Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast known as Nizhegorod Oblast, is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod, it has a population of 3,310,597 as of the 2010 Census. From 1932 to 1990 it was known as Gorky Oblast; the oblast is crossed by the Volga River. Apart from Nizhny Novgorod's metropolitan area the biggest city is Arzamas. Near the town of Sarov there is the Serafimo-Diveyevsky Monastery, one of the largest convents in Russia, established by Saint Seraphim of Sarov; the Makaryev Monastery opposite of the town of Lyskovo used to be the location of the largest fair in Eastern Europe. Other historic towns include Gorodets and Balakhna, located on the Volga to the north from Nizhny Novgorod; the oblast covers an area of 76,900 square kilometers, equal to the entire area of the Benelux countries or Czech Republic. Agricultural land occupies 41% of this area. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast borders Kostroma Oblast, Kirov Oblast, the Mari El Republic, the Chuvash Republic, the Republic of Mordovia, Ryazan Oblast, Vladimir Oblast, Ivanovo Oblast.
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is not rich in natural resources, which are limited to commercial deposits of sand, gypsum, mineral salt, timber. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: the first secretary of the Nizhny Novgorod CPSU Committee. After 1991, the CPSU lost all its power; the head of the Oblast administration, the governor, was appointed/elected alongside the elected regional parliament. The Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the province's standing legislative body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province.
The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. The unique architectural construction—the 128-meter steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1929—is located near the town of Dzerzhinsk on the left bank of the Oka River. Population: 3,310,597 . According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Russians at 3,109,661 made up 95.1% of the oblast's population. Other ethnic groups included Tatars, Mordva and various smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total. Additionally, 42,349 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity, it is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. Births: 36,315 Deaths: 54,184 Deaths decreased by 8.5% in 2011 compared to 2010. Vital statistics for 2012Births: 38,881 Deaths: 52,771 Total fertility rate:2009 – 1.43 | 2010 – 1.42 | 2011 – 1.44 | 2012 – 1.55 | 2013 – 1.56 | 2014 – 1.59 | 2015 – 1.67 | 2016 – 1.65 According to the Federal Migration Service, 20,450 foreign citizens were registered in the oblast in 2006.
The actual number of foreigners residing in the oblast as of June 1, 2006 was estimated to be over 22,000. According to a 2012 survey 69.2% of the population of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 10% is atheist, 0.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. The oblast ranks seventh in Russia in industrial output. Processing industries predominate in the local economy. More than 650 industrial companies employ nearly 700,000 people, or 62% of the workforce involved in material production. Industry generates accounts for 89 % of all material expenditures; the leading sectors are engineering and metalworking, followed by chemical and petrochemical industries and forestry and paper industries.
The first three sectors account for about 75% of all industrial production. The oblast has traditionally been attractive to investors. In 2002, Moody's rating agency confirmed a Caa1rating based on the region's long-term foreign currency liabilities; the region has an export surplus. The largest volume of exports goes to Ukraine, Switzerland, Kazakhstan and France. Imports come from Ukraine, Belarus, Austria, Netherlands and the United States; the stock market infrastructure is quite well developed in Nizhny Novgorod, the exchange business is expanding. Companies and organizations registered in the region include 1153 joint-stock companies
90th Guards Rifle Division
The 90th Guards Rifle Vitebsk Division was an infantry division of the Red Army during World War II. Formed from the 325th Rifle Division in recognition of its actions during the winter of 1943, the division fought in the Battle of Kursk, the Belgorod-Khar'kov Offensive Operation, Operation Bagration, the Baltic Offensive, the Vistula–Oder Offensive, the East Prussian Offensive; the division was formed on April 18, 1943, by the re-designation of the first formation of the 325th Rifle Division, which had distinguished itself in the advance of 21st Army in Central Front in the late winter of that year. At about the same time, 21st Army became the 6th Guards Army; when formed, the order of battle of the 90th Guards was as follows: 268th Guards Rifle Regiment, from 1092nd Rifle Regiment 272nd Guards Rifle Regiment, from 1094th Rifle Regiment 274th Guards Rifle Regiment, from 1096th Rifle Regiment 193rd Guards Artillery Regiment, from 893rd Artillery RegimentIt was one of the first units assigned to the new 22nd Guards Rifle Corps, Maj. Gen. Nikolai Boleslavovich Ibianskii was moved from command of the division to command of the corps on the same day.
He was replaced in command of the division by Col. Viktor Georgievich Chernov; this officer would continue in command until September 12. As the Battle of Kursk began on July 5, 6th Guards Army was in Voronezh Front, defending the south side of the salient, 90th Guards was in the second echelon of its Army, dug in behind the swampy basin of the Pena River to defend the most German axis of attack towards Oboyan. After the first day's fighting, during which XXXXVIII Panzer Corps and part of II SS Panzer Corps had damaged and forced back the Army's first echelon, Gen. N. F. Vatutin, the Front commander, ordered the 1st Tank Army to support the second echelon. Overnight, 6th Tank Corps buttressed the left and center of the division, while 3rd Mechanized Corps moved up in support; these reinforcements were important, because the 90th Guards had started the battle understrength, having yielded a rifle battalion and part of its artillery to the first echelon. By nightfall on July 6, elements of the first echelon had been encircled and were forced to slip out through gaps in the German lines, at considerable cost.
The Germans attempted to continue their attack, but were frustrated by the stubborn resistance of the 90th Guards in the strongpoints of Zavidovka and Syrtsevo, all in the basin of the Pena, with the support of the two corps of the tank army. By the afternoon of the 9th it was becoming clear that the German forces were re-directing their offensive away from the road to Oboyan in favor of a more easterly route. 90th Guards and 10th Motorized Brigade at Lukhanino and Shepelevka were coming under more intense attacks as the Germans tried to outflank 6th Tank. By the end of July 11, XXXXVIII Panzer Corps, in intense fighting, forced the ad-hoc Group Getman out of the area of the Psel River bend and encircled it; as the eastern re-direction continued, the reinforced 6th Guards Army was ordered to make a frontal counterattack with its full strength on July 12. The division, along with the rest of 22nd Guards Corps, was to make the main attack from the Chapaev - Novenkoe - Kruglik line along the Syrtsevo - Yakovlevo axis.
The goal of this attack was to hold the German forces in place and prevent them from massing more strength at Prokhorovka. In the event, the attack did significant damage to the German 332nd Infantry Division, caught regrouping, recaptured Chapaev, but realized few other positive results. Following the German offensive, the division required a short period of rebuilding before taking part in the Belgorod-Khar'kov Offensive Operation in August - September. On August 13 it took part in an attack on the 3rd SS Panzer Division, along with the 52nd Guards Rifle Division and 6th Tank Corps. 3rd SS had deployed all of its forces north of the Merchyk River, leaving only its reconnaissance battalion to screen south of it. The combined Soviet force pushed through the German light armor, recaptured Vysokopolye and linked up with 49th Tank Brigade, isolated in this area the previous day. However, a renewed attack by 3rd and 2nd SS on the following days damaged the tank corps and retook the village, although the Germans believed they had done more damage than was, in fact, the case.
That month 90th Guards was moved to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command. On September 13, Col. Vasilii Efimovich Vlasov took command of the division, a post he held into the postwar. In October, 90th Guards was moved north with 6th Guards Army to the 2nd Baltic Front, entering positions northwest of Nevel. Less than a month the division was reassigned to 4th Shock Army in the 1st Baltic Front. On November 10 the division was in the first echelon of 22nd Guards Rifle Corps as it launched an attack to try to cut off the German salient northeast of Nevel in conjunction with 3rd Shock Army; the forward progress was painfully slow. This effort was soon shut down. At the start of Operation Bagration, the division was back in 22nd Guards Rifle Corps in 6th Guards Army; that army had been moved in secrecy into the line north of the German-held Vitebsk salient over three nights previous to the attack. On the second day of the offensive the 90th Guards, along with its corps, advanc
Tambov Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Tambov; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,091,994. Tambov Oblast is situated in forest steppe, it borders on the Ryazan, Saratov and Lipetsk Oblasts. The oldest known population of the Tambov region, the Mordovians-Moksha, formed as a nation of local ethnic groups from the 6th century BCE; the first Russian settlers arrived in the pre-Mongol period, but the final settlement occurred in the 17th century. To protect the southern borders of Russia from the raids of the Tatars and the further development of the Black Soil region, the Russian government built the walled cities of Kozlov and Tambov; the cities protected the main path of nomad raids on Russian land and paved the way for a quick settlement of the region. Kozlovsky Uyezd existed in the Tambov area. In the course of the administrative reforms of Peter the Great in 1708 and 1719, it became part of Azov Governorate. New administrative divisions established the Tambov Viceroyalty in 1779 and from 1796 Tambov Governorate, with an area of 66.5 thousand km2 divided into 12 uyezds.
With no change to its boundaries, the Governorate remained in existence until 1928. An attempt to establish Soviet control over the Tambov area led to the defeat and execution of "Red Sonya" in the spring of 1918. During the Russian Civil War an anti-Bolshevik uprising, the Tambov Rebellion, broke out in Tambov Governorate in 1920–1921. Tambov Oblast was created from the Voronezh and Samara Oblasts on September 27, 1937; the oblast attained its present form after the separation of Penza Oblast on February 4, 1939. Population: 1,091,994 . 2012Births: 10,394 Deaths: 17,386 Total fertility rate2009: 1.31 2010: 1.34 2011: 1.33 2012: 1.42 2013: 1.42 2014: 1.49 2015: 1.51 2016: 1.49Ethnic composition Russians: 97% Ukrainians: 0.7% Armenians: 0.4% Romani people: 0.4% Others: 1.5% 22,708 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey, 78.4% of the population of Tambov Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, making it the federal subject with the highest percentage of this religion in the whole country.
In addition, 1% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 7% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 10% is atheist, 3.6% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Southeastern Railway passes through Michurinsk and connects the central regions with the southern regions. Breeding cattle, sheep and chicken is a product of animal husbandry. List of Chairmen of the Tambov Oblast Duma Тамбовская областная Дума. Закон №27-З от 24 мая 2002 г. «О гимне Тамбовской области», в ред. Закона №378-З от 10 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Тамбовской области по вопросам использования официальных символов Тамбовской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тамбовская жизнь", №115, 15 июня 2002 г.. Тамбовская областная Дума. Постановление №84 от 30 ноября 1994 г. «Устав Тамбовской области Российской Федерации», в ред. Закона №591-З от 7 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении поправок к Уставу Тамбовской области Российской Федерации».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования в областной газете "Тамбовская жизнь". Опубликован: "Тамбовская жизнь", №233, 6 декабря 1994 г.. Official website of Tambov Oblast Photos of Tambov and Tambov Oblast Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tambov". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
75th Guards Rifle Division
The 75th Guards Rifle Division was a Red Army infantry division during World War II and afterwards, which became the 75th Guards Tank Division and was disbanded in the 1990s. The 75th Guards Rifle Division was redesignated at the beginning of March 1943 from the second formation of the 95th Rifle Division in recognition of the latter's courage and heroism during the Battle of Stalingrad, it fought in the Battle of Kursk, defending positions around Ponyri on the northern face of the Kursk Bulge, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its actions. The division fought in the Battle of the Dnieper in the summer and early fall, it was awarded the honorific "Bakhmach" for helping to capture that city. The division fought in the Battle of Kiev and advanced into eastern Belarus towards the end of the year. In January 1944 it fought in the Kalinkovichi–Mozyr Offensive and received the Order of Suvorov, 2nd class for its actions. From late June the 75th Guards fought in Operation Bagration. For its actions the division was awarded its second Order of the Red Banner.
In September the division was fought in the Riga Offensive. It was relocated to eastern Poland in December and fought in the Vistula–Oder Offensive, East Pomeranian Offensive, Battle of Berlin in the final months of the war. Postwar, the division was withdrawn to Tula and downsized into the 17th Separate Guards Rifle Brigade; the brigade was relocated to Chuguyev, became the 64th Guards Mechanized Division in 1953. In 1954 it became the 14th Guards Heavy Tank Division, in 1965 it was redesignated the 75th Guards Tank Division; the division was downsized into a storage base in 1989, disbanded in 1990. The division was formed on 1 March 1943 by the redesignation of the 95th Rifle Division, made a Guards unit for its courage and heroism in the defense of Stalingrad, its structure included the 90th, 161st, 241st Rifle Regiments, the 57th Artillery Regiment, which became the 212th, 231st, 241st Guards Rifle Regiments, the 159th Guards Artillery Regiment on 4 April, other smaller units. The division was commanded by Major General Vasily Gorishny, who led the division for the rest of the war.
Part of the Central Front reserve, it joined the 13th Army in May. In reserve, the 75th Guards were brought up to full strength and replenished from their losses at Stalingrad. During July 1943, as part of the army's 17th Guards Rifle Corps alongside the 70th Guards Rifle Division, the division fought in the Battle of Kursk. Facing one of the main German thrusts in the area of the Ponyri 2 sovkhoz, the 75th Guards helped repulse the attack, positioned in the second defensive belt. On 6 July, the second day of the battle, the 70th and 75th Guards, supported by the 9th and 16th Tank Corps, attacked the 2nd Panzer Division, positioned between Bobrik and Saborovka, 10 kilometres from its start line. In fierce fighting, the 2nd Panzer managed to expand its bridgehead over the Svapa River. At Ponyri, the 75th Guards' 84th Separate Guards Anti-Tank Battalion was attacked by Tiger tanks, but managed to claim five Panzer IVs with its 45 mm anti-tank guns. At 19:30, German tanks and infantry attacked into the division's flank and rear west of Snova after pushing the 6th Guards Rifle Division back.
The 75th Guards speedily regrouped and repulsed the German attack, destroying up to 30 tanks according to Soviet reports. On 7 July the German attacks at Ponyri 2 continued, with an attack by thirty tanks and infantry from the 9th Panzer Division achieving a limited advance against the 75th Guards by 17:00. During the day the infantry from the division supported tanks and anti-tank guns in inflicting heavy losses on the attacking German tanks. On the afternoon of 10 July, after the German troops retreated to their original positions, the 75th Guards participated in a general counterattack in the sector. Regrouping and exploiting the breakthrough, the division went on the offensive during Operation Kutuzov on 15 July. For its exemplary fighting performance, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner on 21 July 1943. By 25 July, the 75th Guards reached the line of Glazunovka and Nizhny Tagino, overcoming stiff German resistance. 5 soldiers of the division were made Heroes of the Soviet Union, 173 officers and men recognized with awards and medals.
The division's soldiers helped clear left-bank Ukraine during the Chernigov-Pripyat Offensive of the Central Front, part of the 70th Army and the 60th Army's 30th Rifle Corps. For helping to clear Bakhmach, the division was given the honorific "Bakhmach" on 9 September. On 25 September parts of the division crossed the Dnieper River in the area of Tarasovichi and Yasnogorodka and seized a bridgehead. During the subsequent weeks, the 75th Guards fought in fierce fighting to expand the bridgehead. For courage shown in battle, 63 officers and men of the division were made Heroes of the Soviet Union, 829 recognized with awards and medals. In October and November 1943, the division, part of the 60th Army of the 1st Ukrainian Front, fought in the Kiev offensive operation. From January to July 1944 the division fought as part of the 65th Army of the Belarusian Front. On 6 January, the division numbered 7,516 personnel, including 821 officers and 2,214 non-commissioned officers. Between 8 and 14 January, the 75th Guards fought in the Kalinkovichi–Mozyr Offensive, which aimed to capture Kalinkovichi and Mozyr in eastern Belarus.
The division was part of the 105th Rifle Corps along with the 132nd and 253rd Rifle Divisions at the time
Order of the Red Banner
The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The Order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, it was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism and courage demonstrated on the battlefield; the Order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, ships and social organizations, state enterprises. In years, it was awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military, police, or state security service without requiring participation in combat; the Russian Order of the Red Banner was established during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of September 16, 1918. The first recipient was Vasily Blyukher on September 28, 1918; the second recipient was Iona Yakir. During the Civil War, there existed named orders and decorations established by the Soviet communist governments of several other constituent and nonconstituent republics.
The August 1, 1924, decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee established the all-Soviet Order of the Red Banner for deserving personnel of the Red Army. Other nonmilitary awards used the phrase "Order of the Red Banner" in their title. From 1918 till the late 1930s there was a Soviet collective variant - the Revolutionary Red Banner of Honor; this was in the form of a special military color awarded to distinguished Red Army, Soviet Air Force, Soviet Navy units. It was older than the Order of the Red Banner, having been established on August 3, 1918, a month and several weeks before; as a military decoration, the Order of the Red Banner recognised heroism in combat or otherwise extraordinary accomplishments of military valour during combat operations. Before the establishment of the Order of Lenin on April 5, 1930, the Order of the Red Banner functioned as the highest military order of the USSR. During World War II, under various titles, it was presented to both individuals and military units for acts of extreme military heroism.
In some ways, the Order of the Red Banner was more prestigious, as it could only be awarded for bravery during combat operations whereas the Order of Lenin was sometimes awarded to non-military personnel and political leaders. Nearly all well-known Soviet commanders became recipients of the Order of the Red Banner; when the Order was awarded to whole formations, the prefix "Red Banner" was added to their official designations. Naval vessels flew a special ensign; the Order of the Red Banner was used as a "long service award" between 1944 and 1958 to mark twenty and thirty years of service in the military, state security, or police. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 14, 1957, emphasised the devaluation of certain Soviet high military Orders used as long service awards instead of their intended criteria; this led to the joint January 25, 1958, decree of the Ministers of Defence, of Internal Affairs, of the Chairman of the Committee on State Security of the USSR establishing the Medal "For Impeccable Service," putting an end to the practice of awarding long service variants of the Order of the Red Banner.
The Order consisted of a white-enamelled badge, which had a golden Hammer and Sickle badge surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat on a Red Star, backed by crossed hammer, torch, a red flag bearing the motto Proletarians of the World, Unite!. The whole was surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat. Additional awards of the Order bore a white enamelled shield with a silver sequence number at the bottom of the obverse. A recipient of multiple Orders of the Red Banner would wear a basic badge of the Order with a numeral corresponding to the sequence of the award on a cartouche over the wheat at the bottom of the badge; the early variants of the Order were screw back badges to allow wear on clothing. Variants hung from a standard Soviet pentagonal mount with a ring through the suspension loop; the mount was covered with an overlapping 24mm wide red silk moiré ribbon with 1.5mm wide white edge stripes and a 7mm wide white central stripe. The Order of the Red Banner was worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other Orders and medals of the USSR, was placed after the Order of the October Revolution.
If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence. Baltic Fleet Soviet Northern Fleet Pacific Ocean Fleet Far Eastern Military District First Army First Guards Tank Army Second Guards Tank Army 1st Rifle Division 6th Rifle Division 24th Rifle Division 45th Rifle Division 27th Guards Rifle Division 39th Guards Rifle Division 19th Motor Rifle Division 76th Guards Airborne Division 85th Rifle Division 100th Guards Rifle Division 106th Guards Tula Airborne Division 17th Rifle Regiment, 32nd Rifle Division 72nd Mechanized Brigade French fighter squadron Normandie-Niemen Feats of valour worthy of the award of the Order of the Red Banner were as much against internal as against external enemies of the USSR, as detailed below: Stalin's Chief Executioner Va
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
49th Guards Rifle Division
The 49th Guards Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army. The division was formed in October 1942 from the 2nd Guards Motor Rifle Division; the 49th Guards Rifle Division was formed in the Western Front reserves near Moscow on 13 October 1942 from the remains of the 2nd Guards Motor Rifle Division. The unit was assigned to the newly formed 13th Guards Rifle Corps in the 2nd Guards Army, they were sent south to the Stalingrad area in December 1942 and went into action south of Stalingrad. When formed, its order of battle was as follows: 144th Guards Rifle Regiment 147th Guards Rifle Regiment 149th Guards Rifle Regiment 100th Guards Artillery Regiment 56th Guards Separate Anti-tank Battalion 64th Guards Anti-Aircraft Battery 1st Guards Machine Gun Battalion 51st Guards Reconnaissance Company 57th Guards Separate Sapper Battalion 77th Guards Separate Signals Battalion 561st Medical and Sanitation Battalion 52nd Guards Separate Chemical Defense Company 609th Auto-Transport Company 638th Field Bakery 641st Divisional Veterinary Hospital 572nd Field Postal Station 44th Field Office of State BankLater the division helped liberate Kherson.
It took part in the liberation of Hungary. The division ended the war in Austria. By this time the division had the following honorifics: Khersonskaya, Order of the Red Banner, Order of Suvorov 2nd Class. After the end of the war the division became a part of the Southern Group of Forces, being reorganised as the 33rd Guards Mechanised Division. In September 1949 the 33rd Guards Mechanized Division arrived in Timișoara from the Odessa Military District, becoming part of the Special Mechanized Army; the 33rd Guards Mechanized Division was detached to the Special Corps and fought in Operation Whirlwind, the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. After the end of the operation, the division became part of the newly reformed Southern Group of Forces. On 4 June 1957, the division became the 33rd Guards Motor Rifle Division; the division was based at Győr with the 38th Army. In 1958 it became part of the 14th Army; the division was disbanded there on 8 October 1960. Major General P. G. Chanchibadze Colonel D. P. Podshivailov -.
Promoted Major General 27 Nov 1942. Colonel G. Ya. Kolesnikov - Lieutenant Colonel L. I. Puzanov Colonel V. F. Margelov Colonel S. V. Salychev - Colonel V. F. Margelov. Promoted Major General 13 Sep 1944. Drogovoz, Igor. Танковый меч страны Советов. Moscow: AST. ISBN 9851311332. Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306