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia. Situated on the Timor Sea, Darwin is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory and it is the smallest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, and acts as the Top Ends regional centre. Darwins proximity to South East Asia makes it a link between Australia and countries such as Indonesia and East Timor, the Stuart Highway begins in Darwin, ending at Port Augusta in South Australia. The city itself is built on a low bluff overlooking the harbour and its suburbs spread out over some area, beginning at Lee Point in the north and stretching to Berrimah in the east. Past Berrimah, the Stuart Highway goes on to Darwins satellite city, the Darwin region, like the rest of the Top End, has a tropical climate, with a wet and a dry season. Prone to cyclone activity during the wet season, Darwin experiences heavy monsoonal downpours, during the dry season, the city is met with blue skies and gentle sea breezes from the harbour.
The greater Darwin area is the home of the Larrakia people. On 9 September 1839, HMS Beagle sailed into Darwin harbour during its surveying of the area, John Clements Wickham named the region Port Darwin in honour of their former shipmate Charles Darwin, who had sailed with them on the ships previous voyage which had ended in October 1836. The settlement there became the town of Palmerston in 1869, and was renamed Darwin in 1911. The city has been almost entirely rebuilt four times, following devastation caused by the 1897 cyclone, the 1937 cyclone, Japanese air raids during World War II, the Aboriginal people of the Larrakia language group are the traditional custodians and the first inhabitants of the greater Darwin area. They had trading routes with Southeast Asia, and imported goods from as far afield as South, established songlines penetrated throughout the country, allowing stories and histories to be told and retold along the routes. The extent of shared songlines and history of multiple groups within this area is still contestable.
The Dutch visited Australias northern coastline in the 1600s and landed on the Tiwi Islands only to be repelled by the Tiwi peoples, the Dutch created the first European maps of the area. This accounts for the Dutch names in the area, such as Arnhem Land, the first British person to see Darwin harbour appears to have been Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle on 9 September 1839. The ships captain, Commander John Clements Wickham, named the port after Charles Darwin, in 1863, the Northern Territory was tranferred from New South Wales to South Australia. In 1864 South Australia sent B. T. Finniss north as Government Resident to survey, Finniss chose a site at Escape Cliffs, near the entrance to Adelaide River, about 60 km northeast of the modern city. This attempt was short-lived and the settlement abandoned by 1865, on 5 February 1869, George Goyder, the Surveyor-General of South Australia, established a small settlement of 135 people at Port Darwin between Fort Hill and the escarpment.
Goyder named the settlement Palmerston, after the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, in 1870, the first poles for the Overland Telegraph were erected in Darwin, connecting Australia to the rest of the world
Military engineering is loosely defined as the art and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications. Military engineers are responsible for logistics behind military tactics. Modern military engineering differs from civil engineering, in the 20th and 21st centuries, military engineering includes other engineering disciplines such as mechanical and electrical engineering techniques. According to NATO, military engineering is that engineer activity undertaken, regardless of component or service, Military engineering does not encompass the activities undertaken by those engineers who maintain and operate vehicles, aircraft, weapon systems and equipment. Military engineering is a subject taught in military academies or schools of military engineering. The construction and demolition tasks related to engineering are usually performed by military engineers including soldiers trained as sappers or pioneers. In modern armies, soldiers trained to perform such tasks while well forward in battle, the word engineer was initially used in the context of warfare, dating back to 1325 when engine’er referred to a constructor of military engines.
In this context, engine referred to a machine, i. e. A mechanical contraption used in war, in its place, the term military engineering has come to be used. Modern military engineering can be divided into three main tasks or fields, combat engineering, strategic support, and ancillary support, combat engineering is associated with engineering on the battlefield. Combat engineers are responsible for increasing mobility on the front lines of war such as digging trenches, strategic support is associated with providing service in communication zones such as the construction of airfields and the improvement and upgrade of ports and railways communication. Ancillary support includes provision and distribution of maps as well as the disposal of unexploded warheads, Military engineers construct bases, roads, bridges and hospitals. During peacetime before modern warfare, military engineers took the role of civil engineers by participating in the construction of civil-works projects, military engineers are almost entirely engaged in war logistics and preparedness.
Combat engineers clear routes, repair airfields and harbours, bridge rivers all at top speed, the first civilization to have a dedicated force of military engineering specialists were the Romans, whose army contained a dedicated corps of military engineers known as architecti. This group was pre-eminent among its contemporaries, such military engineering feats would have been completely new, and probably bewildering and demoralizing, to the Gallic defenders. The best known of these Roman army engineers due to his writings surviving is Vitruvius, alexander the Great used engineers in his army. In ancient times, military engineers were responsible for warfare and building field fortifications, temporary camps. The most notable engineers of ancient times were the Romans and Chinese, the Romans were responsible for constructing fortified wooden camps and paved roads for their legions
Karrakatta, Western Australia
Karrakatta is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the City of Nedlands and 7 km west of the CBD. Karrakatta is composed of two areas, due to the Fremantle railway line passing through the suburb. On the south side is Karrakatta Cemetery, which began service in 1899, with an industrial area occupied by monument builders, associated companies. The other area north of the line and Karrakatta railway station is occupied by the Australian Defence Forces Irwin Army Barracks
The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russias allies Britain and France launched an attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula. The naval attack was repelled and after eight months fighting, with casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt. The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war, in Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nations history, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. In 1908, a group of officers, known as the Young Turks. The new régime implemented a program of reform to modernise the political and economic system. An enthusiastic supporter, Germany provided significant investment, German diplomats subsequently found increasing influence, despite Britain previously being the predominant power in the region, while German officers assisted in training and re-equipping the army.
Despite this support, the resources of the Ottoman Empire were depleted by the cost of the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913. In December 1913, the Germans sent a mission to Constantinople. The geographical position of the Ottoman Empire meant that Russia and her allies France, during the Sarajevo Crisis in 1914, German diplomats offered Turkey an anti-Russian alliance and territorial gains in Caucasia, north-west Iran and Trans-Caspia. The pro-British faction in the Cabinet was isolated due to the British ambassador taking leave until 18 August, as the crisis deepened in Europe, Ottoman policy was to obtain a guarantee of territorial integrity and potential advantages, unaware that the British might enter a European war. This action strained diplomatic relations between the two empires and the German government offered SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau to the Ottoman navy as replacements, by allowing the German ships to enter the Dardanelles, the Ottomans confirmed their links to Germany. In September, the British naval mission to the Ottomans, which had established in 1912 under Admiral Arthur Limpus, was recalled due to increasing concern that Turkey would soon enter the war.
Rear Admiral Wilhelm Souchon of the Imperial German Navy took over command of the Ottoman navy, the German naval presence and the success of German armies on all fronts, gave the pro-German faction in the Ottoman government enough influence to declare war on Russia. On 27 October and Breslau, having been renamed Yavûz Sultân Selîm and Midilli, sortied into the Black Sea, bombarded the Russian port of Odessa and sank several Russian ships. The Ottomans refused an Allied demand that they expel the German missions and on 31 October 1914, Russia declared war on Turkey on 2 November. The next day, the British ambassador left Constantinople and a British naval squadron off the Dardanelles bombarded the outer defensive forts at Kum Kale, a shell hit a magazine, knocked the guns off their mounts and killed 86 soldiers. Fighting began in Mesopotamia, following a British landing to occupy the oil facilities in the Persian Gulf, the Ottomans prepared to attack Egypt in early 1915, aiming to occupy the Suez Canal and cut the Mediterranean route to India and the Far East
Royal Western Australia Regiment
The Royal Western Australia Regiment is a reserve infantry regiment of the Australian Army consisting of two battalions, the 11th/28th Battalion and the 16th Battalion. Two of these, the 11th Battalion and 28th Battalion were reduced to companies in 1977. On the outbreak of the First World War, volunteers from the 11th Regiment were recruited into the 11th Battalion of the Australian Imperial Force and this unit saw action in the Middle East at Gallipoli and in France before the end of the war. For its service, the battalion was awarded a Kings Colour, the battalion was amalgamated with the 16th Battalion for a time, named as the 11th/16th Battalion for three years, before regaining its former title for service during the Second World War. A second battalion, 2/11th Battalion, was raised for overseas in 1939. This saw service in North Africa and Crete, where the majority of its men were captured following the Battle of Retimo Airfield, reformed in Syria in 1941, the 2/11th Battalion moved to New Guinea in 1943.
Both war raised battalions were disbanded in 1946, 16th Battalion – the 16th Battalion was originally raised in September 1914. It was landed at Gallipoli the following year, seeing service in France, the battalion was disbanded at the end of the war, becoming a Citizen Military Force unit. It amalgamated with the 11th Battalion in 1930, a new 16th Battalion was raised in 1936 as the Cameron Highlanders of Western Australia. This battalion saw service in Syria, New Guinea and Borneo before the end of the Second World War, 28th Battalion – the 28th Battalion was raised in 1915, and saw service in the Middle East and Western Front before being disbanded in 1919. The battalion was reformed from its unit for the Second World War. The 2/28th Battalion saw service overseas in North Africa, the Middle East, south Africa 1899–1902 The Great War, Messines, Mont St
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. 92% of the lives in the south-west corner of the state. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, york was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831, Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890, and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today its economy relies on mining and tourism.
The state produces 46% of Australias exports, Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, the total length of the states eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km of coastline, including 7,892 km of island coastline, the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. Most of the state is a low plateau with an elevation of about 400 metres, very low relief. This descends relatively sharply to the plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile, even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, molybdenum, the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate and herbicides.
These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations, the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora, large areas of the states wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and it was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world
Royal Australian Engineers
The Royal Australian Engineers is a corps of the Australian Army. The RAE is ranked fourth in seniority of the corps of the Australian Army, behind the Staff Cadets, the corps has served on numerous peacekeeping operations and was heavily involved in the Australian contribution to the war in Afghanistan. The origins of the Royal Australian Engineers date back to 15 November 1860, by 1876, five of the six colonies—New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia—had raised their own engineer units. These were amalgamated on 1 July 1902 as the Corps of Engineers, at this time, the corps consisted of field, telegraph and submarine mining companies. After Federation the small regular engineer component was granted the prefix Royal, however, in 1911, the Australian Corps of Signallers was absorbed into the Engineers as the RAE Signal Service. Four years later, in July 1915, all members of the Survey Section RAE, during this period the School of Military Engineering was established at Moore Park in Sydney.
During World War I there were approximately 40 engineering units raised as part of the First Australian Imperial Force and these units included field engineering units, tunneling companies, railway units and signalling squadrons which served at Gallipoli, the Sinai, Palestine and Belgium. Following the end of the war the School of Military Engineering was disbanded, on 1 January 1925 the RAE Signal Service was separated to form the Australian Corps of Signals. This was followed in 1932 by the Survey Section separating to form the Australian Survey Corps, the regular Permanent Force and reserve Citizen Military Forces engineer units were brought together in January 1936 as the Corps of Royal Australian Engineers. In 1939 the School of Military Engineering was re-established at Steele Barracks in Liverpool, New South Wales, during the inter-war years the RAE maintained a force of 233 regular troops and a militia force of 1,750. With the outbreak of World War II, the corps was expanded greatly, eventually reaching a peak of 32,984 men in 1945, RAE units of the Second Australian Imperial Force and militia served in North Africa, New Guinea and Borneo campaigns.
Following the end of the war the size of the corps was again reduced. Nevertheless, the units and sub-units of the RAE have been deployed on many overseas operations since 1945. During the Korean War there were no formed engineer units deployed by the Australian Army, later, RAE units deployed as part of the Australian commitment to the Malayan Emergency and the Vietnam War. They have deployed overseas to carry out construction work in New Guinea. During the Vietnam War the RAE maintained a force of about 1,000 personnel in South Vietnam where they served as part of the 1st Australian Task Force. One of the most significant changes came in 1972 and was the decision to establish full regimental sized engineer units and these units were initially known as Field Regiments, but have subsequently become known as Combat Engineer Regiments. As a part of restructuring the RAE was reorganised to raise one regiment for each brigade
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia