Kali Yuga in Hinduism is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of a'cycle of yugas' described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga. Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali; the "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention". According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE; this is considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. This information is placed at the temple of the place of this incident. According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE, he finished his book "Aryabhattiya" in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23; as it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to 3102 BCE.
According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an rare planetary alignment, depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is off; the actual date for this alignment is 7 February of 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30 % of; the common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the Yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga. This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhatta recalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year"; this was a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. However, both the Mahabharata and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the Yuga cycle.
Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millennia matches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar. The length of the transitional periods between each Yuga is unclear, can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years. Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswar in his book The Holy Science, as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, believe that the Kali Yuga has ended, that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga; this calculation is supported by modern day spiritual masters such as Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga, referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism symbolically represents morality as an Indian bull. Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure and materialism, unrestricted egotism and maladies of mind and body.
In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg; the Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the "Yuga-Sandhi", the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Sage Narada to have momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga. In relation to rulers, it lists: Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world. People will start seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.
"At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says: Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur. People will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life. Sin will increase exponentially, while virtue will cease to flourish. People will become addicted to intoxicating drugs. Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt
The 1490s decade ran from January 1, 1490, to December 31, 1499. January 4 – Anne of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the king of France, will be considered as guilty of the crime of Lèse-majesté. March 13 – Charles II becomes Duke of Savoy at age 1. March or April – 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, a presumed meteor shower or air burst over Qingyang in Ming dynasty China, said to have caused casualties. July 13 – John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church, Hrastovlje. November 20 – First edition of the chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch by Joanot Martorell printed in Valencia. December 19 – Anne of Brittany is married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy. Ashikaga Yoshitane becomes shōgun of Japan. Perkin Warbeck claims to be the son of King Edward IV of England, at the court of Burgundy. Traditional date of the Battle of Glendale between the Scottish clans MacLeod. Catholic missionaries arrive in the African Kingdom of Kongo. Pêro da Covilhã arrives in Ethiopia.
Regular postal service connects the Habsburg residences of Mechelen and Innsbruck, the first in Germany. Leonardo da Vinci observes capillary action, in small-bore tubes. Leonardo da Vinci develops an oil lamp: the flame is enclosed in a glass tube, placed inside a water-filled glass globe. All Saints' Church, the Schlosskirche in Wittenberg, is begun. Chinese scholar and printer Hua Sui invents bronze-metal movable type printing in China, although the earlier Wang Zhen had experimented with tin movable type in 1298, the Koreans had separately innovated bronze movable type. Tirant lo Blanch, by Joanot Martorell and Martí Joan de Galba, is published. Aldus Manutius moves to Venice. John Colet receives his M. A. from Magdalen College, Oxford. Johann Reuchlin meets Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. Merchants carry coffee from Yemen to Mecca. May 3 – The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, is baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I. September – Battle of Vrpile Gulch in southern Croatia: Forces of the Ottoman Empire are defeated by those of the Kingdom of Croatia.
November – The pretender Perkin Warbeck begins a campaign to take the English throne, with a landing in Ireland. November 7 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary sign the Peace of Pressburg, formally ending the Austrian–Hungarian War. November 16 – An auto-da-fé held in Brasero de la Dehesa concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia, with the execution of several Jewish and converso suspects. November 25 – Reconquista: The Granada War is brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Granada between the Catholic Monarchs of Spain and the Moorish Emirate of Granada. December 6 – King Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany, forcing her to break her marriage with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. December 21 – The Truce of Coldstream secures a five-year peace, between Scotland and England; the Bread and Cheese Revolt breaks out in North Holland. A major fire breaks out in Dresden.
In the Russian territory of Komi, annexed by Russia in 1478, copper and silver ores are discovered, the territory gains importance as a mining and metallurgical center. Nicolaus Copernicus enters the University of Kraków. January 2 – Fall of Granada: Muhammad XII, the last Emir of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of the Catholic Monarchs after a lengthy siege, ending the ten-year Granada War and the centuries-long Reconquista, bringing an end to 780 years of Muslim control in Al-Andalus. January 6 – Ferdinand and Isabella enter into Granada. January 15 – Christopher Columbus meets Ferdinand and Isabella at the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos in Córdoba and persuades them to support his Atlantic voyage intended to find a new route to the East Indies. January 16 – The first grammar of the Spanish language is presented to Queen Isabella I. January 23 – The Pentateuch is first printed. March 31 – Ferdinand and Isabella sign the Alhambra Decree, expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Roman Catholicism.
April 17 – The Capitulations of Santa Fe are signed between Christopher Columbus and the Crown of Castile, agreeing on arrangements for his forthcoming voyage. 8 June – Death of Elizabeth Woodville, the last living Yorkist queen. July 31 – The Jews are expelled from Spain. Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire, learning of this, dispatches the Ottoman Navy to bring the Jews safely to Ottoman lands to the cities of Thessaloniki and İzmir. August 3 – The Genoese navigator Christopher Columbus sails with three ships from Palos de la Frontera, in the service of the Crown of Castile, on his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, intending to reach Asia. August 11 – Pope Alexander VI succeeds Pope Innocent VIII as the 214th pope, after the 1492 papal conclave, the first held in the Sistine Chapel. September 6 – Christoper Columbus sails from La Gomera in the Canary Islands, his final port of call before crossing the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. October 3 – English army besieges Boulogne. October 11 – Several members of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus witness an unusual light.
October 12 – Christopher Columbus' expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean and lands on Guanahani, but he believes he has reached the East Indies. October 28 – Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba. November 3 – The Peace of Étaples is signed between England and France, ending French support
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor; the lunisolar Chinese calendar was introduced to Japan via Korea in the middle of the sixth century. After that, Japan calculated its calendar using various Chinese calendar procedures, from 1685, using Japanese variations of the Chinese procedures, but in 1873, as part of Japan's Meiji period modernization, a calendar based on the solar Gregorian calendar was introduced. In Japan today, the old Chinese calendar is ignored. Japan has had more than one system for designating years. Including: The Chinese sexagenary cycle was introduced early into Japan, it was used together with era names, as in the 1729 Ise calendar shown above, for "the 14th year of Kyōhō, tsuchi-no-to no tori", i.e. 己酉. Now, the cycle is used except around New Year; the era name system was introduced from China, has been in continuous use since AD 701.
Since the Taishō Emperor's ascension in 1912, each emperor's reign has begun a new era. Nengō are the official means of dating years in Japan, all government business is conducted using that system, it is in general use in private and personal business. The Japanese imperial year is based on the date of the legendary founding of Japan by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC, it was first used in the official calendar in 1873. However, it never replaced era names, since World War II has been abandoned; the Western Common Era system has come into common use since the Meiji period. Now, most people know it, as well as era names; the official dating system known as nengō, has been in use since the late 7th century. Years are numbered within eras. Beginning with Meiji, each reign has been one era, but many earlier Emperors decreed a new era upon any major event; the nengō system remains in wide use on official documents and government forms. The imperial year system was used from 1872 to the Second World War. Imperial year 1 was the year when the legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan – 660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar.
Usage of kōki dating can be a nationalist signal, pointing out that the history of Japan's imperial family is longer than that of Christianity, the basis of the Anno Domini system. Kōki 2600 was a special year; the 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but were canceled due to the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese naval Zero Fighter was named after this year. After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, stopped the use of kōki by officials. Today, kōki is used, except in some judicial contexts; the 1898 law determining the placement of leap years is based on the kōki years, using a formula, equivalent to that of the Gregorian calendar: if the kōki year number is evenly divisible by four, it is a leap year, unless the number minus 660 is evenly divisible by 100 and not by 400. Thus, for example, the year Kōki 2560 is divisible by 4; the Japanese government has announced a new period of year on 2019 April Reiwa. The Heisei Period will end on 2019 April 30 and so the new period of year is expected to start on first of May 2019.
See "Seasonal days", below. The modern Japanese names for the months translate to "first month", "second month", so on; the corresponding number is combined with the suffix 月. The table below uses traditional numerals. In addition, every month has a traditional name, still used by some in fields such as poetry; the opening paragraph of a letter or the greeting in a speech might borrow one of these names to convey a sense of the season. Some, such as Yayoi and Satsuki, do double duty as given names; these month names appear from time to time on jidaigeki, contemporary television shows and movies set in the Edo period or earlier. The old Japanese calendar was an adjusted lunar calendar based on the Chinese calendar, the year—and with it the months—started anywhere from about 3 to 7 weeks than the modern year, so in historical contexts it is not accurate to equate the first month with January. Japan uses a seven-day week, aligned with the Western calendar; the seven-day week, with names for the days corresponding to the Latin system, was brought to Japan around AD 800 with the Buddhist calendar.
The system was used for astrological purposes and little else until 1876. The names of the days come from the five visible planets, which in turn are named after the five Chinese elements, from the moon and sun. On the origin of the names of the days of the week see East Asian Seven Luminaries. Sunday and Saturday are regarded as "Western style take-a-rest days". Since the late 19th century, Sunday has been regarded as a "full-time holiday", Saturday a half-time holiday; these holidays have no religious meaning. Many Japanese retailers
The Dragon is the fifth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Dragon is associated with pronounced chen, it has been proposed by one academic researcher that the Earthly Branch character may have been associated with scorpions. In the Buddhist calendar used in Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka, the Dragon is replaced by the nāga. In the Gurung zodiac, the Dragon is replaced by the eagle. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Dragon", while bearing the following elemental sign: There are marked spikes in the birth rates of countries that use the Chinese zodiac or places with substantial Overseas Chinese populations during the year of the Dragon, because such "Dragon babies" are considered to be lucky and have desirable characteristics that lead to better life outcomes; the recent phenomenon of planning a child’s birth in the Dragon year has led to hospital overcapacity issues and an uptick in infant mortality rates toward the end of these years due to strained neonatal resources.
Among the 12 animal signs, the Monkey has the most tacit understanding with the Dragon people. The cunning Rat can be a good partner with the Dragon to make something big; the Dragon people can live with the Snake, for the Snake can prevent the Dragon from behaving outrageously. People under the signs of the Rooster, Rabbit, Goat and Horse like to be friends with the Dragon, as they admire the Dragon's beautiful bearing and strength. Two Dragons can get along well with each other. However, the relationship between the Dragon and the Ox people is tense, because both of them are majestic; the people whom the Dragon feels headaches with the most are the Dog people. They feel uncomfortable due to the Dog's close guard
The Ethiopian calendar or Eritrean calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelicalism. It is a solar calendar which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A gap of 7–8 years between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternative calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has 12 months of 30 days plus 5 or 6 epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month; the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. A 6th epagomenal day is added every 4 years, without exception, on August 29 of the Julian calendar, 6 months before the corresponding Julian leap day.
Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is September 11. However, it falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year. Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian New Year in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Churchs, it occurs on September 11th in the Gregorian Calendar. The Ethiopian Calendar Year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on the Gregorian Calendar Year on September 11th, 2005. However, the Ethiopian Years 1992 and 1996 began on the Gregorian Dates of'September 12th 1999' and'2003' respectively; this date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099. The Ethiopian leap year is every four without exception, while Gregorian centurial years are only leap years when divisible by 400; as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. The start of the Ethiopian year falls on August 30th.
This date corresponds to the Old-Style Julian Calendar. This deviation between the Julian and the Gregorian Calendar will increase with the passing of the time. You can observe the real start date in the future centuries in a Gregorian to Ethiopian Date Converter. To indicate the year and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on March 25, AD 9, as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400. Meanwhile, Europeans adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instead, which placed the Annunciation 8 years earlier than had Annianus; this causes the Ethiopian year number to be 8 years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11 7 years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year. In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum; the most important era – once used by the Eastern Christianity, still used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – was the Era of Martyrs known as the Diocletian Era, or the era of Diocletian and the Martyrs, whose first year began on August 29, 284.
Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Year's Days, 31⁄2 to 4 months the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era to obtain an entire 532 year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 equal to year DXXXI, it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Ethiopian chronologists; the twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD 360, so 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs. Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as 25 March, thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC. In the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B.
C.. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century; the 4 year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named the John-year, followed by the Matthew-year, the Mark-year. The year with the 6th epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the 4 year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar but unlike the Gregorian calendar; these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are still leap year
Edward IV of England
Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England; the first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king, he was Duke of Earl of March, Earl of Cambridge and Earl of Ulster. Edward of York was born at Rouen in Normandy, the second son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, Cecily Neville, he was the eldest of the four sons. He bore the title Earl of March before his accession to the throne. Edward's father Richard, Duke of York, had been heir to King Henry VI until the birth of Henry's son Edward in 1453. Richard carried on a factional struggle with the king's Beaufort relatives, he established a dominant position after his victory at the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, in which his chief rival Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, was killed.
However, Henry's Queen, Margaret of Anjou, rebuilt a powerful faction to oppose the Yorkists over the following years. In 1459 Margaret moved against the Duke of York and his principal supporters—his brother-in-law Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, Salisbury's son Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who rose in revolt; the Yorkist leaders fled from England after the collapse of their army in the confrontation at Ludford Bridge. The Duke of York took refuge in Ireland, while Edward went with the Nevilles to Calais where Warwick was governor. In 1460 Edward landed in Kent with Salisbury and Salisbury's brother William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, raised an army, occupied London. Edward and Fauconberg left Salisbury besieging the Tower of London and advanced against the king, with an army in the Midlands, defeated and captured him in the Battle of Northampton. York returned to England and was declared the king's heir by parliament, but Queen Margaret raised a fresh army against him, he was killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, along with his second surviving son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, the Earl of Salisbury.
This left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461, he united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margaret's army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans, during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters. Edward's father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henry's heir, but Edward now took the more radical step of proclaiming himself king in March 1461, he advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461. Edward had broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, he returned to London for his coronation. King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England and allowed him to use "Towton" on the Mathew family crest. Lancastrian resistance continued in the north, but posed no serious threat to the new regime and was extinguished by Warwick's brother John Neville in the Battle of Hexham in 1464.
Henry VI had escaped into the Pennines, where he spent a year in hiding, but was caught and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Queen Margaret fled abroad with many of their leading supporters. Edward IV had deposed Henry VI, but there was little point in killing the ex-king as long as Henry's son remained alive, since this would have transferred the Lancastrian claim from a captive king to one, at liberty. At the age of nineteen, Edward exhibited remarkable military acumen, he had a notable physique and was described as handsome and affable. His height is estimated at 6 feet 4.5 inches, making him the tallest among all English and British monarchs to date. Most of England's leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict; the new regime, relied on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne. However, the king became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due to his marriage.
Warwick, acting on Edward's behalf, made preliminary arrangements with King Louis XI of France for Edward to marry either Louis' daughter Anne or his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy. He was humiliated and enraged to discover that, while he was negotiating, Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, the widow of John Grey of Groby, on 1 May 1464. Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville has been criticised as an impulsive action that did not add anything to the security of England or the York dynasty. A horrified Privy Council told him with unusual frankness, when he announced the marriage to them, "that he must know that she was no wife for a prince such as himself, for she was not the daughter of a duke or earl... but a simple knight." Christine Carpenter argues against the idea that it had any political motivation, that Edward's creation of a strong Yorkist nobility meant that he did not need the "lightweight connections" of the Woodvilles, whereas Wilkinson described the marriage as both a "love match, a cold and calculated political move".
J. R. Lander suggested in 1980 that the King was "infatuated," echoing P. M. Kendall's view that he was acting out of lust. Elizabeth's mother was Jacquetta of Luxembourg, wi
1470s in art
The decade of the 1470s in art involved some significant events. 1473 - Hanseatic privateer Paul Beneke, captain of the Peter von Danzig, boards the galley St. Thomas in the North Sea. 1477 - January 5: Battle of Nancy: Painter Hans Memling is wounded. 1479 - September: Painter Gentile Bellini is sent by the Senate of Venice to the new Ottoman capital Constantinople as a cultural ambassador. 1474: Neroccio di Bartolomeo de' Landi creates his wooden statue of a youthful Saint Catherine of Siena, set in her Sanctuary in Siena 1470 Carlo Crivelli paints the altarpiece for the church of San Francesco in Gualdo Tadino, on the border of Umbria, near Fabriano, Italy Cosimo Rosselli paints Madonna and Child Cosimo Tura paints St. Jerome c.1470: Hans Memling paints St. John the Baptist, Adoration of the Magi and Scenes from the Passion of Christ c.1470-2: Hans Memling paints the Portrait of Maria Portinari c.1470-5: Piero del Pollaiolo paints Portrait of a Young Woman By 1471: Hans Memling completes painting The Last Judgment 1472: Hans Memling paints the portrait of Gilles Joye 1473: Francesco del Cossa paints the Griffoni Polyptych 1474: Ercole de' Roberti paints St. Jerome in the Wilderness 1474-5: Andrea del Verrocchio assisted by Leonardo da Vinci paints The Baptism of Christ c.1474-8: Leonardo da Vinci paints Ginevra de' Benci c.1475-80: Hans Memling paints the Donne Triptych 1475 Leonardo da Vinci paints The Annunciation Andrea Mantegna completes a decade's work on the frescoes in the Camera degli Sposi in the Ducal palace, Lombardy Hans Memling paints Portrait of a Man with a Pink Carnation c.1475 Piero del Pollaiolo completes painting Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian for the Pucci Chapel of Santissima Annunziata and his brother Antonio paints Hercules and the Hydra and Apollo and Daphne Hans Memling paints the Diptych of Jean de Cellier 1476: Joseph Ibn Hayyim completes illumination of the "Kennicott" Hebrew Bible 1478 Leonardo da Vinci paints either The Benois Madonna or the Madonna with the Carnation Hans Memling paints Christ Giving His Blessing c.1478: Domenico Ghirlandaio paints Portrait of a Man and frescoes in Santa Fina Chapel of Collegiate Church of San Gimignano in Tuscany c.1479: Hans Memling completes painting the St John Altarpiece for Old St. John's Hospital in Bruges c.1479-80: Hans Memling paints Allegory with a Virgin 1470: Marco Bello – Italian painter, pupil of Giovanni Bellini 1470: Ambrogio Bergognone – Italian Renaissance painter of the Milanese school 1470: Marco Basaiti - Venetian Greek painter and a rival of Giovanni Bellini 1470: Valerio Belli – Italian engraver and medallion maker 1470: Jorge Afonso – Portuguese Renaissance painter 1470: Gregor Erhart - German sculptor, son of Michel Erhart 1470: Matthias Grünewald – German Renaissance painter of religious works 1470: Wen Zhengming – Ming Dynasty painter and scholar 1470: Guillaume de Marcillat - French painter and stained glass artist 1470: Girolamo Mocetto - Italian Renaissance painter and stained glass designer 1470: Girolamo Alibrandi - Italian painter 1470: Vincenzo Civerchio – Italian painter of the Renaissance 1470: Michele da Verona – Italian painter of the Renaissance period 1470: Tang Yin – Chinese scholar, painter of the Ming dynasty 1470: Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen – Northern Netherlandish designer of woodcuts and painter 1470: Girolamo di Benvenuto - Italian painter, son of Benvenuto di Giovanni 1470: Juan de Borgoña – High Renaissance painter born in the Duchy of Burgundy 1470: Rueland Frueauf the Younger - German Late-Gothic painter 1470: Jan van Dornicke, South Netherlandish painter 1470: Jacob van Laethem - Flemish painter of the Early Netherlandish painting era 1471: Albrecht Dürer – German painter and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany 1471: Gaudenzio Ferrari – Italian painter and sculptor of the Renaissance 1471: Girolamo Marchesi - Italian painter 1471: Francesco Morone - Italian painter active in Verona 1472: Fra Bartolommeo - Florentine painter 1472: Lucas Cranach the Elder – German painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving 1473: Hans Burgkmair – German painter and printmaker in woodcut 1474: October 13 – Mariotto Albertinelli, Italian Renaissance painter 1474: Giovanni Francesco Rustici – Italian Renaissance painter and sculptor 1474: Raffaello Botticini - Italian Renaissance painter 1474: Giacomo Pacchiarotti – Italian painter 1474/1475: Girolamo dai Libri – Italian illuminator of manuscripts and painter of altarpieces 1475: March 6 – Michelangelo - Italian Renaissance painter, architect and engineer 1475: Albert Cornelis - Flemish Renaissance painter 1475: Giuliano Bugiardini - Italian painter 1475: Jan de Beer – Italian painter 1475: Alejo Fernandez – Spanish painter of the 16th century 1475: Giovanni Angelo Del Maino - Italian sculptor in wood 1475: Vicente Juan Masip - Spanish painter of the Renaissance period 1475: Jan Mostaert – Dutch painter of portraits and religious subjects 1475: Vasco Fernandes – Portuguese Renaissance painter 1475: Guglielmo da Marsiglia – Italian painter of stained glass 1475-80: Martino Piazza - Italian Renaissance painter 1476: Kanō Motonobu – Italian painter 1476: Girolamo Genga – Italian painter and arc