1424 Sundmania

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1424 Sundmania
Discovery [1]
Discovered by Y. Väisälä
Discovery site Turku Obs.
Discovery date 9 January 1937
MPC designation (1424) Sundmania
Named after
Karl F. Sundman[2][3]
(Finnish mathematician)
1937 AJ · 1929 SS
1929 UB · 1931 AD
1938 FP · A918 WA
main-belt · (outer)[4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 98.53 yr (35,989 days)
Aphelion 3.3831 AU
Perihelion 2.9966 AU
3.1899 AU
Eccentricity 0.0606
5.70 yr (2,081 days)
0° 10m 22.8s / day
Inclination 9.1784°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 64.691±0.254 km[5]
68.169±1.767 km[6]
70.56 km (derived)[4]
70.75±2.5 km[7]
73.40±0.86 km[8]
74.46±16.37 km[9]
80.20±28.15 km[10]
84.67±0.64 km[11]
36 h (dated)[12]
47±1 h (half period)[12]
93.73±0.03 h[13]
94.537±0.005 h[14]
0.0426 (derived)[4]
SMASS = X[1] · P[6] · C[4]
9.50[6][7][8] · 9.80[4][11] · 9.90[1][9] · 10.03±0.38[15] · 10.07[10]

1424 Sundmania, provisional designation 1937 AJ, is a dark asteroid and rather slow rotator from the background population of the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 70 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 9 January 1937, by astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at the Turku Observatory in southwest Finland.[16] The asteroid was named after Finnish astronomer and mathematician Karl F. Sundman.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Sundmania is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population. It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 3.0–3.4 AU once every 5 years and 8 months (2,081 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.06 and an inclination of 9° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins with its first identification as A918 WA at Heidelberg Observatory in November 1918, more than 18 years prior to its official discovery observation at Turku.[16]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the SMASS classification, Sundmania is an X-type asteroid.[1] It has also been characterized as a primitive P-type by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).[6] The Lightcurve Data Base assumes it to be a carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[4]

Rotation period[edit]

Sundmania is a rather slow rotator as most minor planets have a rotation period of less than 20 hours.

In April 2012, a rotational lightcurve of Sundmania was obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer Robert Stephens at the Goat Mountain Astronomical Research Station (G79) in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 93.73 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.42 magnitude (U=2+).[13] Observations by French amateur astronomers Laurent Bernasconi and René Roy gave a period of 36 and 47 hours, of which the latter seems to be half the period solution obtained by Stephens (U=1/1+).[12]

Spin axis[edit]

In 2016, an international study modeled a lightcurve with a period of 94.537 hours and found two spin axis of (51.0°, 76.0°) and (275.0°, 58.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[14]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Sundmania measures between 64.691 and 84.67 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.030 and 0.0602.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0426 and a diameter of 70.56 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.8.[4]


This minor planet was named after Finnish mathematician Karl F. Sundman (1873–1949), who intensively worked on the n-body problem. Sundman worked as an astronomer at several observatories all over Europe. He became director of the Helsinki University Observatory and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University of Helsinki in 1907. The asteroids 1558 Järnefelt and 1559 Kustaanheimo were also named after astronomers from the University of Helsinki.[2][3]

The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 129). The lunar crater Sundman was also named in his honor.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1424 Sundmania (1937 AJ)" (2017-06-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1424) Sundmania. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 114. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Hannu Karttunen. "Observatory museum Biographies: 1900s — Sundman, Karl Frithiof (1873–1949)". University of Helsinky. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1424) Sundmania". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1424) Sundmania". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D. (October 2012). "Asteroids Observed from Santana, CS3 and GMARS Observatories: 2012 April - June". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (4): 226–228. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39..226S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  14. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D. A.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; et al. (February 2016). "New and updated convex shape models of asteroids based on optical data from a large collaboration network" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 586: 24. arXiv:1510.07422Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016A&A...586A.108H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527441. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  15. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  16. ^ a b "1424 Sundmania (1937 AJ)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 

External links[edit]