North American F-86 Sabre
The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft. Produced by North American Aviation, the Sabre is best known as the United States' first swept wing fighter that could counter the swept-wing Soviet MiG-15 in high-speed dogfights in the skies of the Korean War, fighting some of the earliest jet-to-jet battles in history. Considered one of the best and most important fighter aircraft in that war, the F-86 is rated in comparison with fighters of other eras. Although it was developed in the late 1940s and was outdated by the end of the 1950s, the Sabre proved versatile and adaptable and continued as a front-line fighter in numerous air forces until the last active operational examples were retired by the Bolivian Air Force in 1994, its success led to an extended production run of more than 7,800 aircraft between 1949 and 1956, in the United States and Italy. Variants were built in Australia; the Canadair Sabre added another 1,815 airframes, the redesigned CAC Sabre, had a production run of 112.
The Sabre is by far the most-produced Western jet fighter, with total production of all variants at 9,860 units. North American Aviation had produced the propeller-powered P-51 Mustang in World War II, which saw combat against some of the first operational jet fighters. By late 1944, North American proposed its first jet fighter to the U. S. Navy, which became the FJ-1 Fury, it was an unexceptional transitional jet fighter that had a straight wing derived from the P-51. Initial proposals to meet a United States Army Air Forces requirement for a medium-range, single-seat, high-altitude jet-powered day escort fighter/fighter bomber were drafted in mid-1944. In early 1945, North American Aviation submitted four designs; the USAAF selected one design over the others, granted North American a contract to build three examples of the XP-86. Deleting specific requirements from the FJ-1 Fury, coupled with other modifications, allowed the XP-86 to be lighter and faster than the Fury, with an estimated top speed of 582 mph, versus the Fury's 547 mph.
Despite the gain in speed, early studies revealed the XP-86 would have the same performance as its rivals, the XP-80 and XP-84. It was feared that, because these designs were more advanced in their development stages, the XP-86 would be canceled. Crucially, the XP-86 would not be able to meet the required top speed of 600 mph; the North American F-86 Sabre was the first American aircraft to take advantage of flight research data seized from the German aerodynamicists at the end of World War II. This data showed that a thin swept wing could reduce drag and delay compressibility problems that had bedeviled prop-powered fighters such as the Lockheed P-38 Lightning approaching the speed of sound. By 1944, German engineers and designers had established the benefits of swept wings based on experimental designs dating back to 1940. Study of the data showed that a swept wing would solve their speed problem, while a slat on the wing's leading edge that extended at low speeds would enhance low-speed stability.
Because development of the XP-86 had reached an advanced stage, the idea of changing the sweep of the wing was met with resistance from some senior North American staff. Despite stiff opposition, after good results were obtained in wind tunnel tests, the swept-wing concept was adopted. Performance requirements were met by incorporating a 35° swept-back wing, using NACA 4-digit modified airfoils, using NACA 0009.5–64 at the root and NACA 0008.5–64 at the tip, with an automatic slat design based on that of the Messerschmitt Me 262 and an electrically adjustable stabilizer, another feature of the Me 262A. Many Sabres had the "6 -- 3; this modification changed the wing airfoils to the NACA 0009-64 mod at the root and the NACA 0008.1–64 mod at the tip. The XP-86 prototype, which would lead to the F-86 Sabre, was rolled out on 8 August 1947; the first flight occurred on 1 October 1947 with George Welch at the controls, flying from Muroc Dry Lake, California. The United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command had F-86 Sabres in service from 1949 through 1950.
The F-86s were assigned to the 22nd Bomb Wing, the 1st Fighter Wing and the 1st Fighter Interceptor Wing. The F-86 was the primary U. S. air combat fighter during the Korean War, with significant numbers of the first three production models seeing combat. The F-86 Sabre was produced under license by Canadair, Ltd as the Canadair Sabre; the final variant of the Canadian Sabre, the Mark 6, is rated as having the highest capabilities of any Sabre version. The F-86A set its first official world speed record of 671 miles per hour on September 15, 1948 at Muroc Dry Lake flown by Major Richard L. Johnson, USAF. Five years on 18 May 1953, Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to break the sound barrier, flying a "one-off" Canadian-built F-86 Sabre Mk 3, alongside Chuck Yeager. Col. K. K. Compton won the 1951 Bendix air race in an F-86A with an average speed of 553.76 mph. The F-86 was produced as both a fighter-bomber. Several variants were introduced over its production life, with improvements and different armament implemented.
The XP-86 was fitted with a General Electric J35-C-3 jet engine. This engine was built by GM's Chevrolet division until production was turned over to Al
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
62nd Fighter Squadron
The 62d Fighter Squadron is part of the United States Air Force 56th Operations Group at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona. It operates the Lockheed Martin F-35A Lightning II aircraft conducting advanced fighter training; the 62d Fighter Squadron operates the Lockheed Martin F-35A Lightning II, conducting pilot training for active duty USAF pilots. The 62d Fighter Squadron was activated as the 62d Pursuit Squadron, one of the original three squadrons of the 56th Pursuit Group at Army Air Base Savannah, Georgia, on 15 January 1941; the squadron began training for its wartime missions under III Fighter Command transitioning through the Seversky P-35, Curtiss P-36, Bell P-39 Airacobra, Curtiss P-40 Warhawk aircraft. On 7 December 1941, the 62d stepped up to defend the Northeastern United States from anticipated enemy air attack while it converted to the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and prepared to deploy overseas, operating under the I Fighter Command, New York Fighter Wing in the early months of 1942.
It was redesignated 62d Fighter Squadron on 15 May 1942, deployed to RAF Kings Cliffe, England on 9 January 1943. It was declared operationally ready two months and flew its first combat missions 13 April; the squadron was given fuselage code "LM" and operated from several RAF stations during the war, flying the P-47 Thunderbolt as an VIII Fighter Command bomber-escort unit for Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses and beginning in 1944 for Consolidated B-24 Liberators attacking enemy targets in Occupied Europe. After the end of the war in Europe, the squadron was inactivated on 18 October 1945; the squadron was reactivated on 1 May 1946 as a Strategic Air Command escort fighter group, being assigned to Fifteenth Air Force at Selfridge Field, equipped with long-range North American P-51H Mustangs, developed for Twentieth Air Force bomber escort missions in the Pacific Theater. The mission of the squadron was to provide fighter escort of SAC's Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers on intercontinental strategic bombardment missions, deploying to Alaska and Europe in this role.
In 1947, the squadron was upgraded to Lockheed P-80C Shooting Stars, as SAC introduced the Boeing B-50 Superfortress in the late 1940s. The squadron trained to maintain proficiency as a mobile strike force; the squadron began performing air defense missions in 1950 with its relocation to O'Hare Air Reserve Station, Chicago in 1950. It wasg redesignated as the 62d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron on 20 January 1950, re-equipped with the North American F-86D Sabre, it was assigned to Air Defense Command 4706th Defense Wing in February 1952. In 1955, the 56th was reactivated under ADC as an Air Defense Group with the 62d being a tactical interceptor squadron. In 1959 with interceptors being moved from O'Hare the squadron moved to K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base and the 62d was re-equipped with the Mach 2+ McDonnell F-101B Voodoo two-seat interceptor; the F-101B proved to be a quite successful interceptor. Assigned alongside the F-101B interceptor was the F-101F operational and conversion trainer; the two-seat trainer version was equipped with dual controls, but carried the same armament as the F-101B and were combat-capable.
The squadron maintained alert against the ever-present Soviet bomber threat. On 22 October 1962, before President John F. Kennedy told Americans that missiles were in place in Cuba, the squadron dispersed one third of its force, equipped with nuclear tipped missiles to Phelps Collins Air National Guard Base at the start of the Cuban Missile Crisis; these planes returned to K. I. Sawyer after the crisis. A highlight from this era was the squadron capturing top F-101 squadron honors at the William Tell 1965, USAF Worldwide Weapons Meet; the squadron maintained the air defense alert until it was inactivated on 30 April 1970, with its aircraft being passed along to the Air National Guard. The 62d was the last active-duty squadron equipped with the F-101B; the squadron was replaced by the 87th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron flying Convair F-106A Delta Darts On 1 September 1974, the 62d was reactivated at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, as a fighter training unit. The squadron assumed the mission of training McDonnell F-4E Phantom II and Convair F-106 Delta Dart weapons instructors at the United States Air Force Interceptor Weapons School.
The following October, the squadron moved again, this time to rejoin the 56th Tactical Fighter Wing at MacDill Air Force Base and began training F-4 crews for tactical units around the world. 62d aircraft carried a blue fin cap, tail coded "MC". In April 1978, the squadron changed equipment to the F-4D, with the "E" models being transferred to operational squadrons; the last F-4D flight occurred on 14 November 1980, conversion began to the General Dynamics F-16A Fighting Falcon began that month. On 1 January 1981, the squadron transitioned to the Fighting Falcon and the squadron was redesignated as the 62d Tactical Fighter Training Squadron. Beginning in June 1989 the unit converted to the Block 30 model of the F-16C and F-16D. On 1 November 1991 the squadron was once again redesignated back to what it was in World War II as the 62d Fighter Squadron with the adoption of the objective organization plan by the wing. With the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s it was announced; the squadrons of the 56th Fighter Wing would be inactivated starting with the 72d Fighter Squadron sequentially from the highest numbered to the lowest, the 61st Fighter Squadron.
Therefore, the 62d Fighter Squadron was second to last to inactivate. The squadron, continued to train fighter pilots until its inactivatio
Convair F-102 Delta Dagger
The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was an American interceptor aircraft, built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s. Entering service in 1956, its main purpose was to intercept invading Soviet strategic bomber fleets during the Cold War. Designed and manufactured by Convair, 1,000 F-102s were built. A member of the Century Series, the F-102 was the USAF's first operational supersonic interceptor and delta-wing fighter, it used an internal weapons bay to carry both guided rockets. As designed, it could not achieve Mach 1 supersonic flight until redesigned with area ruling; the F-102 replaced subsonic fighter types such as the Northrop F-89 Scorpion, by the 1960s, it saw limited service in the Vietnam War in bomber escort and ground-attack roles. It was supplemented by McDonnell F-101 Voodoos and by McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs. Many of the F-102s were transferred from the active duty Air Force to the Air National Guard by the mid-to-late 1960s, with the exception of those examples converted to unmanned QF-102 Full Scale Aerial Target drones, the type was retired from operational service in 1976.
The follow-on replacement was the Mach-2 Convair F-106 Delta Dart, an extensive redesign of the F-102. On 8 October 1948, the board of senior officers of the U. S. Air Force made recommendations that the service organize a competition for a new interceptor scheduled to enter service in 1954. Four months on 4 February 1949, the USAF approved the recommendation and prepared to hold the competition the following year. In November 1949, the Air Force decided that the new aircraft would be built around a fire-control system; the FCS was to be designed before the airframe to ensure compatibility. The airframe and FCS together were called the weapon system. In January 1950, the USAF Air Materiel Command issued request for proposals to 50 companies for the FCS, of which 18 responded. By May, the list was revised downward to 10. Meanwhile, a board at the U. S. Department of Defense headed by Major General Gordon P. Saville reviewed the proposals, distributed some to the George E. Valley-led Air Defense Engineering Committee.
Following recommendations by the committee to the Saville Board, the proposals were further reduced to two competitors, Hughes Aircraft and North American Aviation. Although the Valley Committee thought it was best to award the contract to both companies, Hughes was chosen by Saville and his team on 2 October 1950. Proposals for the airframe were issued on 18 June 1950, in January 1951 six manufacturers responded. On 2 July 1954, three companies, Convair and Lockheed won the right to build a mockup; until Convair had done research into delta-winged aircraft, experimenting with different designs, two of which fell under the name P-92. Of the three, the best design was to win the production contract under the name "Project MX-1554". In the end, Convair emerged as the victor with its design, designated "XF-102", after Lockheed dropped out and Republic built only a mockup; the development of three different designs was too expensive and in November, only Convair was allowed to continue with its Model 8-80.
To speed development, it was proposed to equip the prototypes and pre-production aircraft with the less-powerful Westinghouse J40 turbojet. Continued delays to the J67 and MA-1 FCS led to the decision to place an interim aircraft with the J40 and a simpler fire control system into production as the F-102A; the failure of the J40 led to the Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet with afterburner, rated with 10,000 pounds-force of thrust being substituted for the prototypes and F-102As. This aircraft was intended to be temporary, pending the development of the F-102B, which would employ the more advanced Curtiss-Wright J67, a licensed derivative of the Bristol-Siddeley Olympus, still in development; the F-102B would evolve to become the F-106A, dubbed the "Ultimate Interceptor". The prototype YF-102 made its first flight on 23 October 1953, at Edwards AFB, but was lost in an accident nine days later; the second aircraft flew on 11 January 1954. Transonic drag was much higher than expected, the aircraft was limited to Mach 0.98, with a ceiling of 48,000 ft, far below the requirements.
To solve the problem and save the F-102, Convair embarked on a major redesign, incorporating the discovered area rule, while at the same time simplifying production and maintenance. The redesign entailed lengthening the fuselage by 11 ft, being "pinched" at the midsection, with two large fairings on either side of the engine nozzle, with revised intakes and a new, narrower canopy. A more powerful model of the J57 was fitted, the aircraft structure was lightened; the first revised aircraft, designated YF-102A flew on 20 December 1954, 118 days after the redesign started, exceeding Mach 1 the next day. The revised design demonstrated a speed of Mach 1.22 and a ceiling of 53,000 ft. These improvements were sufficient for the Air Force to allow production of the F-102, with a new production contract signed in March 1954; the production F-102A had the Hughes MC-3 fire control system upgraded in service to the MG-10. It had a three-segment internal weapons bay under the fuselage for air-to-air missiles.
Initial armament was three pairs of GAR-1/2/3/4 Falcon missiles, which included both infrared homing and semi-active radar homing variants. The doors of the two forward bays each had tubes for 12 FFARs (for a t
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Saint-Lô is a commune in north-western France, the capital of the Manche department in the region of Normandy. Although it is the second largest city of Manche after Cherbourg, it remains the prefecture of the department, it is chef-lieu of an arrondissement and two cantons. The commune has 18,931 inhabitants; the names of Laudois, Laudiens or Laudiniens are cited. A martyr city of World War II, Saint-Lô was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1948 and was given the nickname "Capital of the Ruins", a phrase popularised by Samuel Beckett. Saint-Lô is located in the centre of Manche, in the middle of the Saint-Lois bocage, 57 km to the west of Caen, 78 km south of Cherbourg and 119 km north of Rennes; the city was born under the name of Briovera on a rocky outcrop of schist belonging to the Armorican Massif, in the Cotentin Peninsula, between the confluences of the Vire – which dominates the city centre – with the Dollée and Torteron, two rivers channelled in their urban sections. This historic heart of the city became a site well suited to passive defence.
The east of the territory is the former commune of Sainte-Croix-de-Saint-Lô, south of Saint-Thomas-de-Saint-Lô, absorbed in 1964. Saint-Lô has a mild oceanic climate characterised by temperate summers, it has an average annual rainfall of 800 to 900 mm per year. Rainfall is quite frequent throughout the year but most abundant in autumn and winter, in connection with the disturbances coming from the Atlantic Ocean. Intense, they fall in the form of drizzle; the average temperature is 10 °C. In winter, the average temperature ranges between 1 and 7 °C. There are between 40 days of frost per year. In summer, the average temperature lies around 20 °C. Saint-Lô is located in the centre of the department of Manche and is therefore a node of communication between Nord-Cotentin and southern Manche. Saint-Lô lies halfway along the Coutances–Bayeux axis. A bypass road was commissioned in the 1980s to allow the decongestion of the city from the south. To open up the port of Cherbourg, the region and the department decided the construction of a dual carriageway, RN 174.
It is a part of the European route E03 and enables direct connection to Rennes and Europe from the south, through the interchange at Guilberville. The southern section now connects Saint-Lô directly to the A84 autoroute, allowing motorway access to Caen and Rennes; the commissioning of the northern section, under construction, will meanwhile allow access to Cherbourg and England via the Route nationale 13. The construction of the dual carriageway allowed the extension of the small South ring road heading west and its mutation into genuine urban bypass, it has enabled the creation and expansion of new business zones which contribute to the current growth of the agglomeration. The Gare de Saint-Lô is served by TER trains on the Caen - Rennes railway line, it is in the majority of services for travellers in the direction of Caen via Lison or in the direction of Coutances. A few trains, two daily return trips, serve as far as Rennes via Avranches. Following the electrification of the section of railway between Lison and Saint-Lô during 2006, the SNCF and local communities experienced a direct Intercités service to the Gare Saint-Lazare in Paris for two years, between December 2008 and December 2010.
This service was not sustained due to a lack a sufficient number of passengers. There is the disused former industrial line to Condé-sur-Vire; the section between Gourfaleur and Condé-sur-Vire, adjacent to the towpath along the Vire, is used by the Vélorail of the Vire valley since 2007. Urban transportation is provided by the Transports Urbains Saint-Lô Agglomération: TUSA, was created in 1980. In 2010, the network consisted of four lines with 15 buses and one Ocitolà transport on demand minibus. However, since 3 January 2011, it is composed of three lines still with 15 buses and one Ocitolà transport on demand minibus. In 2008, the company recorded more than 850,000 journeys. On 15 May 2013, seven new vehicles were integrated with the fleet, namely five Vehixel Cytios 4/44, two Mercedes-Benz Citaro K BHNS; the total fleet is composed of a Renault Master B.20, 5 Vehixel Cytios 4/44, 2 Mercedes-Benz Citaro K BHNS, two Van Hool A320, five Heuliez GX 317, a Heuliez GX 327. A new vehicle wrapping campaign is underway, the yellow livery will disappear in favour of a red livery.
Added to this, a campaign of improving vehicle facilities, to meet the new standards of accessibility of public transit, including on-board announcements and scrolling banners. The old Renault PR 100.2 and Renault PR112 were scrapped. The commune is associated with the departmental public buses by the lines: 001: Cherbourg-Octeville - Valognes - Carentan - Saint-Lô 002: Coutances - Marigny - Saint-Lô 109: Saint-Lô - Periers 113: Villedieu-les-Poêles - Saint-Lô 117: Guilberville - Torigni - Saint-Lô 303: Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët - Vire - Saint-Lô - Lison 304: Brécey - Villedieu-les-Poêles - Saint-Lô - Lison Despite its status of prefecture, there is no airfield in the vicinity of the town; the nearest is that of Lessay, for an airport, to join that of Caen-Carpiquet, Cherbourg-Maupertus or Rennes - Saint-Jacques. Inland waterway transport on the Vire once existed with scows ensuring the transport of tangue, it is due to lack of maintenance of the various equipment and the Vire. Saint
Lockheed F-94 Starfire
The Lockheed F-94 Starfire was a first-generation jet aircraft of the United States Air Force. It was developed from the twin-seat Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star in the late 1940s as an all-weather, day/night interceptor; the aircraft reached operational service in May 1950 with Air Defense Command, replacing the piston-engined North American F-82 Twin Mustang in the all-weather interceptor role. The F-94 was the first operational USAF fighter equipped with an afterburner and was the first jet-powered all-weather fighter to enter combat during the Korean War in January 1953, it had a brief operational life, being replaced in the mid-1950s by the Northrop F-89 Scorpion and North American F-86D Sabre. The last aircraft left active-duty service in 1958 and Air National Guard service in 1959. Built to a 1948 USAF specification for a radar-equipped interceptor to replace the aging F-61 Black Widow and North American F-82 Twin Mustang, it was designed to counter the threat of the USSR's new Tupolev Tu-4 bombers.
The Curtiss-Wright XF-87 Blackhawk had been designated to be the USAF first jet night fighter, but its performance was subpar, Lockheed was asked to design a jet night fighter on a crash program basis. The F-94 was derived from the TF-80C, a two-seat trainer version of the F-80 Shooting Star. A lengthened nose area with guns and automatic fire control system was added. Since the conversion seemed so simple, a contract was awarded to Lockheed in early 1949, with the first flight on 16 April 1949; the early test YF-94s used 75 % of the parts used in T-33As. The fire control system was the Hughes E-1, which incorporated an AN/APG-33 radar and a Sperry A-1C computing gunsight; this short-range radar system was useful only in the terminal phases of the interception. Most of the operation would be directed using ground-controlled interception, as was the case with the earlier aircraft it replaced; the added weight of the electronic equipment required a more powerful engine, so the standard J-33 turbojet engine, fitted to the T-33A, was replaced with an afterburning Allison J33-A-33.
The combination reduced the internal fuel capacity. The F-94 was to be the first US production jet with an afterburner; the J33-A-33 had standard thrust of 4,000 pounds-force, with water injection this was increased to 5,400 lbf and with afterburning a maximum of 6,000 lbf thrust. The YF-94A's afterburner had many teething problems with its igniter and the flame stabilization system; the initial production model was the F-94A, which entered operational service in May 1950. Its armament was four 0.50 in M3 Browning machine guns mounted in the fuselage with the muzzles exiting just behind the radome. Two 165-US-gallon drop tanks, as carried by the F-80 and T-33, could be carried beneath the wingtips. Alternatively, these could be replaced by 1,000-pound bombs, giving the aircraft a secondary fighter bomber role. 109 were produced. The F-94A was in operational service for only a brief time as it was built, was not received well by its aircrews; this was due to the unreliability of its J33 engine, which caused many ground aborts and was deemed by the crews to be unsafe.
The aircraft was judged as hard to maneuver at high altitude by its pilots. The pilot and radar operator found that the cockpit was too narrow for them to be able to get in and out of the aircraft during alerts and scrambles; the clearance for the ejection seats was too small, resulting in several tragic accidents during emergency ejections. The subsequent F-94B, which entered service in January 1951, was outwardly identical to the F-94A; the Allison J33 turbojet had a number of modifications made, which made it a reliable engine. 356 of these were built. It proved in service to be a reliable aircraft with few problems; as they replaced the F-94As in service with the active-duty squadrons, the older models were sent to Lockheed to be re-engined and modified to F-94B standards. These upgraded F-94A/B aircraft were modified with a pod under each wing for two additional 0.50 in machine guns, bringing the total to eight. These aircraft were passed along to Air National Guard units where they served until the end of the 1950s.
The F-94C Starfire was extensively modified from the early F-94 variants. In fact, it was designated F-97, but it was decided to treat it as a new version of the F-94. USAF interest was lukewarm, so Lockheed funded development themselves, converting two F-94B airframes to YF-94C prototypes for evaluation. To improve performance, a new, much thinner wing was designed, along with a swept tail surface; the J33 engine was replaced with a more powerful Pratt & Whitney J48, a license-built version of the afterburning Rolls-Royce Tay, which increased power, producing a dry thrust of 6,350 pounds-force and 8,750 lbf with afterburning. The fire control system was upgraded to the new Hughes E-5 with an AN/APG-40 radar in a much larger nose; the guns were removed and replaced with all-rocket armament consisting of four groups of six rockets in a ring around the nose. The rockets were carried in four panels that could be hinged upwards and outwards for ground reloading. In flight these rockets were hidden aft of four fold-in doors that folded inwards for combat.
According to Lockheed test pilot Ton