Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee name, the Two Ladies name; the Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the people; the pharaoh thus deputised for the gods. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, defended Egypt from invaders as the commander-in-chief of the army. Religiously, the pharaoh chose the sites of new temples, he was responsible for maintaining Maat, or cosmic order and justice, part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others when it was believed that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources.
During the early days prior to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Deshret or the "Red Crown", was a representation of the Kingdom of Lower Egypt, while the Hedjet, the "White Crown", was worn by the kings of the kingdom of upper Egypt. After the unification of both kingdoms into one united Egypt, the Pschent, the combination of both the red and white crowns was the official crown of kings. With time new headdresses were introduced during different dynasties like the Khat, Atef, Hemhem crown, Khepresh. At times, it was depicted that a combination of these crowns would be worn together; the word pharaoh derives from the Egyptian compound pr ꜥꜣ, /ˌpaɾuwˈʕaʀ/ "great house", written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and ꜥꜣ "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ꜥꜣ "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the Twelfth Dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, May it Live, be in Health", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.
Sometime during the era of the New Kingdom, Second Intermediate Period, pharaoh became the form of address for a person, king. The earliest confirmed instance where pr ꜥꜣ is used to address the ruler is in a letter to Akhenaten, addressed to "Great House, L, W, H, the Lord". However, there is a possibility that the title pr ꜥꜣ was applied to Thutmose III, depending on whether an inscription on the Temple of Armant can be confirmed to refer to that king. During the Eighteenth Dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late Twenty-first Dynasty, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as as ḥm, "Majesty"; the term, evolved from a word referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler by the Twenty-Second Dynasty and Twenty-third Dynasty.
For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun; this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the Twenty-second Dynasty kings. For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is dated to Year 5 of king "Pharaoh Shoshenq, beloved of Amun", whom all Egyptologists concur was Shoshenq I—the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty—including Alan Gardiner in his original 1933 publication of this stela. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives. By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced * whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Koine Greek: Φερων. In the Hebrew Bible, the title occurs as Hebrew: פרעה.
Pharaō, in Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Qur'an spells it Arabic: فرعون firʿawn with n; the Arabic combines the original ayin from Egyptian along with the -n ending from Greek. In English, it was at first spelled "Pharao", but the translators of the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile, in Egypt itself, * evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ pərro and ərro by mistaking p- as the definite article "the". Other notable epithets are nswt, translated to "king". Sceptres and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were known to carry a staff, Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff; the scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre, sometimes described as the shepherd's crook. The earli
16th century BC
The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC. 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests. 1601 BC: Sharma-Adad II became the King of Assyria. C. 1600 BC: The creation of one of the oldest surviving astronomical documents, a copy of, found in the Babylonian library of Ashurbanipal: a 21-year record of the appearances of Venus: Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa. C. 1600 BC: The date of the earliest discovered rubber balls. C. 1600 BC: Early Mycenaean culture: weapons, Cyclopaean walls, chariots. C. 1600 BC: Unetice culture ends in Czech Republic, eastern Europe Development of the windmill in Persia. Unetice culture. 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I. c. 1595 BC: The overthrow of the ruling Amorite dynasty in Aleppo, Syria. 1570 BC: Cretan palaces at Knossos and other centres flourish despite disasters. 1567 BC: Egypt: End of Fifteenth Dynasty, end of Sixteenth Dynasty, end of Seventeenth Dynasty, start of Eighteenth Dynasty. 1556 BC: Cecrops I builds or rebuilds Athens following the great flood of Deucalion and the end of the Golden age.
He becomes the first of several Kings of Athens whose life account is considered part of Greek mythology. 1556 BC: Shang Dynasty of China established *. C. 1550 BC: The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization. 1550 BC: End of Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Eighteenth Dynasty upon the coronation of Ahmose I. 1530 BC: End of the First Dynasty of Babylon and the start of the Kassite Dynasty—see History of Iraq. 1525 BC: End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt. C. 1512 BC: The flood of Deucalion, according to O'Flaherty, Augustine and Isidore. 1506 BC: Cecrops I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 50 years. Having survived his own son, he is succeeded by Cranaus. 1504 BC: Egypt started to conquer Nubia and the Levant. C. 1500 BC: Many scholars date early parts of the Rig Veda to the 16th century. C. 1500 BC: Queen Hatsheput in Egypt. C. 1500 BC: The element Mercury has been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating from this decade.
C. 1500 BC: Settlers from Crete, Greece move to Miletus, Turkey. C. 1500 BC: Early traces of Maya civilization developing in Belize. C. 1500 BC: The Phoenicians develop an alphabet—see Timeline of communication technology. C. 1500 BC: Indo-Aryan migration is dated to the 17th to 16th centuries. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical. Tang of Shang, first ruler of Shang Dynasty, ruled China for 29 years since 1600 BC according to the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project. Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt. Ahmose I, Pharaoh and founder of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. Hatshepsut, first female Pharaoh of Egypt c.1473 BC See: List of sovereign states in the 16th century BC
Timeline of İzmir
Below is a sequence of some of the events that affected the history of the city of İzmir. İzmir in 19th century European art Images of cosmopolitan 19th century İzmir Timelines of other cities in Turkey: Ankara, Istanbul Published in the 19th centuryWilliam Hunter, "Letter XI", Travels through France and Hungary, to Vienna, in 1792, London: Printed for J. White... by T. Bensley... OCLC 10321359 Josiah Conder, "Smyrna", Syria and Asia Minor, London: James Duncan, OCLC 8888382Published in the 20th centuryWratislaw. "Smyrna in the 17th Century". Blackwood's Magazine
15th century BC
The 15th century BC is a century which lasted from 1500 BC to 1401 BC. 1504 BC – 1492 BC: Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant. 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Rigveda was composed around this time. 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Battle of the Ten Kings took place around this time. 1500 BC: Coalescence of a number of cultural traits including undecorated pottery, megalithic burials, millet-bean-rice agriculture indicate the beginning of the Mumun Pottery Period in the Korean peninsula. C. 1490 BC: Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha. 1487 BC: Amphictyon, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha and legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 10 years and is succeeded by Erichthonius I of Athens, a grandson of Cranaus. C. 1480 BC: Queen Hatshepsut succeeded by her stepson and nephew Thutmosis III. Period of greatest Egyptian expansion. C. 1469 BC: In the Battle of Megiddo, Egypt defeats Canaan. C. 1460 BC: The Kassites overrun Babylonia and found a dynasty there that lasts for 576 years and nine months.
1437 BC: Legendary King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion I. 1430 BC – 1160 BC: Hittite New Kingdom established. 1430 BC – 1178 BC: Beginning of Hittite empire. C. 1420 BC: Crete conquered by Mycenae—start of the Mycenaean period. First Linear B tablets. 1400 BC: In Crete the use of bronze helmets. 1400 BC: Palace of Minos destroyed by fire. C. 1400 BC: Linear A reaches its peak of popularity. C. 1400 BC: The height of the Canaanite town of Ugarit. Royal Palace of Ugarit is built. Myceneans conquers border of Anatolia; the Tumulus culture flourishes. Earliest traces of Olmec civilization. Hatshepsut of Egypt, female Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty Thutmose III of Egypt, Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt The Shang Dynasty Chinese capital city at Ao had massive defensive walls of 20 metres in width at the base and enclosed an area of some 2,100 square yards. See: List of sovereign states in the 15th century BC
Gojoseon named Joseon, was an ancient kingdom on the Korean Peninsula. The addition of Go, meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the Joseon kingdom. According to the Samguk Yusa, Gojoseon was established in 2333 BC by Dangun, said to be the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman. Though Dangun is a mythological figure for whom no concrete evidence has been found, the account has played an important role in developing Korean identity. Today, the founding date of Gojoseon is celebrated as the National Foundation Day in North Korea and South Korea; some of the same sources relate that in the 12th century BC Gija, a man from the Shang dynasty of China, immigrated to Gojoseon and founded Gija Joseon. However, somewhat similar to the case of Dangun, the evidence for Gija Joseon is lacking and the narrative has been challenged since the 20th century. Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BC. During its early phase, the capital of Gojoseon was located in Liaoning.
In 108 BC, the Han dynasty of China conquered Wiman Joseon. The Han established four commanderies to administer the Gojoseon territory; the area was conquered by Goguryeo in 313 AD. There are three different main founding myths concerning Gojoseon, which revolve around Dangun, Gija, or Wi Man; the myths revolving around Dangun were recorded in the much-later Korean work Samguk Yusa of the 13th century. This work states that Dangun, the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman, founded Gojoseon in 2333 BC, only to be succeeded by Gija after King Wu of Zhou had placed him onto the throne in 1122 BC. A similar account is found in Jewang Ungi. According to the legend, the Lord of Heaven, Hwanin had a son, who descended to Baekdu Mountain and founded the city of Shinsi. A bear and a tiger came to Hwanung and said that they wanted to become people. Hwuanung said to them that if they went in a cave and lived there for 100 days while only eating mugwort and garlic he will change them into human beings.
However, about halfway through the 100 days the tiger ran out of the cave. On the other hand, the bear restrained herself and became a beautiful woman called Ungnyeo. Hwanung married Ungnyeo, she gave birth to Dangun. While the Dangun story is considered to be a myth, it is believed it is a mythical synthesis of a series of historical events relating to the founding of Gojoseon. There are various theories on the origin of this myth. Seo and Kang believe the Dangun myth is based on integration of two different tribes, an invasive sky-worshipping Bronze Age tribe and a native bear-worshipping neolithic tribe, that led to the foundation of Gojoseon. Lee K. B. believes. Dangun is said to have founded Gojoseon around 2333 BC, based on the descriptions of the Samgungnyusa, Jewang Ungi, Dongguk Tonggam and the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty; the date differs among historical sources, although all of them put it during the mythical Emperor Yao's reign. Samgungnyusa says Dangun ascended to the throne in the 50th year of the legendary Yao's reign, Annals of the King Sejong says the first year, Dongguk Tonggam says the 25th year.
Gija, a man from the period of the Shang dynasty fled to the Korean peninsula in 1122 BC during the fall of the Shang to the Zhou dynasty and founded Gija Joseon. Most experts believe Gija's relation to Gojoseon is a Chinese fabrication and Gija has nothing to do with Gojoseon. In the past, the earliest surviving Chinese record, Records of the Three Kingdoms, recognized Gija Joseon; the Dongsa Gangmok of 1778 described Gija's contributions in Gojoseon. The records of Gija refer to Eight Prohibitions, that are recorded by the Book of Han and evidence a hierarchical society and legal protection of private property. In pre-modern Korea, Gija represented the authenticating presence of Chinese civilization, until the 12th century, Koreans believed that Dangun bestowed upon Korea its people and basic culture, while Gija gave Korea its high culture—and standing as a legitimate civilisation. However, in the modern era Gija's place has diminished to the point of near extinction. Many experts deny its existence for various reasons due to contradicting archaeological evidence and anachronistic historical evidence.
They point to the Bamboo Annals and the Analects of Confucius, which were among the first works to mention Gija, but do not mention his migration to Gojoseon. The myth that Gija migrated to Korea is believed to have been made up by Han Dynasty in order to justify its conquest of Korea. Wi Man was a military officer of the Yan state of northeastern China, who fled to the northern Korean peninsula in 195 BC from the encroaching Han dynasty, he founded a principality with Wanggeom-seong as capital, thought to be on the region of present-day Pyongyang. The 3rd-century Chinese text Weilüe of the Sanguozhi recorded that Wiman usurped King Jun and thus took kingship over Gojoseon Gojoseon history can be divided into three phases, Dangun and Wiman Joseon. Kang & Macmillan, Sohn et al. Kim J. B. Han W. K. Yun N. H. Lee K. B. Lee J. B. viewed the Dangun myth as a native product of proto-Koreans, although it is not always associated with Gojoseon. Kim J. B. rejected the Dangun myth's association with Gojoseon and pushes it further back to the Neolithic period.
Sohn et al. su
14th century BC
The 14th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 1400 BC until 1301 BC. 1397 BC: Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens. 1390 BC: In Mesopotamia, emergence of the Assyrians as an independent power. 1385 BC: Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt marries Tiy, his Chief Queen. 1380 BC: Amenhotep III connects the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal. 1372 BC: The Hittites conquer all of the Kingdom of Mitanni west of the Euphrates. 1357 BC: Danish Egtvedpigen is buried. 1347 BC: King Erechtheus II is killed by lightning after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his younger brother Cecrops II. 1346 BC: Pharaoh Amenhotep IV of Egypt begins his Cult of Aten and begins construction of Amarna intended to be his new capital. 1345 BC: Amenhotep IV renames himself Akhenaten. 1336 BC: Akhenaten names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler. C. 1334 BC: Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten and wife of his predecessor Akhenaton.
1331 BC: Tutankhaten renames himself to Tutankhamun and abandons Amarna, returning the capital to Thebes. 1324 BC: Pharaoh Ay is crowned king of Egypt 1320 BC: Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty. C. 1310 BC: The Bhagavad Gita is written, according to some Hindu traditions. 1309–1300 BC: Cecrops II, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion II. Pandion II was driven into exile from Athens by the sons of Cecrops II's brother Metion, so that Metion could take power. Pandion II fled to Megara, where he married the King's daughter and inherited the throne. After his death, Pandion II's sons drove out the sons of Metion. 1307 BC: Adad-nirari I becomes king of Assyria. 1300 BC: The legendary King Pan Geng moved the capital of Shang Dynasty to Yin. c. 1300 BC: Rise of the Urnfield culture. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical.
1398 BC—Birth of Tiy to Egyptian nobleman Yuya and his wife Tjuyu. She becomes the Chief Queen of Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt and the matriarch of the Amarna family..1391 BC—Possible Birth of Prophet Moses 1391 BC—Pharaoh Amenhotep III started to rule. 1368 BC—Death of Erichthonius, mythical King of Dardania. 1366 BC—Birth of Princess Tadukhipa to Tusratta, King of Mitanni and his Queen Juni. She will be married to Amenhotep III and after his death to his son and heir Amenhotep IV Akhenaton, she is variously identified with Kiya. 1365 BC—Ashur-uballit I rises to the throne of Assyria. 1362 BC—Birth of the Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton to Amenhotep III and his Queen Tiy. 1350 BC—Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to the throne of Egypt. 1341 BC/1340 BC—Birth of Tutankhaten Pharaoh of Egypt as Tutankhamun. 1338 BC—Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen of Amenhotep III and matriarch of the Amarna family, vanishes from the historical record. Presumed death. 1337 BC—Queen Nefertiti of Egypt vanishes from the historical record.
Presumed death. 1334 BC/1333 BC—Death of Smenkhkare, Pharaoh of Egypt and co-ruler with Akhenaton. 1334 BC/1333 BC—Death of Akhenaton, Pharaoh of Egypt. 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt. 1320 BC—Birth of Pharaoh Ramses II of Egypt. 1300s BC—Seti I of Egypt. 1300s BC—Pan Geng of China. Suppiluliuma I, king of the Hittites. See: List of sovereign states in the 14th century BC
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. The Eighteenth Dynasty spanned the period from 1549/1550 to 1292 BC; this dynasty is known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose. Several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs were from the Eighteenth Dynasty, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. Other famous pharaohs of the dynasty include Hatshepsut, the longest-reigning woman pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, Akhenaten, the "heretic pharaoh", with his Great Royal Wife, Nefertiti; the Eighteenth Dynasty is unique among Egyptian dynasties in that it had two women who ruled as sole pharaoh: Hatshepsut, regarded as one of the most innovative rulers of ancient Egypt, Neferneferuaten identified as the iconic Nefertiti. Dynasty XVIII was founded by Ahmose I, the brother or son of Kamose, the last ruler of the 17th Dynasty. Ahmose finished the campaign to expel the Hyksos rulers.
His reign is seen as the start of the New Kingdom. Ahmose was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep I, whose reign was uneventful. Amenhotep I left no male heir and the next pharaoh, Thutmose I, seems to have been related to the royal family through marriage. During his reign the borders of Egypt's empire reached their greatest expanse, extending in the north to Carchemish on the Euphrates and in the south up to Kurgus beyond the fourth cataract of the Nile. Thutmose I was succeeded by Thutmose II and his queen, the daughter of Thutmose I. After her husband's death and a period of regency for her minor stepson Hatshepsut became pharaoh in her own right and ruled for over twenty years. Thutmose III, who became known as the greatest military pharaoh also had a lengthy reign after becoming pharaoh, he had a second co-regency in his old age with his son Amenhotep II. Amenhotep II was succeeded by Thutmose IV, who in his turn was followed by his son Amenhotep III, whose reign is seen as a high point in this dynasty.
Amenhotep III undertook large scale building programmes, the extent of which can only be compared with those of the much longer reign of Ramesses II during Dynasty XIX. Amenhotep III may have shared the throne for up to twelve years with his son Amenhotep IV. There is much debate about this proposed co-regency, with different experts considering that there was a lengthy co-regency, a short one, or none at all. In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and moved his capital to Amarna, which he named Akhetaten. During the reign of Akhenaten, the Aten became, the most prominent deity, came to be considered the only god. Whether this amounted to true monotheism continues to be the subject of debate within the academic community; some state that Akhenaten created a monotheism, while others point out that he suppressed a dominant solar cult by the assertion of another, while he never abandoned several other traditional deities. Egyptians considered this "Amarna Period" an unfortunate aberration.
The events following Akhenaten's death are unclear. Individuals named Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten are known but their relative placement and role in history is still much debated. Tutankhamun took the throne but died young; the last two members of the Eighteenth Dynasty—Ay and Horemheb—became rulers from the ranks of officials in the royal court, although Ay might have been the maternal uncle of Akhenaten as a fellow descendant of Yuya and Tjuyu. Ay may have married the widowed Great Royal Wife and young half-sister of Tutankhamun, Ankhesenamun, in order to obtain power. Ay married Tey, Nefertiti's wet-nurse. Ay's reign was short, his successor was Horemheb, a general during Tutankhamun's reign whom the childless pharaoh may have intended as his successor. Horemheb may have taken the throne away from Ay in a coup. Horemheb died childless, having appointed his successor, Ramesses I, who ascended the throne in 1292 BC and was the first pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty; this example to the right depicts a man named Ay who achieved the exalted religious positions of Second Prophet of Amun and High Priest of Mut at Thebes.
His career flourished during the reign of Tutankhamun. The cartouches of King Ay, Tutankhamun's successor appearing on the statue, were an attempt by an artisan to "update" the sculpture. Radiocarbon dating suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC; the radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of, 1557 BC. The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for two hundred and fifty years; the dates and names in the table are taken from Hilton. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Several diplomatic marriages are known for the New Kingdom; these daughters of foreign kings are only mentioned in cuneiform texts and are not known from other sources. The marriages were to have been a way to confirm good relations between these states. Egyptian chronology Kuhrt, Amélie; the Ancient Near East: c. 3000–330 BC. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415013536.
Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh, an exhibition catalog from The