1462 Zamenhof

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1462 Zamenhof
Discovery [1]
Discovered by Y. Väisälä
Discovery site Turku Obs.
Discovery date 6 February 1938
MPC designation (1462) Zamenhof
Named after
L. L. Zamenhof[2]
(creator of Esperanto)
1938 CA · 1963 TS
1964 VF2 · 1969 TU5
main-belt · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 53.72 yr (19,623 days)
Aphelion 3.4958 AU
Perihelion 2.8032 AU
3.1495 AU
Eccentricity 0.1100
5.59 yr (2,042 days)
0° 10m 34.68s / day
Inclination 0.9657°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 25.62 km (derived)[3]
25.91±0.55 km[5]
26.57±0.52 km[6]
27.366±0.166 km[7]
27.645±0.395 km[8]
10.2±0.6 h[9]
10.4±0.1 h[10]
0.0891 (derived)[3]
C (assumed)[3]
10.80[6][8] · 11.20[1][3][5] · 11.31±0.32[11]

1462 Zamenhof, provisional designation 1938 CA, is a carbonaceous Themistian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 27 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 6 February 1938, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at the Iso-Heikkilä Observatory in Finland.[12] The asteroid was named after L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto.[2] It is a recognized Zamenhof-Esperanto object.

Orbit and classification[edit]

Zamenhof is a Themistian asteroid that belongs to the Themis family (602),[4] a very large family of carbonaceous asteroids, named after 24 Themis.[13]:23 It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.8–3.5 AU once every 5 years and 7 months (2,042 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 1° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins at the discovering observatory, one month prior to its official discovery observation.[12]

Physical characteristics[edit]

The Lightcurve Data Base assumes Zamenhof to be a common, carbonaceous C-type asteroid,[3] in agreement with the overall spectral type of the Themis family.[13]:23

Rotation period[edit]

Two rotational lightcurves of Zamenhof were obtained from photometric observations in 2006 and 2011. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 10.2 and 10.4 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.15 and 0.30 magnitude, respectively (U=2/2).[9][10]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Zamenhof measures between 25.91 and 27.645 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.087 and 0.121.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0891 and a diameter of 25.62 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.2.[3]


This minor planet was named after L. L. Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and creator of Esperanto, a constructed international language.[2] This asteroid and 1421 Esperanto are considered to be the most remote Zamenhof-Esperanto objects (a monument or a place celebrating Zamenhof). The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 1350).[14]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1462 Zamenhof (1938 CA)" (2017-07-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1462) Zamenhof. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 117. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1462) Zamenhof". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  7. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1462) Zamenhof". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Menke, John; Cooney, Walt; Gross, John; Terrell, Dirk; Higgins, David (October 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Menke Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 155–160. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..155M. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  11. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  12. ^ a b "1462 Zamenhof (1938 CA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 

External links[edit]