13th century in Wales
|12th century | 14th century | Other years in Wales|
|Other events of the century|
Princes of Wales
- Llywelyn the Great (c. 1218–1240)
- Dafydd ap Llywelyn (1240–1246)
- Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1246–1282)
- Dafydd ap Gruffudd (1282–83)
(Also Madog ap Llywelyn, proclaimed prince during revolt of 1294–95)
Princesses of Wales
- Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd, takes Eifionydd and Llŷn from Maredudd ap Cynan on a charge of treachery.
- July – Llywelyn makes a treaty with King John of England.
- Valle Crucis Abbey founded by Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor.
- King John of England suspects Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, of colluding with the Welsh and has his estates temporarily confiscated.
- King John gives Skenfrith Castle, Grosmont Castle and White Castle to William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber.
- Gerald of Wales makes his fourth visit to Rome.
- March – For failing to intervene in the rebellion of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber, Walter II de Clifford is deprived of his Marcher barony of Clifford by King John of England.
- Gwenwynwyn ab Owain is arrested by King John. Llywelyn the Great annexes Gwenwynwyn's territory of southern Powys.
- Llywelyn the Great accompanies his father-in-law, King John of England, on campaign against King William I of Scotland.
- Maud de Braose and her son William are captured and imprisoned by King John, first at Windsor Castle and then at Corfe Castle, where they are starved to death.
- Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, and Peter des Roches lead an army into Gwynedd. To impede their progress, Llywelyn destroys his own castle at Deganwy.
- August – King John of England invades Gwynedd with assistance from other Welsh princes and, at his second attempt, penetrates the heart of Llywelyn the Great's territory, When Robert of Shrewsbury, Bishop of Bangor, refuses to meet John, Bangor is burned and the bishop is taken prisoner.
- Pope Innocent III releases Llywelyn the Great and other Welsh princes from their oaths of loyalty to King John; Llywelyn re-takes most of Gwynedd.
- April - probable birth date of Dafydd ap Llywelyn.
- Llywelyn the Great takes the castles of Deganwy and Rhuddlan.
- June 15 – A clause in Magna Carta compels release of Llywelyn the Great's son Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr, held as a hostage.
- June 21 – Cadwgan of Llandyfai is consecrated as Bishop of Bangor.
- December – Llywelyn captures the south Wales castles of Carmarthen, Kidwelly, Llanstephan, Cardigan and Cilgerran.
- Reginald de Braose, marries Gwladus Ddu.
- October 19 – The death of King John of England and the accession of his son as Henry III relieve political tensions between England and Wales.
- Llywelyn the Great holds a council at Aberdyfi to adjudicate on the territorial claims of the lesser princes of Wales.
- October 9 – Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Gloucester, marries Isabel Marshal (on her 17th birthday).
- Hugh de Lacy, 1st Earl of Ulster, completes the rebuilding of the church at Llanthony Priory.
- Reginald de Braose, son-in-law of Llywelyn the Great, goes over to the English; Llywelyn responds by attacking de Braose's lands. De Braose surrenders Swansea to Llywelyn.
- Treaty of Worcester: Llywelyn the Great makes peace with King Henry III of England, his brother-in-law.
- John de Braose, grandson of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber, marries Marared, daughter of Llywelyn the Great.
- King Henry III of England recognises Dafydd ap Llywelyn as the heir of Llywelyn the Great.
- Hostilities break out between Llywelyn and William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.
- Approximate date of the building of Castell y Bere by Llywelyn the Great.
- Llywelyn the Great petitions Pope Honorius II to confirm the succession of his legitimate son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn.
- Elen ferch Llywelyn marries John the Scot, Earl of Chester.
- Pope Honorius III legitimizes Joan, Lady of Wales, at the request of her husband, Llywelyn the Great.
- Regents of King Henry III of England order William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, to surrender the castles of Cardigan and Carmarthen.
- King Henry III of England accepts the homage of Dafydd ap Llywelyn for the lands he will inherit from his father, Llywelyn the Great.
- Easter – William de Braose, during a visit to Llywelyn the Great, is found in the bedchamber of Llywelyn's wife Joan. De Braose is hanged and Joan is placed under house arrest.
- probable – Dafydd ap Llywelyn marries Isabella de Braose, daughter of William de Braose.
- probable – The widowed Gwladus Ddu marries Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore.
- Hay-on-Wye Castle passes into the hands of the de Bohun family.
- Walter III de Clifford, with a force of 200 men, defends Bronllys Castle against his father-in-law, Llywelyn the Great.
- January – Llywelyn the Great, in alliance with Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, takes Shrewsbury.
- June 21 – Peace of Middle ends hostilities between Llywelyn the Great and the English Crown.
- Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke, begins enlarging and further strengthening Pembroke Castle.
- At Strata Florida Abbey, Welsh princes swear fealty to Dafydd ap Llywelyn as heir to Llywelyn the Great.
- April 11 – Dafydd ap Llywelyn succeeds his father, Llywelyn the Great, as Prince of Gwynedd and Wales.
- May 15 – the Treaty of Gloucester is signed by Dafydd ap Llywelyn and Henry III.
- March 17 – Dafydd sends representatives to Shrewsbury to discuss the ownership of disputed lands as required by the Treaty of Gloucester, though he absents himself. The meeting, and several others, prove fruitless.
- August – King Henry III of England invades Gwynedd.
- August 29 – the Treaty of Gwerneigron is signed by Dafydd ap Llywelyn and Henry III. In it, Dafydd agrees to cede most of modern-day Flintshire to Henry. Shortly thereafter, Dafydd hands over his half-brother, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr, to Henry for imprisonment in the Tower of London.
- March 1 – after several years of imprisonment, Gruffudd ap Llywelyn Fawr dies in an escape attempt. Dafydd ap Llywelyn wages war in the Marches against Henry III.
- March – Dafydd ap Llywelyn recovers much of Flintshire, including Mold Castle.
- August – Henry III of England invades Gwynedd. After being defeated in battle by Dafydd ap Llywelyn, he proceeds to Deganwy and refortifies the castle there.
- Autumn – Henry III withdraws to England.
- Following representations from Henry, the Vatican reverses its decision to recognise Dafydd as rightful ruler of Wales.
- February 25 – Dafydd ap Llywelyn dies at Abergwyngregyn; he is succeeded by his nephews, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Owain ap Gruffudd.
- February 20 – An earthquake damages St David's Cathedral.
- April – Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and his brother Owain Goch ap Gruffydd come to terms with King Henry III of England at Woodstock.
- December – Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester, keeps a lavish Christmas court at his castle on the Welsh borders.
- July – the earliest known document issued by Dafydd ap Gruffydd is drawn up; in it, he is referred to as 'lord of Cymydmaen'. From this point on Dafydd plays an increasingly important role in Welsh politics.
- June – Llywelyn ap Gruffudd defeats his brothers Dafydd ap Gruffydd and Owain Goch ap Gruffydd at the Battle of Bryn Derwin.
- November – Llywelyn ap Gruffudd crosses the River Conwy to take control of Gwynedd Is Conwy. With him is his brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd, who has been released from captivity.
- June – A Norman army, sent to reclaim the lands taken from Rhys Fychan by his brother, Maredudd ap Rhys Grug, is defeated by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd at the Battle of Cymerau.
- Llywelyn ap Gruffudd begins using the title "Prince of Wales"; a short-lived Cambro-Scottish treaty is concluded.
- Approximate date of the building of the chapel at Manorbier Castle.
- July – Following his father's death, Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester, becomes the ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.
- June 22 – Treaty of Pipton establishes an alliance between Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester.
- Under the terms of the Treaty of Montgomery, King Henry III of England recognises Llywelyn ap Gruffudd as Prince of Wales.
- Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, refuses to obey the King's summons to parliament, alleging that, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence against Llewelyn ap Gruffudd.
- Work begins on Caerphilly Castle.
- English bishops Godfrey Giffard and Roger de Meyland negotiate with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.
- Traditional construction date of fortified stone Monnow Bridge at Monmouth.
- Dafydd ap Gruffydd allies himself with King Edward I of England, and conspires with Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn to assassinate Dafydd's brother Llywelyn.
- Following her mother's death, Eleanor de Montfort begins her journey to Wales by sea for her marriage with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. She is captured by "pirates" and taken prisoner by King Edward I of England.
- King Edward I of England declares Llywelyn ap Gruffudd a rebel and marches on Wales.
- Llewelyn seizes Llanrwst, declaring it a "free borough" independent of the diocese of Llanelwy.
- June 24 – Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, convenes an army of Marcher lords at Worcester.
- Treaty of Aberconwy is signed by Edward I of England and Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.
- Llywelyn ap Gruffudd releases his elder brother, Owain Goch ap Gruffydd, from captivity.
- Construction of the new Aberystwyth Castle begins.
- October – Llywelyn ap Gruffudd is formally married to Eleanor de Montfort at the door of Worcester Cathedral. King Edward I of England attends the ceremony and pays for the celebrations.
- Palm Sunday – Dafydd ap Gruffudd attacks Hawarden Castle.
- June – an English army is routed at the battle of Llandeilo.
- Autumn – Archbishop John Peckham unsuccessfully attempts to intercede between King Edward I of England and Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.
- October 7 – Edward I of England grants the lordship of Bromfield and Yale to John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, who begins construction of Holt Castle and laying our of a new English town of Holt.
- November 6 – An English army attempting to cross the Menai Strait from Anglesey is routed by Welsh forces in the battle of Moel-y-Don. In spite of the setback, English forces continue to make inroads into Gwynedd.
- December 11 – Death of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd at the Battle of Orewin Bridge in Cilmeri while making his way south to gather support. Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeds him as prince.
- January 18 – Surrender of Dolwyddelan Castle.
- April 25 – Cynfrig ap Madog surrenders Castell y Bere to the English.
- June 22 – Dafydd ap Gruffudd is captured by King Edward I of England.
- October 3 (2?) – Dafydd ap Gruffudd is executed at Shrewsbury.
- Edward obliges the Cistercians of Aberconwy Abbey to relocate to Maenan Abbey to permit his erection of a castle and walled town at Conwy. He also begins work on the stone-built Caernarfon Castle.
- 3 March – King Edward I of England enacts the Statute of Rhuddlan, promulgated on 19 March at Rhuddlan Castle, providing the constitutional basis for the government of the Principality of North Wales.
- August – Edward holds court at Abergwyngregyn.
- May – The Cross of Neith, an important religious relic acquired from Wales, is carried through London at the head of a royal procession.
- 2 September – Isabella Mortimer, Countess of Arundel, marries, as her third husband, Robert de Hastang. She is subsequently fined the sum of £1,000 for having married without Royal Licence.
- Manuscript B of the Annales Cambriae is completed, probably at the Cistercian abbey of Neath.
- June 8 – Rhys ap Maredudd revolts in south-west Wales.
- January 20 – Rhys ap Maredudd's revolt is finally suppressed as his final stronghold, the castle at Newcastle Emlyn, surrenders. Rhys goes to ground.
- February - On attaining his majority, Richard FitzAlan is knighted and succeeds to his title of 8th Earl of Arundel.
- date unknown
- September 30 – Madog ap Llywelyn begins a revolt against King Edward I of England, claiming the title "Prince of Wales".
- November 11 – Madog ap Llywelyn defeats the forces of the earl of Lincoln in a pitched battle near Denbigh.*
- December 19 – Madog issues the so-called Penmachno Document, the only surviving document drawn up by him in which he refers to himself as prince.
- March 5 – Madog is defeated at the Battle of Maes Moydog.
- July – Madog surrenders.
- date unknown – Roger Mortimer de Chirk builds Chirk Castle.
- Cadwgan of Llandyfai – De modo confitendi
- date unknown – Eva Marshal, noblewoman (d. 1246)
- date unknown – Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer (d. 1301)
- probable – William de Braose, 1st Baron Braose (d. 1291)
- date unknown – Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer (d. 1282)
- May – Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd, deposed Prince of Gwynedd
- probable – Walter Map, writer
- August 9 – William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber
- date unknown – Roger de Lacy, Constable of Chester
- date unknown
- probable – Gwenwynwyn ab Owain, prince of Powys
- October 14 – Isabel, Countess of Gloucester, 43?
- date unknown – Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford, Marcher lord
- probable – Gerald of Wales, chronicler
- June – Reginald de Braose
- July 18 – John de Braose, Lord of Bramber and Gower
- October 26 – Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, Marcher lord
- February 2 – Joan, wife of Llywelyn the Great
- June 6 – John of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon, son-in-law of Llywelyn the Great
- March 1 – Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr, illegitimate son of Llywelyn the Great (fell to his death in an attempt to escape from the Tower of London)
- February 25 – Dafydd ap Llywelyn, Prince of Wales
- August 6 – Ralph de Mortimer, Marcher lord
- date unknown – Ednyfed Fychan, seneschal of Llywelyn the Great
- Gruffudd ab Ednyfed, son of Ednyfed Fychan
- October/November – Richard, bishop of Bangor
- date unknown – Gruffydd II ap Madog, Lord of Dinas Bran
- June 19 – Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales (in childbirth)
- October 30 – Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer
- December 11 – Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales (killed in battle)
- probable – Gruffudd Bola, Latin author
- October 3 – Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Prince of Gwynedd (executed)
- date unknown – Goronwy ap Heilin, seneschal of Wales
- Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, prince of Powys
- Gruffudd Fychan I, prince of Powys Fadog
- Rhys ap Maredudd, lord of Dryslwyn and rebel leader (executed)
- December 31 – Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford
- date unknown – William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick, Norman lord and a leader in the Welsh wars
- date unknown – John Giffard, sheriff of Gloucester
- Cokayne, G.E. (2000), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, I (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 240