Thutmose I was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He received the throne after the death of the previous king, Amenhotep I. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than before, he built many temples in Egypt, a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings. He was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Thutmose II's sister, Hatshepsut, his reign is dated to 1506–1493 BC, but a minority of scholars—who think that astrological observations used to calculate the timeline of ancient Egyptian records, thus the reign of Thutmose I, were taken from the city of Memphis rather than from Thebes—would date his reign to 1526–1513 BC. It has been speculated Thutmose's father was Amenhotep I, his mother, was of non-royal parentage and may have been a lesser wife or concubine. Queen Ahmose, who held the title of Great Royal Wife of Thutmose, was the daughter of Ahmose I and the sister of Amenhotep I. Assuming she was related to Amenhotep, it could be thought that she was married to Thutmose in order to guarantee succession.
However, this is known not to be the case for two reasons. Firstly, Amenhotep's alabaster bark built at Karnak associates Amenhotep's name with Thutmose's name well before Amenhotep's death. Secondly, Thutmose's first-born son with Ahmose, was born long before Thutmose's coronation, he can be seen on a stela from Thutmose's fourth regnal year hunting near Memphis, he became the "great army-commander of his father" sometime before his death, no than Thutmose's own death in his 12th regnal year. Thutmose had another son and two daughters and Nefrubity, by Ahmose. Wadjmose died before his father, Nefrubity died as an infant. Thutmose had one son by Mutnofret; this son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to Hatshepsut. It was recorded by Hatshepsut that Thutmose willed the kingship to both Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. However, this is considered to be propaganda by Hatshepsut's supporters to legitimise her claim to the throne when she assumed power. A heliacal rising of Sothis was recorded in the reign of Thutmose's predecessor, Amenhotep I, dated to 1517 BC, assuming the observation was made at Thebes.
The year of Amenhotep's death and Thutmose's subsequent coronation can be accordingly derived, is dated to 1506 BC by most modern scholars. However, if the observation were made at either Heliopolis or Memphis, as a minority of scholars promote, Thutmose would have been crowned in 1526 BC. Manetho records that Thutmose I's reign lasted 12 Years and 9 Months as a certain Mephres in his Epitome; this data is supported by two dated inscriptions from Years 8 and 9 of his reign bearing his cartouche found inscribed on a stone block in Karnak. Accordingly, Thutmose is given a reign from 1506 BC to 1493 BC in the low chronology, but a minority of scholars would date him from 1526 BC to 1513 BC Upon Thutmose's coronation, Nubia rebelled against Egyptian rule. According to the tomb autobiography of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Thutmose traveled up the Nile and fought in the battle killing the Nubian king. Upon victory, he had the Nubian king's body hung from the prow of his ship, before he returned to Thebes.
After that campaign, he led a second expedition against Nubia in his third year in the course of which he ordered the canal at the first cataract—which had been built under Sesostris III of the 12th Dynasty—to be dredged in order to facilitate easier travel upstream from Egypt to Nubia. This helped integrate Nubia into the Egyptian empire; this expedition is mentioned in two separate inscriptions by the king's son Thure: Year 3, first month of the third season, day 22, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Aakheperre, given life. His Majesty commanded to dig this canal, his Majesty sailed this canal in victory and in the power of his return from overthrowing the wretched Kush. In the second year of Thutmose's reign, the king cut a stele at Tombos, which records that he built a fortress at Tombos, near the third cataract, thus permanently extending the Egyptian military presence, which had stopped at Buhen, at the second cataract; this indicates that he fought a campaign in Syria.
This second campaign was the farthest north any Egyptian ruler had campaigned. Although it has not been found in modern times, he set up a stele when he crossed the Euphrates River. During this campaign, the Syrian princes declared allegiance to Thutmose. However, after he returned, they discontinued tribute and began fortifying against future incursions. Thutmose celebrated his victories with an elephant hunt in the area of Niy, near Apamea in Syria, returned to Egypt with strange tales of the Euphrates, "that inverted water which flows upstream when it ought to be flowing downstream." The Euphrates was the first major river which the Egyptians had encountered which flowed from the north, downstream on the Nile, to the south, upstream on the Nile. Thus the river became known in Egypt as "inverted water."Thutm
Deir el-Bahari or Dayr al-Bahri is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. This is a part of the Theban Necropolis; the first monument built at the site was the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty. It was constructed during the 15th century BCE. During the Eighteenth Dynasty, Amenhotep I and Hatshepsut built extensively at the site. Mentuhotep II, Eleventh Dynasty king who reunited Egypt at the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, built a unusual funerary complex, his mortuary temple was built on several levels in the great bay at Deir el-Bahari. It was approached by a 16-metre-wide causeway leading from a valley temple; the mortuary temple itself consists of a forecourt and entrance gate, enclosed by walls on three sides, a terrace on which stands a large square structure that may represent the primeval mound that arose from the waters of chaos. As the temple faces east, the structure is to be connected with the sun cult of Rê and the resurrection of the king.
From the eastern part of the forecourt, an opening called the Bab el-Hosan leads to an underground passage and an unfinished tomb or cenotaph containing a seated statue of the king. On the western side and sycamore trees were planted beside the ramp leading up to the terrace. At the back of the forecourt and terrace are colonnades decorated in relief with boat processions and scenes showing the king's military achievements. Statues of the Twelfth Dynasty king Senusret III were found here too; the inner part of the temple was cut into the cliff and consists of a peristyle court, a hypostyle hall and an underground passage leading into the tomb itself. The cult of the dead king centred on the small shrine cut into the rear of the Hypostyle Hall; the mastaba-like structure on the terrace is surrounded by a pillared ambulatory along the west wall, where the statue shrines and tombs of several royal wives and daughters were found. These royal princesses were the priestesses of Hathor, one of the main ancient Egyptian funerary deities.
Although little remained of the king's own burial, six sarcophagi were retrieved from the tombs of the royal ladies. Each was formed of six slabs, held together at the corners by metal braces and carved in sunken relief; the sarcophagus of Queen Kawit, now in the Cairo Museum, is fine. The burial shaft and subsequent tunnel descend for 150 meters and end in a burial chamber 45 meters below the court; the chamber held a shrine. A great tree-lined court was reached by means of the processional causeway, leading up from the valley temple. Beneath the court, a deep shaft was cut which led to unfinished rooms believed to have been intended as the king's tomb. A wrapped image of the pharaoh was discovered in this area by Howard Carter; the temple complex held six mortuary chapels and shaft tombs built for the pharaoh's wives and daughters. The focal point of the Deir el-Bahari complex is the Djeser-Djeseru meaning "the Holy of Holies", the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, it is a colonnaded structure, designed and implemented by Senenmut, royal steward and architect of Hatshepsut, to serve for her posthumous worship and to honor the glory of Amun.
Djeser-Djeseru sits atop a series of colonnaded terraces, reached by long ramps that once were graced with gardens. It is built into a cliff face that rises above it, is considered to be one of the "incomparable monuments of ancient Egypt", it is 97 feet tall. The unusual form of Hatshepsut's temple is explained by the choice of location, in the valley basin of Deir el-Bahari, surrounded by steep cliffs, it was here, in about 2050 BC, that Mentuhotep II, the founder of the Middle Kingdom, laid out his sloping, terrace-shaped mortuary temple. The pillared galleries at either side of the central ramp of the Djeser Djeseru correspond to the pillar positions on two successive levels of the Temple of Mentuhotep. Today the terraces of Deir el-Bahari only convey a faint impression of the original intentions of Senenmut. Most of the statue ornaments are missing - the statues of Osiris in front of the pillars of the upper colonnade, the sphinx avenues in front of the court, the standing and kneeling figures of Hatshepsut.
The architecture of the temple has been altered as a result of misguided reconstruction in the early twentieth century A. D. While Hatshepsut used Menuhotep's temple as a model, the two structures are different. Hatshepsut employed a lengthy colonnaded terrace that deviated from the centralized massing of Menuhotep's model – an anomaly that may be caused by the decentralized location of her burial chamber. There are three layered terraces reaching 97 feet in height; each ‘story’ is articulated by a double colonnade of square piers, with the exception of the northwest corner of the central terrace, which employs Proto-Doric columns to house the chapel. These terraces are connected by long ramps; the layering of Hatshepsut's temple corresponds with the classical Theban form, employing pylon, hypostyle hall, sun court and sanctuary. The relief sculpture within Hatshepsut's temple recites the tale of the divine birth of the pharaoh; the text and pictorial cycle tell of an expedition to the Land of Punt, an exotic country on the Red Sea coast.
On either side of the entrance to the sanctuary are painted pillars
Thutmose III was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Thutmose III ruled Egypt for 54 years and his reign is dated from 24 April 1479 BC to 11 March 1425 BC, from the age of two and until his death at age fifty-six. While he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other. Thutmose served as the head of Hatshepsut's armies. During the final two years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent, his firstborn son and heir to the throne, predeceased Thutmose III. Becoming the sole ruling pharaoh of the kingdom after the deaths of Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, he created the largest empire Egypt had seen; when Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings, as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt. Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II by Iset, his father's great royal wife was Queen Hatshepsut. Her daughter, was Thutmose's half-sister.
When Thutmose II died, Thutmose III was too young to rule. Hatshepsut became his regent, soon his co-regent, shortly thereafter declared herself to be the pharaoh while never denying kingship to Thutmose III. Thutmosis III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised the formal titulary of kingship, her rule was quite marked by great advancements. When Thutmose III reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him to head her armies. Thutmose III had several wives: Satiah: She may have been the mother of his firstborn son, Amenemhat. An alternative theory is. Amenemhat predeceased his father. Merytre-Hatshepsut. Thutmose's successor, the crown prince and future king Amenhotep II, was the son of Merytre-Hatshepsut. Additional children include Menkheperre and daughters named Nebetiunet, Meryetamun and Iset. Merytre-Hatshepsut was the daughter of the divine adoratrice Huy. Nebtu: she is depicted on a pillar in Thutmose III's tomb. Menwi, Menhet, three foreign wives.
Neferure: Thutmose III may have married his half-sister, but there is no conclusive evidence for this marriage. It has been suggested. Thutmose III reigned from 1479 BC to 1425 BC according to the Low Chronology of Ancient Egypt; this has been the conventional Egyptian chronology in academic circles since the 1960s, though in some circles the older dates 1504 BC to 1450 BC are preferred from the High Chronology of Egypt. These dates, just as all the dates of the Eighteenth Dynasty, are open to dispute because of uncertainty about the circumstances surrounding the recording of a Heliacal Rise of Sothis in the reign of Amenhotep I. A papyrus from Amenhotep I's reign records this astronomical observation which theoretically could be used to correlate the Egyptian chronology with the modern calendar; this document has no note of the place of observation, but it can safely be assumed that it was taken in either a Delta city, such as Memphis or Heliopolis, or in Thebes. These two latitudes give dates 20 years apart, the Low chronologies, respectively.
The length of Thutmose III's reign is known to the day thanks to information found in the tomb of the military commander Amenemheb-Mahu. Amenemheb-Mahu records Thutmose III's death to his master's 54th regnal year, on the 30th day of the third month of Peret; the day of Thutmose III's accession is known to be I Shemu day four, astronomical observations can be used to establish the exact dates of the beginning and end of the king's reign from 24 April 1479 BC to 11 March 1425 BC respectively. Considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III conducted at least 15 campaigns in 20 years, he was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypt's greatest conqueror or "the Napoleon of Egypt." He is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates, doing so during his campaign against Mitanni, his campaign records were transcribed onto the walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak and are now transcribed into Urkunden IV.
He is regarded as one of the greatest of Egypt's warrior pharaohs who transformed Egypt into an international superpower by creating an empire that stretched from the Asian regions of southern Syria and Canaan to the east, to Nubia to the south. Whether the Egyptian empire covered more areas is less certain; the older Egyptologists, most Ed. Meyer, believed that Thutmosis had subjected the islands of the Aegean Sea; this can no longer be upheld today. A submission of Mesopotamia is unthinkable. In most of his campaigns, his enemies were defeated town by town until being beaten into submission; the preferred tactic was to subdue a much weaker city or state one at a time resulting in surrender of each fraction until complete domination was achieved. Much is known about Thutmosis "the warrior" not only because of his military achievements, but because of his royal
15th century BC
The 15th century BC is a century which lasted from 1500 BC to 1401 BC. 1504 BC – 1492 BC: Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant. 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Rigveda was composed around this time. 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Battle of the Ten Kings took place around this time. 1500 BC: Coalescence of a number of cultural traits including undecorated pottery, megalithic burials, millet-bean-rice agriculture indicate the beginning of the Mumun Pottery Period in the Korean peninsula. C. 1490 BC: Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha. 1487 BC: Amphictyon, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha and legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 10 years and is succeeded by Erichthonius I of Athens, a grandson of Cranaus. C. 1480 BC: Queen Hatshepsut succeeded by her stepson and nephew Thutmosis III. Period of greatest Egyptian expansion. C. 1469 BC: In the Battle of Megiddo, Egypt defeats Canaan. C. 1460 BC: The Kassites overrun Babylonia and found a dynasty there that lasts for 576 years and nine months.
1437 BC: Legendary King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion I. 1430 BC – 1160 BC: Hittite New Kingdom established. 1430 BC – 1178 BC: Beginning of Hittite empire. C. 1420 BC: Crete conquered by Mycenae—start of the Mycenaean period. First Linear B tablets. 1400 BC: In Crete the use of bronze helmets. 1400 BC: Palace of Minos destroyed by fire. C. 1400 BC: Linear A reaches its peak of popularity. C. 1400 BC: The height of the Canaanite town of Ugarit. Royal Palace of Ugarit is built. Myceneans conquers border of Anatolia; the Tumulus culture flourishes. Earliest traces of Olmec civilization. Hatshepsut of Egypt, female Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty Thutmose III of Egypt, Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt The Shang Dynasty Chinese capital city at Ao had massive defensive walls of 20 metres in width at the base and enclosed an area of some 2,100 square yards. See: List of sovereign states in the 15th century BC
16th century BC
The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC. 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests. 1601 BC: Sharma-Adad II became the King of Assyria. C. 1600 BC: The creation of one of the oldest surviving astronomical documents, a copy of, found in the Babylonian library of Ashurbanipal: a 21-year record of the appearances of Venus: Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa. C. 1600 BC: The date of the earliest discovered rubber balls. C. 1600 BC: Early Mycenaean culture: weapons, Cyclopaean walls, chariots. C. 1600 BC: Unetice culture ends in Czech Republic, eastern Europe Development of the windmill in Persia. Unetice culture. 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I. c. 1595 BC: The overthrow of the ruling Amorite dynasty in Aleppo, Syria. 1570 BC: Cretan palaces at Knossos and other centres flourish despite disasters. 1567 BC: Egypt: End of Fifteenth Dynasty, end of Sixteenth Dynasty, end of Seventeenth Dynasty, start of Eighteenth Dynasty. 1556 BC: Cecrops I builds or rebuilds Athens following the great flood of Deucalion and the end of the Golden age.
He becomes the first of several Kings of Athens whose life account is considered part of Greek mythology. 1556 BC: Shang Dynasty of China established *. C. 1550 BC: The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization. 1550 BC: End of Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Eighteenth Dynasty upon the coronation of Ahmose I. 1530 BC: End of the First Dynasty of Babylon and the start of the Kassite Dynasty—see History of Iraq. 1525 BC: End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt. C. 1512 BC: The flood of Deucalion, according to O'Flaherty, Augustine and Isidore. 1506 BC: Cecrops I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 50 years. Having survived his own son, he is succeeded by Cranaus. 1504 BC: Egypt started to conquer Nubia and the Levant. C. 1500 BC: Many scholars date early parts of the Rig Veda to the 16th century. C. 1500 BC: Queen Hatsheput in Egypt. C. 1500 BC: The element Mercury has been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating from this decade.
C. 1500 BC: Settlers from Crete, Greece move to Miletus, Turkey. C. 1500 BC: Early traces of Maya civilization developing in Belize. C. 1500 BC: The Phoenicians develop an alphabet—see Timeline of communication technology. C. 1500 BC: Indo-Aryan migration is dated to the 17th to 16th centuries. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical. Tang of Shang, first ruler of Shang Dynasty, ruled China for 29 years since 1600 BC according to the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project. Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt. Ahmose I, Pharaoh and founder of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. Hatshepsut, first female Pharaoh of Egypt c.1473 BC See: List of sovereign states in the 16th century BC
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,953,927 visitors to its three locations in 2018, it was the third most visited art museum in the world, its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Museum Mile in Manhattan's Upper East Side is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; the permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art.
The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries; the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, was located at 681 Fifth Avenue; the Met's permanent collection is curated by seventeen separate departments, each with a specialized staff of curators and scholars, as well as six dedicated conservation departments and a Department of Scientific Research. The permanent collection includes works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art; the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, antique weapons and armor from around the world.
A great number of period rooms, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Met's galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts large traveling shows throughout the year; the current chairman of the board, Daniel Brodsky, was elected in 2011 and became chairman three years after director Philippe de Montebello retired at the end of 2008. On March 1, 2017, the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss, the Met's president and COO, would temporarily act as CEO for the museum. Following the departure of Thomas P. Campbell as the Met's director and CEO on June 30, 2017, the search for a new director of the museum was assigned to the human resources firm Phillips Oppenheim to present a new candidate for the position "by the end of the fiscal year in June" of 2018; the next director will report to Weiss as the current president of the museum. In April 2018, Max Hollein was named director. Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started acquiring ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few cuneiform tablets and seals, the Met's collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. Representing a history of the region beginning in the Neolithic Period and encompassing the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the end of Late Antiquity, the collection includes works from the Sumerian, Sasanian, Assyrian and Elamite cultures, as well as an extensive collection of unique Bronze Age objects; the highlights of the collection include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures, from the Northwest Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II. Though the Met first acquired a group of Peruvian antiquities in 1882, the museum did not begin a concerted effort to collect works from Africa and the Americas until 1969, when American businessman and philanthropist Nelson A. Rockefeller donated his more than 3,000-piece collection to the museum. Today, the Met's collection contains more than 11,000 pieces from sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific Islands, the Americas and is housed in the 40,000-square-foot Rockefeller Wing on the south end of the museum.
The collection ranges from 40,000-year-old indigenous Australian rock paintings, to a group of 15-foot-tall memorial poles carved by the Asmat people of New Guinea, to a priceless collection of ceremonial and personal objects from the Nigerian Court of Benin donated by Klaus Perls. The range of materials represented in the Africa and Americas collection is undoubtedly the widest of any department at the Met, including everything from precious metals to porcupine quills; the Met's Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, arguably the most comprehensive in the US. The collection dates back to the founding of the museum: many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections. Today, an entire wing of the museum is dedicated to the Asian collection, spans 4,000 years of Asian art; every Asian civilization is represented in the Met's Asian department, the pieces on display include every type of decorative art, from painting and printmaking to sculpture and metalworking.
The department is well known for its comprehensive collection of Chinese calligraphy and painting, as well as for its Indian sculptures and Tibetan works, the arts of Burma and Thailand. All three ancient religions of India – Hinduism and Jainism – are well represented in these s
14th century BC
The 14th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 1400 BC until 1301 BC. 1397 BC: Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens. 1390 BC: In Mesopotamia, emergence of the Assyrians as an independent power. 1385 BC: Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt marries Tiy, his Chief Queen. 1380 BC: Amenhotep III connects the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal. 1372 BC: The Hittites conquer all of the Kingdom of Mitanni west of the Euphrates. 1357 BC: Danish Egtvedpigen is buried. 1347 BC: King Erechtheus II is killed by lightning after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his younger brother Cecrops II. 1346 BC: Pharaoh Amenhotep IV of Egypt begins his Cult of Aten and begins construction of Amarna intended to be his new capital. 1345 BC: Amenhotep IV renames himself Akhenaten. 1336 BC: Akhenaten names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler. C. 1334 BC: Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten and wife of his predecessor Akhenaton.
1331 BC: Tutankhaten renames himself to Tutankhamun and abandons Amarna, returning the capital to Thebes. 1324 BC: Pharaoh Ay is crowned king of Egypt 1320 BC: Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty. C. 1310 BC: The Bhagavad Gita is written, according to some Hindu traditions. 1309–1300 BC: Cecrops II, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion II. Pandion II was driven into exile from Athens by the sons of Cecrops II's brother Metion, so that Metion could take power. Pandion II fled to Megara, where he married the King's daughter and inherited the throne. After his death, Pandion II's sons drove out the sons of Metion. 1307 BC: Adad-nirari I becomes king of Assyria. 1300 BC: The legendary King Pan Geng moved the capital of Shang Dynasty to Yin. c. 1300 BC: Rise of the Urnfield culture. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical.
1398 BC—Birth of Tiy to Egyptian nobleman Yuya and his wife Tjuyu. She becomes the Chief Queen of Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt and the matriarch of the Amarna family..1391 BC—Possible Birth of Prophet Moses 1391 BC—Pharaoh Amenhotep III started to rule. 1368 BC—Death of Erichthonius, mythical King of Dardania. 1366 BC—Birth of Princess Tadukhipa to Tusratta, King of Mitanni and his Queen Juni. She will be married to Amenhotep III and after his death to his son and heir Amenhotep IV Akhenaton, she is variously identified with Kiya. 1365 BC—Ashur-uballit I rises to the throne of Assyria. 1362 BC—Birth of the Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton to Amenhotep III and his Queen Tiy. 1350 BC—Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to the throne of Egypt. 1341 BC/1340 BC—Birth of Tutankhaten Pharaoh of Egypt as Tutankhamun. 1338 BC—Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen of Amenhotep III and matriarch of the Amarna family, vanishes from the historical record. Presumed death. 1337 BC—Queen Nefertiti of Egypt vanishes from the historical record.
Presumed death. 1334 BC/1333 BC—Death of Smenkhkare, Pharaoh of Egypt and co-ruler with Akhenaton. 1334 BC/1333 BC—Death of Akhenaton, Pharaoh of Egypt. 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt. 1320 BC—Birth of Pharaoh Ramses II of Egypt. 1300s BC—Seti I of Egypt. 1300s BC—Pan Geng of China. Suppiluliuma I, king of the Hittites. See: List of sovereign states in the 14th century BC