The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
Bunmei was a Japanese era name after Ōnin and before Chōkyō. This period spanned from April 1469 through July 1487; the reigning emperor was Go-Tsuchimikado-tennō. 1469 Bunmei gannen: The era name was changed to mark an event or a number of events. The old era ended and a new one commenced in Ōnin 3. 1468: Ichijō Kaneyoshi was relieved of his duties as kampaku at age 69. January 18, 1471: The former Emperor Go-Hanazono died at age 52. April 16, 1473: Yamana Sōzen died at age 70. 1478: The philosopher Ichijō Kanera published Bunmei ittō-ki which deals with political ethics and six points about the duties of a prince. February 21, 1482: Construction of Ashikaga Yoshimasa's Silver Pavilion commenced. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Yoshimasa and the Silver Pavilion: The Creation of the Soul of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13056-1. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.
OCLC 5850691 National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
Homo rudolfensis is an extinct species of the Hominini tribe, on the morphological boundary between the genera Homo and Australopithecus. Its oldest fossil is dated to 2.4 million years ago, at the beginning of the Pleistocene, with the possible exception of the LD 350-1 representing the oldest fossil evidence of the emergence of archaic humans from their australopithecine ancestors. H. rudolfensis is known only through a handful of representative fossils, the first of, discovered by Bernard Ngeneo, a member of a team led by anthropologist Richard Leakey and zoologist Meave Leakey in 1972, at Koobi Fora on the east side of Lake Rudolf in Kenya. It remains an open question whether the fossil evidence is sufficient for postulating a separate species, if so whether this species should be classified within the genus Homo or genus Australopithecus, if as Homo, whether it should be subsumed under Homo habilis, or a morphologically diverse species Homo erectus; the fossil KNM-ER 1470 was the center of much debate concerning its species.
The skull was at first incorrectly dated at nearly three million years old, predating the Homo habilis species. Since the estimate has been corrected to 1.9 million years, but the differences in this skull, when compared to others of the Homo habilis species, are said to be too pronounced, leading to the presumption of a Homo rudolfensis species, contemporary with Homo habilis. It is not certain whether H. rudolfensis, H. habilis or some, as of yet undiscovered, third species was ancestral to the Homo line. In March 2007, a team led by Timothy Bromage, an anthropologist at New York University, reconstructed the skull of KNM-ER 1470; the new construction looked ape-like and the cranial capacity based on the new construction was reported to be downsized from 752 cm³ to about 526 cm³, although this seemed to be a matter of some controversy. Bromage said his team's reconstruction included biological knowledge not known at the time of the skull's discovery, of the precise relationship between the sizes of eyes and mouth in mammals.
A newer publication by Bromage has since increased the cranial capacity estimate back up, from 526 cm³ to 700 cm³. The UR 501 fossil, or Uraha jawbone, was discovered in 1991 near Malawi, it is a well-preserved jawbone assigned to Homo habilis, dated to c. 2.4 Ma. In August 2012, a team led by Meave Leakey published an academic paper in Nature announcing three additional H. rudolfensis fossils from northern Kenya had been found: two jawbones with teeth and a face. The face was of a juvenile, but had features in common with KNM-ER 1470, suggesting that the latter skull's uniqueness is due to being a separate species, rather than a large male H. habilis. Team member Fred Spoor described the face as "incredibly flat", with a straight line from the eye socket to the incisor tooth; the jawbones, which appeared to match KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 62000, were shorter and more rectangular than known H. habilis specimens. The fossils were dated to about two million years ago. According to Leakey et al. "the new fossils confirm the presence of two contemporary species of early Homo, in addition to Homo erectus, in the early Pleistocene of eastern Africa".
Lee Rogers Berger, called the argument "weak", proposed the finds be compared to other possibilities, such as Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus sediba. Tim D. White of the University of California challenged the findings, asking, "How can practitioners in this field expect to be able to identify fossil species based upon a few teeth and lower faces in light of what we know about the great variation found among different individuals in a single living species?" Leakey replied, "I would challenge Tim to find any primate in which you would see the same degrees of variation as those that we are seeing between our new fossils and KNM-ER 1802". KNM-ER 1802 is a lower-jaw fossil, thought to be of a Homo rudolfensis. Given the difference between this fossil and the ones found in 2012, Leakey has proposed that the fossil is not of a H. rudolfensis, but of a H. sapiens. Bernard Wood considers that it is "perfectly possible" that there were interactions between these different species; the scientific name Pithecanthropus rudolfensis was proposed in 1986 by V. P. Alekseyev.
Comparisons between fossil OH 24, recognized as a Homo habilis skull discovered by Peter Nzube, along with the female H. habilis fossil KNM ER 1813, KNM-ER 1470 have brought much controversy as to whether H. rudolfensis and H. habilis should be classified as two separate species or lumped together into H. habilis. When compared to other older H. habilis fossils like OH 24, the mandible and jaw of ER 1470 do not fit within the limits of variation of H. habilis. KNM-ER 1470 displays less prognathism and a rounder brain case. After much debate, but no clear settlement, fossil KNM ER 1813 was found in 1973 by Kamoya Kimeu, which helped settle some disputes regarding the H. habilis and H. rudolfensis species. When compared to ER 1813, ER 1470 manifests a larger braincase ranging from 750-800ml. If sexual dimorphism were considered, the size difference in the mandible and teeth would be too great compared to KNM-ER 1813. Fossil KNM-ER 1470, a male H. rudolfensis, has massive teeth in comparison to the female H. habilis fossil KNM-ER 1813 and portrays a much larger brain case than KNM-ER 1813.
When KNM-ER 1813 and KNM-ER 1470 are compare
Vikram Samvat. It uses solar sidereal years; the Vikram Samvat is notable because many medieval era inscriptions use it. It is said to be named after the legendary king Vikramaditya, but the term "Vikrama Samvat" does not appear in the historical records before the 9th century, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krita and Malava. In the colonial era scholarship, the era was believed to be based on the commemoration of King Vikramaditya expelling the Sakas from Ujjain; however epigraphical evidence and scholarship suggest that this theory has no historical basis and likely was an error. Starting in the 9th century and thereafter, epigraphical artwork uses Vikrama-Samvat, suggesting that sometime around the 9th-century, the Hindu calendar era, in use became popular as Vikram Samvat, while Buddhist and Jain epigraphy continued to use an era based on the Buddha or the Mahavira. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas.
Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the following account: Gandharvasena, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati, the sister of the monk. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. Despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated; the defeated king retired to the forest. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana. On, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away from the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the "Vikrama era"; the Ujjain calendar started around 58–56 BCE, the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE; the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era "Vikrama" is from 842 CE.
This inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE; the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. For this reason, multiple authors believe that the Vikram Samvat was not started by Vikramaditya, who might be a purely legendary king or the title adopted by a king who renamed the era after himself. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, changed the name of the era to "Vikrama Samvat". According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the king responsible for this change was Yashodharman: Hoernlé believed that he conquered Kashmir, is the same person as the "Harsha Vikramaditya" mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Earlier, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes.
However, this was disputed by Robert Bracey following the discovery of an inscription of Vijayamitra, dated in two eras. The theory seems to be now discredited by Falk and Bennett, who place the inception of the Azes era in 47–46 BCE; the traditional New Year of Vikram Samvat is one of the many festivals of Nepal, marked by parties, family gatherings, the exchange of good wishes, participation in rituals to ensure good fortune in the coming year. It occurs in mid-April each year, coincides with the traditional new year in Assam, Burma, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand. In addition to Nepal, the Vikram Samvat calendar is recognized in North and East India, in Gujarat among Hindus. Hindu religious festivals are based on a Luni-Solar calendar, not Solar calendar, based on Vikram Samvat. In North India, the new year in Vikram Samvat starts from the first day of Chaitra Skukla paksha. In Buddhist communities, the month of Baishakh is associated with Buddha's Birthday, it commemorates the birth and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June.
Although this festival is not held on the same day as Pahela Baishakh, the holidays fall in the same month of the Bengali and Theravada Buddhist calendars, are related through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent. In Gujarat, the day after Diwali is celebrated as the first day of the Vikram Samvat calendar, the first day of the month Kartik; the Vikrami era is an ancient calendar and has been used by Hindus and Sikhs. It is one of the several regional Hindu calendars that have been in use on the Indian subcontinent, it is based on twelve synodical lunar months and 365 solar days; the lunar new year starts on the new moon in the month of Chaitra. This day, known as Chaitra Sukhladi, is a restricted holiday in India; the Vikrami Samvat has been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, remains in use by the Hindus in north, w
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. During this period and natural disasters ravaged both Europe and the four khanates of the Mongol Empire; the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed in Persia, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe. In Europe, the Black Death claimed between 75 and 200 million lives – wiping out over 60 percent of European society – while England and France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England; this period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France. The transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Beginning of the Ottoman Empire, early expansion into the Balkans.
Early 14th century: Attributed to Kao Ninga Monk Sewing is made. Kamakura period, it is now kept at The Cleveland Museum of Art. An account of Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by Saint John of Damascus and circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, became so popular that the two were venerated as saints. Singapore emerges for the first time as a fortified trading centre of some importance. Islam reaches Terengganu, on the Malay Peninsula; the Hausa found several city-states in the south of modern Niger. The poet Petrarch coins the term Dark Ages to describe the preceding 900 years in Europe, beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 through to the renewal embodied in the Renaissance. Iwan vault, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Persia, is built. Work begins on the Great Enclosure at Great Zimbabwe, built of dressed stone; the city's population is now between 10,000 and 40,000. 1309 — King Jayanegara succeeds Kertarajasa Jayawardhana as ruler of Majapahit. 1309-1377 — The Avignon papacy transfers the seat of the Popes from Italy to France The Great Famine of 1315-1317 kills millions of people in Europe.
1318-1330 — An Italian Franciscan friar, Mattiussi visited Sumatra and Banjarmasin in Borneo. In his record he described the kingdom of Majapahit. 1320 — Władysław I the Elbow-high is crowned King of Poland which leads to its unification 1323 — Malietoafaiga ordered cannibalism to be abolished in Tutuila, now known as American Samoa. 1325 — Forced out of previous locations, the Mexica found the city of Tenochtitlan 1328 — Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi succeeds Jayanegara as ruler of Majapahit. Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy 1335 — The death of the Ilkhan Abu Said, causes the disintegration of the Mongol rule in Persia. 1336 — The Vijayanagara Empire is founded in South India by Harihara 1337 — The Hundred Years' War begins when Edward III of England lays claim to the French throne. 1345–1346 — The French recruit troops and ships in Genoa and Nice. 1346 — English forces led by Edward III defeat a French army led by Philip VI in The Battle of Crécy, a major point in the Hundred Years' War which marks the rise of the longbow as a dominant weapon in Western Europe.
1347–1351 — The Black Death kills around a third of the population of Europe. 1347 — Adityawarman moved the capital of Dharmasraya and established the kingdom of Malayupura in Pagarruyung, West Sumatra. 1350 — Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara, succeeds Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi as ruler of Majapahit. Under its military commander Gajah Mada, Majapahit stretches over much of modern-day Indonesia. 1356 — The Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire headed by Emperor Charles IV issues the Golden Bull of 1356, establishing various constitutional aspects of the Empire, the most significant being the electoral college to elect future emperors. 1356 — The Diet of the Hansa is held in Lübeck, formalising what up until had only been a loose alliance of trading cities in northern Europe and founding the Hanseatic League. 1357 — Scotland retains its independence with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick, thus ending the Wars of Scottish Independence. 1357 — In the Battle of Bubat, the Sundanese royal family is massacred by the Majapahit army by the order of Gajah Mada.
1363 — The Battle of Lake Poyang, a naval conflict between Chinese rebel groups led by Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang, takes place from August to October, constituting one of the largest naval battles in history. 1365 — The Old Javanese text Nagarakertagama is written. 1366 — Tepanec Tlatoani Acolnahuácatl accepts Acamapichtli as the first tlatoani of Tenochtitlan for the Mexica Empire. 1368 — The end of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. 1377 — Majapahit sends a punitive expedition against Palembang in Sumatra. Palembang's prince, Parameswara flees finding his way to Malacca and establishing it as a major international port. 1378 — The Great Schism of the West begins leading to 3 simultaneous popes. 1378-1382 — Ciompi Revolt occurs in Florence 1381 — John Wycliffe is dismissed from the University of Oxford for criticism of the Roman Catholic Church thus, the Lollardy movement rises in England. 1381 — Peasants' Revolt in England. 1385 — Battle of Aljubarrota between Portugal and Castile.
Portugal maintains independence. 1385 — Union of Krewo between Poland and Lithuania. 1389 — Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottoman Turks, Prince Lazar, sultan Murat I and Miloš Obilić were killed. 1389 — Wikramawardhana succeeds Sri Rajasanagara as ruler of Majapahit. 1392 — Taejo
The 1490s decade ran from January 1, 1490, to December 31, 1499. January 4 – Anne of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the king of France, will be considered as guilty of the crime of Lèse-majesté. March 13 – Charles II becomes Duke of Savoy at age 1. March or April – 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, a presumed meteor shower or air burst over Qingyang in Ming dynasty China, said to have caused casualties. July 13 – John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church, Hrastovlje. November 20 – First edition of the chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch by Joanot Martorell printed in Valencia. December 19 – Anne of Brittany is married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy. Ashikaga Yoshitane becomes shōgun of Japan. Perkin Warbeck claims to be the son of King Edward IV of England, at the court of Burgundy. Traditional date of the Battle of Glendale between the Scottish clans MacLeod. Catholic missionaries arrive in the African Kingdom of Kongo. Pêro da Covilhã arrives in Ethiopia.
Regular postal service connects the Habsburg residences of Mechelen and Innsbruck, the first in Germany. Leonardo da Vinci observes capillary action, in small-bore tubes. Leonardo da Vinci develops an oil lamp: the flame is enclosed in a glass tube, placed inside a water-filled glass globe. All Saints' Church, the Schlosskirche in Wittenberg, is begun. Chinese scholar and printer Hua Sui invents bronze-metal movable type printing in China, although the earlier Wang Zhen had experimented with tin movable type in 1298, the Koreans had separately innovated bronze movable type. Tirant lo Blanch, by Joanot Martorell and Martí Joan de Galba, is published. Aldus Manutius moves to Venice. John Colet receives his M. A. from Magdalen College, Oxford. Johann Reuchlin meets Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. Merchants carry coffee from Yemen to Mecca. May 3 – The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, is baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I. September – Battle of Vrpile Gulch in southern Croatia: Forces of the Ottoman Empire are defeated by those of the Kingdom of Croatia.
November – The pretender Perkin Warbeck begins a campaign to take the English throne, with a landing in Ireland. November 7 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary sign the Peace of Pressburg, formally ending the Austrian–Hungarian War. November 16 – An auto-da-fé held in Brasero de la Dehesa concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia, with the execution of several Jewish and converso suspects. November 25 – Reconquista: The Granada War is brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Granada between the Catholic Monarchs of Spain and the Moorish Emirate of Granada. December 6 – King Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany, forcing her to break her marriage with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. December 21 – The Truce of Coldstream secures a five-year peace, between Scotland and England; the Bread and Cheese Revolt breaks out in North Holland. A major fire breaks out in Dresden.
In the Russian territory of Komi, annexed by Russia in 1478, copper and silver ores are discovered, the territory gains importance as a mining and metallurgical center. Nicolaus Copernicus enters the University of Kraków. January 2 – Fall of Granada: Muhammad XII, the last Emir of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of the Catholic Monarchs after a lengthy siege, ending the ten-year Granada War and the centuries-long Reconquista, bringing an end to 780 years of Muslim control in Al-Andalus. January 6 – Ferdinand and Isabella enter into Granada. January 15 – Christopher Columbus meets Ferdinand and Isabella at the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos in Córdoba and persuades them to support his Atlantic voyage intended to find a new route to the East Indies. January 16 – The first grammar of the Spanish language is presented to Queen Isabella I. January 23 – The Pentateuch is first printed. March 31 – Ferdinand and Isabella sign the Alhambra Decree, expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Roman Catholicism.
April 17 – The Capitulations of Santa Fe are signed between Christopher Columbus and the Crown of Castile, agreeing on arrangements for his forthcoming voyage. 8 June – Death of Elizabeth Woodville, the last living Yorkist queen. July 31 – The Jews are expelled from Spain. Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire, learning of this, dispatches the Ottoman Navy to bring the Jews safely to Ottoman lands to the cities of Thessaloniki and İzmir. August 3 – The Genoese navigator Christopher Columbus sails with three ships from Palos de la Frontera, in the service of the Crown of Castile, on his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, intending to reach Asia. August 11 – Pope Alexander VI succeeds Pope Innocent VIII as the 214th pope, after the 1492 papal conclave, the first held in the Sistine Chapel. September 6 – Christoper Columbus sails from La Gomera in the Canary Islands, his final port of call before crossing the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. October 3 – English army besieges Boulogne. October 11 – Several members of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus witness an unusual light.
October 12 – Christopher Columbus' expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean and lands on Guanahani, but he believes he has reached the East Indies. October 28 – Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba. November 3 – The Peace of Étaples is signed between England and France, ending French support