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13th century BC

The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC. 1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end in the Indus Valley. 1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty. 1282 BC: Pandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion and his sons, his four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica. 1279 BC: Ramesses II becomes leader of Ancient Egypt. 1278 BC: Seti I dies, 1 year after his son, Ramesses II is crowned. 1274 BC: The Battle of Kadesh in Syria. 1258 BC: Ramses II, king of ancient Egypt, Hattusilis III, king of the Hittites, sign the earliest known peace treaty. 1251 BC: A solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes, Greece. C. 1250 BC: Approximately 4,000 men fight a battle at a causeway over the Tollense valley in Northern Germany, the largest prehistoric battle north of the Alps known so far.

1250 BC: Wu Ding King of Shang Dynasty to 1192 BC. 1250 BC: The Lion Gate at Mycene is constructed. C. 1230 BC: Aegeus, legendary King of Athens, receives a false message that his designated heir Theseus, his son by Aethra of Troezena, is dead. Theseus had been sent to his overlord Minos of Crete as an offering to the Minotaur. Medus, Aegeus' only other son, had been exiled in Asia and would become legendary ancestor to the Medes. Believing himself without heirs the King commits suicide after a reign of 48 years, he is succeeded by Theseus, who still lives. The Aegean Sea is named in his honor. 1213 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus; the latter seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.

1212 BC: Death of Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II. 1208 BC: Pharaoh Merneptah defeats a Libyan invasion. 1206 BC: Approximate starting date of Bronze age collapse, a period of migration and destruction in the eastern Mediterranean and Near East. 1204 BC: Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erichthonius II of Athens and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is ally. Lycomedes, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds assassinates him. C. 1200 BC: Earliest writing that survived exists in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Chariots appear in Ancient China. C. 1200 BC: Start of Iron Age in Near East, eastern Mediterranean, India. C. 1200 BC: Collapse of Hittite power in Anatolia with the destruction of their capital Hattusa. C. 1200 BC: Massive migrations of people around the Mediterranean and the Middle-East.

See Sea People for more information. C. 1200 BC: Aramaic nomads and Chaldeans become a big threat to the former Babylonian and Assyrian Empire. C. 1200 BC: Migration and expansion of Dorian Greeks. Destruction of Mycenaean city Pylos. C. 1200 BC: The proto-Scythian Srubna culture expands from the lower Volga region to cover the whole of the North Pontic area. C. 1200 BC: The Cimmerians start settling the steppes of southern Russia?. c. 1200 BC: Olmec culture starts and thrives in Mesoamerica. C. 1200 BC: San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán starts to flourish. C. 1200 BC: Ancestral Puebloan civilization in North America. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical. 1251 BC—A lunar eclipse might mark the birth of Hercules c. 1225 BC—Birth of legendary Helen to King Tyndareus of Sparta and his wife Leda 1212 BC—Death of Ramesses II of Egypt Moses—A Hebrew prophet found in the Old Testament in the Bible called the Exodus.

Merneptah, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Amenmesse, Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Pan Geng of Shang dynasty China See: List of sovereign states in the 13th century BC


A nutcracker is a tool designed to open nuts by cracking their shells. There are many designs, including levers and ratchets. A well-known type portrays a person whose mouth forms the jaws of the nutcracker, though many of these are meant for decoration. Nuts were opened using a hammer and anvil made of stone; some nuts such as walnuts can be opened by hand, by holding the nut in the palm of the hand and applying pressure with the other palm or thumb, or using another nut. Manufacturers produce modern functional nutcrackers somewhat resembling pliers, but with the pivot point at the end beyond the nut, rather than in the middle; these are used for cracking the shells of crab and lobster to make the meat inside available for eating. Hinged lever nutcrackers called a "pair of nutcrackers", may date back to Ancient Greece. By the 14th century in Europe, nutcrackers were documented in England, including in the Canterbury Tales, in France; the lever design may derive from blacksmiths' pincers. Materials included metals such as silver, cast-iron and bronze, wood including boxwood those from France and Italy.

More porcelain was used. Many of the wooden carved nutcrackers were in the form of animals. During the Victorian era and nuts were presented at dinner and ornate and silver-plated nutcrackers were produced to accompany them on the dinner table. Nuts have long been a popular choice for desserts throughout Europe; the nutcrackers were placed on dining tables to serve as a fun and entertaining center of conversation while diners awaited their final course. At one time, nutcrackers were made of metals such as brass, it was not until the 1800s in Germany that the popularity of wooden ones began to spread; the late 19th century saw two shifts in nutcracker production: the rise in figurative and decorative designs from the Alps where they were sold as souvenirs, a switch to industrial manufacture, including availability in mail-order catalogues, rather than artisan production. After the 1960s, the availability of pre-shelled nuts led to a decline in ownership of nutcrackers and a fall in the tradition of nuts being put in children's Christmas stockings.

In the 17th century, screw nutcrackers were introduced that applied more gradual pressure to the shell, some like a vise. The spring-jointed nutcracker was patented by Henry Quackenbush in 1913. A ratchet design, similar to a car jack, that increases pressure on the shell to avoid damaging the kernel inside is used by the Crackerjack, patented in 1947 by Cuthbert Leslie Rimes of Morley and exhibited at the Festival of Britain. Unshelled nuts are still popular in China, where a key device is inserted into the crack in walnuts and macadamias and twisted to open the shell. Nutcrackers in the form of wood carvings of a soldier, king, or other profession have existed since at least the 15th century. Figurative nutcrackers are a good luck symbol in Germany, a folktale recounts that a puppet-maker won a nutcracking challenge by creating a doll with a mouth for a lever to crack the nuts; these nutcrackers portray a person with a large mouth which the operator opens by lifting a lever in the back of the figurine.

One could insert a nut in the big-toothed mouth, press down and thereby crack the nut. Modern nutcrackers in this style serve for decoration at Christmas time, a season of which they have long been a traditional symbol; the ballet The Nutcracker derives its name from this festive holiday decoration. The carving of nutcrackers— as well as of religious figures and of cribs— developed as a cottage industry in forested rural areas of Germany; the most famous nutcracker carvings come from Sonneberg in Thuringia and as part of the industry of wooden toymaking in the Ore Mountains. Wood-carving provided the only income for the people living there. Today the travel industry supplements their income by bringing visitors to the remote areas. Carvings by famous names like Junghanel, Klaus Mertens, Olaf Kolbe, Christian Ulbricht and the Steinbach nutcrackers have become collectors' items. Decorative nutcrackers became popular in the United States after the Second World War, following the first US production of The Nutcracker ballet in 1940 and the exposure of US soldiers to the dolls during the war.

In the United States, few of the decorative nutcrackers are now functional, though expensive working designs are still available. Many of the woodworkers in Germany were in Erzgebirge, in the Soviet zone after the end of the war, they mass-produced poorly-made designs for the US market. With the increase in pre-shelled nuts, the need for functionality was lessened. After the 1980s, Chinese and Taiwanese imports that copied the traditional German designs took over; the recreated "Bavarian village" of Leavenworth, features a nutcracker museum. Many other materials serve to make decorated nutcrackers, such as porcelain and brass; the United States Postal Service issued four stamps in October 2008 with custom-made nutcrackers made by Richmond, Virginia artist Glenn Crider. Some artists, among them the multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield, have used the sound nutcrackers make in music. Many animals shell nuts to eat them, including using tools; the Capuchin monkey is a fine example. Parrots use their beaks in much the same way smaller birds crack seeds.

In this case, the pivot point stands at the jaw. Black Walnut Crackers

Faint blue galaxy

The faint blue galaxy problem in astrophysics first arose with observations starting in 1978 that there were more galaxies with a bolometric magnitude > 22 than then-current theory predicted. Galaxies can appear faint because they are far away. Neither explanation, nor any combination matched the observations; the distribution of these galaxies has since been found to be consistent with cosmic inflation, measurements of the cosmic microwave background, a nonzero cosmological constant, that is, with the existence of the now-accepted dark energy. It thus serves as a confirmation of supernova observations requiring dark energy. A second problem arose in 1988, with deeper observations showing a much greater excess of faint galaxies; these are now interpreted as dwarf galaxies experiencing large bursts of stellar formation, resulting in blue light from young, massive stars. Thus F. B. G.s are bright for their size and distance. Most F. B. G.s appear between red-shift 0.5 and 2. It is believed that they disappear as separate objects by merger with other galaxies

Guthega Power Station

Guthega Power Station is located in the Snowy Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia. The power station's purpose is for the generation of electricity, it is the first to be completed and smallest of the initial seven hydroelectric power stations that comprise the Snowy Mountains Scheme, a vast hydroelectricity and irrigation complex constructed in south-east Australia between 1949 and 1974 and now run by Snowy Hydro. This station is connected to the National Electricity Market via the TransGrid 330/132KV Substation @ the TransGrid 330KV Murray Switching Station, 1.56 kilometres South East of Khancoban. Guthega power station is located at the confluence of the Munyang River and the Snowy River 5.5 kilometres downstream of the Guthega Dam wall. It is a conventional hydroelectric power station, situated above ground; the waters held in the reservoir behind Guthega dam pass through a concrete lined tunnel, a surge tank and firstly one two steel penstocks to the power station to generate electricity.

The powerhouse is a concrete structure with a machine hall, 51.46 metres long, 17.83 metres wide, 32.61 metres high. 6,880 cubic metres of concrete was used in its construction which commenced in November 1951 and was completed in April 1955. The power station has two Francis turbines each driving an English Electric generator; the power station includes foundations for a third unit but this was never installed as there was insufficient water to make it worthwhile. The power station has a rated hydraulic head of 246.9 metres. Each turbine runs at 428 water flows through it at the rate of 28.3 cubic metres per second. The total installed generating capacity is 60 megawatts of electricity yielding a net generation of 172 gigawatt-hours annually; the Guthega Power Station is the highest power station in Australia. Guthega, New South Wales Snowy Mountains Scheme Snowy Hydro Limited

Karl Deutsch Award

The Karl Deutsch Award is awarded by the International Political Science Association each year an IPSA World Congress of Political Science is held. The recipient of the award presents the Karl Deutsch Lecture or leads a special session at the World Congress; the purpose of the award is to honour a prominent scholar engaged in cross-disciplinary research. It was named after the prominent political scientist Karl Deutsch. According to a reputation survey conducted in 2013 and 2014, it is the third most prestigious international academic award in political science, after the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science and the Stein Rokkan Prize for Comparative Social Science Research; the award should not be confused with the "Karl Deutsch Award" awarded by the International Studies Association. The latter award bears the same name but is only awarded to outstanding scholars under 40 in the field of international relations; the award was first awarded at the 1997 World Congress, in memory of Karl Deutsch, a leading political scientist and the president of IPSA from 1976 to 1979, who died in November 1992.

The purpose of the Karl Deutsch Award is to honour a prominent scholar engaged in the cross-disciplinary research of which Karl Deutsch was a master. Nominations are received through the IPSA national and regional associations, a decision is made on the recommendation of the Committee on Awards of the Association; the recipient is awarded 1,000 U. S. dollars, supported by the Karl Deutsch fund. The Karl Deutsch Award has been awarded to: 1997 Gabriel Almond 2000 Jean Laponce 2003 Juan Linz 2006 Charles Tilly 2009 Giovanni Sartori 2012 Alfred Stepan 2014 Pippa Norris 2016 Rein Taagepera 2018 Robert D. Putnam Politics Political science Official website


Grdeša or Grd, was the župan of Travunija, mentioned in 1150–51 as serving Grand Prince Uroš II of Serbia. It is believed that Grdeša was born around 1120. In 1150 he was one of the military commanders in the army of Uroš II of Serbia that fought the Byzantine Empire, it is assumed the prisoners were taken to Sredets, but were released in 1151. The death of Grd is placed in 1178 or around 1180, he had a son, župan Pribilša, who "died in the time of Stephen Vladislav I of Serbia". His tomb was found at the local community of Police in Trebinje; the tablet mentions him "in the days of Grand Prince Mihailo" as the župan of Trebinje, his brother župan Radomir, his family. The stećak is the oldest found and is held at the Museum of Herzegovina in Trebinje. A spur of his is in the collection of the National Museum in Sarajevo. A charter was found, claiming to be dating to 1151, where Desa, the younger brother of Uroš II, gifted the island of Mljet to the monastery of Saint Mary in Apulia, of which witnesses were "iupanus Gerdessa, setnicus Rastessa, iupanos Grubessa, Petrus comes Raguseorum...", this was proven to be a falsification dating from the 13th century.

Brand, Charles M.. Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-52155-0. Mihaljčić, Rade. Namentragende Steininschriften in Jugoslawien vom Ende des 7. Bis zur Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts. Steiner Franz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-03873-7. Jireček, Konstantin. Staat und Gesellschaft im mittelalterlichen Serbien: Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des 13.-15. Jahrhunderts. Zentralantiquariat der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Kalić-Mijušković, Jovanka. Vizantijski izvori za istoriju naroda Jugoslavije. Vizantološki institut SANU. Radojičić, Đorđe, "Grdeša trebinjski župan XII veka", Prilozi za KJIF