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1414

Year 1414 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. January 7 – Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg becomes the 28th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. May 28 – Khizr Khan takes the Delhi Sultanate from Daulat Khan Lodi, founding the Sayyid Dynasty. August 6 – Joanna II succeeds her brother Ladislaus, as Queen of Naples. November 16 – The Council of Constance begins. Ernest, Duke of Austria is the last duke to be enthroned in the Duchy of Carinthia, according to the ancient Carantanian ritual of installing dukes at the Prince's Stone. Alien priory cells are suppressed in England; the Tibetan lama Je Tsongkhapa, of the Gelug school of Buddhism, declines the offer of the Yongle Emperor of China to appear in the capital at Nanjing, although he sends his disciple Chosrje Shākya Yeshes, given the title "State Teacher". The Xuande Emperor will grant Yeshes the title of a king, upon a return visit to China. Durham School is founded as a grammar school in the city of Durham, England by Thomas Langley, Prince-Bishop of Durham.

March 25 – Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford, English noble May 11 – Francis I, Duke of Brittany July 7 – Henry II, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Co-ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg July 21 – Pope Sixtus IV November 7 – Jami, Persian poet November 9 – Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg, Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg date unknown Charles I, Count of Nevers, Count of Nevers and Rethel Tenshō Shūbun, Japanese painter in the Muromachi period and Zen Buddhist monk probable – Narsinh Mehta, poet-saint of Gujarat February 19 – Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury March 28 – Jeanne-Marie de Maille, French Roman Catholic saint August 6 – King Ladislaus of Naples September 1 – William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros, Lord Treasurer of England date unknown Tewodros I, Emperor of Ethiopia Fairuzabadi, Persian lexicographer Ali ibn Mohammed al-Jurjani, Persian encyclopaedic writer John I Stanley of the Isle of Man, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, King of the Isle of Man probable – Zyndram of Maszkowice, Polish 14th- and 15th-century knight

Eupatorium linearifolium

Eupatorium linearifolium is a fall-blooming herbaceous plant native to North America. Like other members of the genus Eupatorium it has inflorescences containing a large number of small white flower heads, each with 5 disc florets but no ray florets. Works such as Flora of North America define E. linearifolium to include all the plants which in the past were treated as E. cuneifolium. The most distinctive feature of E. linearifolium, compared with other Eupatorium species, is that the stems branch near the ground. Eupatorium linearifolium is found in the southeastern and south-central United States, found in all the coastal states from Texas to Virginia, through extirpated from Virginia

Islam in Zanzibar

Islam is the most prominent religion on the semi-autonomous Zanzibar archipelago and could be considered the Islamic center in the United Republic of Tanzania. Between 98 percent of the population in the islands are Muslim, with the vast majority being Sunni with a minority Ibadi and Twelver Shia. Islam has a long presence on the islands, with archeological findings dating back to the 10th century, has been an intrinsic part in shaping mercantile and maritime Swahili culture in Zanzibar as well as along the East African coast. Archeological findings suggest that Islam has been present in the Zanzibar archipelago for more than a millennium. Of the oldest archeological findings are large Friday mosque in Ras Mkumbuu, dated back to the 10th Century, Kufic inscriptions on the mosque in Kizimkazi dated at A. D. 1106. There are different historical accounts on how Islam was introduced along the East African coast, the Zanzibar archipelago included; some suggesting that Islam was brought through Arab traders from the southern part of the Arabic peninsula, others consider the spread was initiated by groups of Zaidites from Ethiopia and Somalia, a third group suggest that Islam came via Persia.

Despite these different trajectories Islam has worked as unifying force, through which a mercantile and urban Swahili culture was formed in relation to the African hinterlands. Being Swahili along the East African coast has meant having an understanding of the message of Islam and, at least nominally, some active participation. In a context of trans-cultural interactions Islam connected people via common ethics and moral conduct and placed people along the coast within a universal imaginary of the Islamic umma. Swahili townspeople were viewed to have more in common with their trade partners and fellow Muslims abroad than they had with groups in the nearby African mainland; this meant that ancestral roots were placed outside Africa, with groups stressing shirazi origin of Persia and with Zanzibar becoming a central location for the Omani sultanate in the 1800s of Arab descent. Over time Islam became valued as a central aspect of what it meant to be a civilized person, that contained assigning prestige to things connected with the distant Islamic heartlands.

In Zanzibar today, around 90 percent of all Muslims belong to the Sunni tradition and follow the Shafi’i school of jurisprudence. Sh Abdullah Saleh Farsy was an internationally known poet and Muslim historian in Zanzibar, he is well known for his contribution to Islamic knowledge, being first to translate the Quran into the Swahili language. He is the writer of the hagiography of Muslim Scholars in East Africa Baadhi ya Wanavyoni wa Kishafii wa Mashariki ya Afrika, a piece that were translated into english. Sh. Nassor Bachoo was a well known Muslim cleric in East Africa in Tanzania and Kenya, while he was a controversial figure in Zanzibar, he is considered to be the spiritual leader for Salafi reform movements such as the Ansâr Sunna. The late Sh. Amir Tajir was the Chief qadi in Zanzibar. Uamsho is the popularized name of Jumuiya ya Uamsho na Mihadhara ya Kiislamu Zanzibar —also known by its Swahili acronym Jumiki. Uamsho was formed in the late 1990s an registered as an NGO in 2002; the organization's aim was to promote Muslim unity and Muslim rights via public preaching.

Uamsho was from the start critical towards the political party of Chama cha Mapinduzi, accusing the government of restricting Muslim rights and corrupting Zanzibar by its inability to uphold moral order in society. In 2012, Uamsho engaged in widespread protests for a more autonomous Zanzibar in relation to a constitutional review process in Tanzania leading to tensions with the state after holding a public march in May 2012 despite a ban on religious public meetings. With the arrest of the Uamsho leader Sh. Musa Juma, supporters took their anger to the streets leading to riots with institutions linked to CCM and Christian churches being attacked. With tensions escalating during 2012 with a new round of riots in October all of Uamsho's main leaders, such as Sh. Farid Ahmad, were arrested and jailed. "Eco-Islam hits Zanzibar fishermen BBC News, 17 February 2005 "ROLE OF ISLAM ON POLITICS IN ZANZIBAR" by Khatib A. Rajab