1st century BC
The 1st century BC known as the last century BC, started on the first day of 100 BC and ended on the last day of 1 BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero; this is the 100th century in the Holocene calendar. 1st century AD follows. In the course of the century all the remaining independent lands surrounding the Mediterranean were brought under Roman control, being ruled either directly under governors or through puppet kings appointed by Rome; the Roman state itself was plunged into civil war several times resulting in the marginalization of its 500-year-old republic, the embodiment of total state power in a single man—the emperor. The internal turbulence that plagued Rome at this time can be seen as the death throes of the Roman Republic, as it gave way to the autocratic ambitions of powerful men like Sulla, Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and Octavian. Octavian's ascension to total power as the emperor Augustus is considered to mark the point in history where the Roman Republic ends and the Roman Empire begins.
Some scholars refer to this event as the Roman Revolution. It is believed that the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity took place at the close of this century. In the eastern mainland, the Han Dynasty began to decline and the court of China was in chaos in the latter half of this century. Trapped in a difficult situation, the Xiongnu had to begin emigration to the west or attach themselves to the Han. 97 BC: Ariarathes VIII is forced out of Cappadocia by Mithridates VI of Pontus, dies soon afterwards. 96 BC: Cyrene is left to the people of Rome by its ruler Ptolemy Apion. 96 BC: King Alexander Jannaeus of Judea wins the Siege of Gaza. 95 BC: Tigranes the Great becomes king of Armenia 93 BC: Ariobarzanes I Philoromaios becomes king of Cappadocia with Roman backing. 91 BC: The assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus leads to the Social War in Italy 91 BC: Crown Prince Ju Revolt in China. 89 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus's invasion of Cappadocia leads to the First Mithridatic War with the Roman Republic.
89 BC: Valagamba of Anuradhapura gains control of all of Sri Lanka 88 BC: 80,000 Roman civilians killed in the Asiatic Vespers in Asia Minor 87 BC: Emperor Wu of Han dies and is succeeded by his eight-year-old son Zhao, with Jin Midi, Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang as regents. 88-87 BC: Sulla's first civil war - Sulla marches on Rome and defeats Gaius Marius 86 BC: Siege of Athens ends with Roman conquest of Athens. 86 BC: The death of the regent of China Jin Midi unleashes the rivalry of his co-regents Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang. 85 BC: Sulla defeats the forces of Mithridates VI in Greece at the Battle of Orchomenus 85 BC: Aretas III of the Nabataeans conquers Damascus. 83 BC: Sulla makes peace with Mithridates VI and marches on Rome. 83-81 BC: Lucius Licinius Murena wages the Second Mithridatic War. 82 BC: Sertorius flees from Sulla to North Africa via Hispania c.83 BC: Tigranes of Armenia takes control of Syria after the implosion of the Seleucid dynasty. 81 BC: End of Sulla's second civil war - Sulla is appointed dictator of the Roman state, brings about major reforms.
80 BC: Sertorius invades Hispania and sets up his own regime, beginning the Sertorian War. 80 BC: Conflict between the regents Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang results in the destruction of the Shangguang clan and Huo Guang becoming the de facto ruler of China. C.80 BC: Maues, King of the Sakas, conquers Gandhara and Taxila. 77 BC: Fu Jiezi assassinated the king of Loulan on behalf of the Han dynasty. C.75 BC: Kanva dynasty replaces the Shunga dynasty in Magadha. 74 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus disputes Nicomedes IV of Bithynia's bequest of his kingdom to the Roman Republic, beginning the Third Mithridatic War. 74 BC: Emperor Zhao of Han dies and is succeeded by the unsuitable Prince He of Changyi and by Xuan. Huo Guang continues to be de facto ruler of China. 73 BC: A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the Third Servile War. 73-72 BC: Lucullus defeats Mithridates at Tenedos and the Rhyndacus and he flees east to Armenia 71 BC: Pompey the Great ends the Sertorian War and the Third Servile War.
71 BC: Wusun and China attack the Xiongnu. 69 BC: Lucullus invades Armenia and reestablishes the Seleucids in Syria. 68 BC: Pompey replaces Lucullus as leader of the Roman forces in the Third Mithridatic War. 68 BC: Huo Guang dies and Emperor Xuan of Han assumes full power. The Huo clan is eliminated over the following two years. 67 BC: Pompey is given a three-year extraordinary command against the pirates plaguing the Mediterranean and defeats them in forty days. 66 BC: Pompey drives Mithridates VI out of Asia Minor. 66 BC: Aristobulus II seizes power from John Hyrcanus II in Judea. 63 BC: Mithridates VI commits suicide, ending the Third Mithridatic War. 63 BC: Cicero denounces and defeats the Catilinarian Conspiracy. 63 BC: Pompey captures Jerusalem, establishes Roman annexation of Judea as a client kingdom. He permanently abolishes Seleucid Syria. Aristobulus II of Judea removed from John Hyrcanus II restored as Roman vassal. 62 BC: Nabataean kingdom becomes a Roman vassal. 61 BC: Orgetorix and the Helvetii's attempt to migrate into southwestern France leads Julius Caesar to take military action, beginning the Gallic Wars 60 BC: Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great, Marcus Crassus form the First Triumvirate c. 60 BC: The Sakas conquer Mathura.
58 BC: Battle of Bibracte - Julius Caesar conquers the Helvetii 58 BC: Germans invade Gaul and are defeated by Julius Caesar at Battle of Vosges. 58 BC
The Javanese calendar is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar; the Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of Indonesia and civil society, while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and the Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays. The Javanese calendar is used by the main ethnicities of Java island—that is, the Javanese and Sundanese people—primarily as a cultural icon and identifier, as a maintained tradition of antiquity; the Javanese calendar is used for cultural and spiritual purposes. The current system of the Javanese calendar was inaugurated by Sultan Agung of Mataram in the Gregorian year 1633 CE. Prior to this, the Javanese had used the Hindu calendar, which begins in 78 CE and uses the solar cycle for calculating time. Sultan Agung's calendar retained the Saka calendar year system of counting, but differs by using the same lunar year measurement system as the Islamic calendar, rather than the solar year.
The Javanese calendar is referred to by its Latin name Anno Javanico or AJ. The Javanese calendar contains multiple, overlapping measurements of times, called "cycles"; these include: the native five-day week, called Pasaran the common Gregorian and Islamic seven-day week the Solar month, called Mangsa the Lunar month, called Wulan the lunar year, or Tahun the octo-ennia cycles, or Windu the 120-year cycle of 15 Windu, called Kurup Days in the Javanese calendar, like the Islamic calendar, begin at sunset. Traditionally, Javanese people do not divide the night into hours, but rather into phases; the division of a day and night are: The native Javanese system groups days into a five-day week called Pasaran, unlike most calendars that uses a seven-day week. The name, pasaran, is derived from the root word pasar, but still today, Javanese villagers gather communally at local markets to meet, engage in commerce, buy and sell farm produce, cooked foods, home industry crafted items and so on. John Crawfurd suggested that the length of the weekly cycle is related to the number of fingers on the hand, that itinerant merchants would rotate their visits to different villages according to a five-day "roster".
The days of the cycle each have two names, as the Javanese language has distinct vocabulary associated with two different registers of politeness: ngoko and krama. The krama names for the days, second in the list, are much less common. ꦊꦒꦶ – ꦩꦤꦶꦱ꧀ ꦥꦲꦶꦁ – ꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ ꦥꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦥꦼꦠꦏ꧀ ꦮꦒꦺ – ꦕꦼꦩꦺꦁ ꦏ꧀ꦭꦶꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦲꦱꦶꦃ The origin of the names is unclear, their etymology remains obscure. The names may be derived from indigenous gods, like the European and Asian names for days of the week. An ancient Javanese manuscript illustrates the week with five human figures: a man seizing a suppliant by the hair, a woman holding a horn to receive an offering, a man pointing a drawn sword at another, a woman holding agricultural produce, a man holding a spear leading a bull. Additionally, Javanese consider these days' names to have a mystical relation to colors and cardinal direction: Legi: white and East Pahing: red and South Pon: yellow and West Wage: black and North Kliwon: blurred colors/focus and'center'. Most Markets no longer operate under this traditional Pasaran cycle, instead pragmatically remaining open every day of the Gregorian week.
However many markets in Java still retain traditional names that indicated that once the markets only operated on certain Pasaran days, such as Pasar Legi, or Pasar Kliwon. Some markets in small or medium size locations will be much busier on the Pasaran day than on the other days. On the market's name day itinerate sellers appear selling such things as livestock and other products that are either less purchased or are more expensive; this allows a smaller number of these merchants to service a much larger area much as in bygone days. Javanese astrological belief dictates that an individual’s characteristics and destiny are attributable to the combination of the Pasaran day and the "common" weekday of the Islamic calendar on that person's birthday. Javanese people find great interest in the astrological interpretations of this combination, called the Wetonan cycle; the seven-day-long week cycle is derived from the Islamic calendar, adopted following the spread of Islam throughout the Indonesian archipelago.
The names of the days of the week in Javanese are derived from their Arabic counterparts, namely: These two-week systems occur concurrently. This combination forms the Wetonan cycle; the Wetonan cycle superimposes the five-day Pasaran cycle with the seven-day week cycle. Each Wetonan cycle lasts for 35 days. An example of Wetonan cycle: From the example above, the Weton for Tuesday May 6, 2008 would be read as Selasa Wage; the Wetonan cycle is important for divinatory systems, important celebrations, rites of passage. Commemorations and events are held on days considered to be auspicious. An prominent example, still taught in primary schools, is that the Weton for the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945 took place on Jumat Legi. Therefore, Jumat Legi is considered an important night for pilgrimage. There are taboos
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ptolemy VI Philometor. 186–145 BC) was a king of Egypt from the Ptolemaic period. He reigned from 180 to 164 BC and from 163 to 145 BC. Ptolemy succeeded in 180 BC at the age of about 6, upon the death of his father Ptolemy V, he ruled jointly with his mother Cleopatra I until her death in 176 BC, what his epithet'Philometor' implies: "he who loves his mother". In 173 BC Ptolemy VI married his sister Cleopatra II as was customary for pharaohs, for the Ptolemaic Greek kings had adopted many pharaonic customs, he had at least four children with her: Ptolemy Eupator, Ptolemy Neos, Cleopatra Thea and Cleopatra III, Berenice. The outbreak of the Sixth Syrian War in 170 BC saw Ptolemy Cleopatra II becoming co-rulers; the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who vied with Ptolemy VI over the control of Syria, invaded Egypt in 169, leading to unrest and subsequent calls for Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II to ascend to the throne. A period of reconciliation followed. Ptolemy VI was driven out by his brother Ptolemy VIII in 164 BC.
Ptolemy VI went to Rome to seek support. The Romans partitioned the Ptolemaic land, granting Ptolemy VI Cyprus and Egypt, Ptolemy VIII Cyrenaica. Around 150 BC he recognized Alexander Balas as the Seleucid king by marrying his daughter Cleopatra Thea to him in a ceremony at Ptolemais Akko. In 145 BC, while Alexander was putting down a rebellion in Cilicia, Ptolemy VI invaded Syria, securing safe passage through Judaea from Alexander's vassal Jonathan Maccabee, capturing the city of Seleucia, he remarried his daughter to Alexander's rival Demetrius II and went to Antioch, where he crowned himself King of Asia. Alexander was defeated by Ptolemy. Alexander fled to Arabia, where he was killed. For the first time since the death of Alexander the Great and Syria were united. However, Ptolemy died three days in unknown circumstances. Ptolemy Philometor at LacusCurtius — Ptolemy VI — Ptolemy VI Philometor entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt. This scholarly consensus is the so-called Conventional Egyptian chronology, which places the beginning of the Old Kingdom in the 27th century BC, the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in the 21st century BC and the beginning of the New Kingdom in the mid-16th century BC. Despite this consensus, disagreements remain within the scholarly community, resulting in variant chronologies diverging by about 300 years for the Early Dynastic Period, up to 30 years in the New Kingdom, a few years in the Late Period. In addition, there are a number of "alternative chronologies" outside scholarly consensus, such as the "New Chronology" proposed in the 1990s, which lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 350 years, or the "Glasgow Chronology", which lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 500 years. Scholarly consensus on the general outline of the conventional chronology current in Egyptology has not fluctuated much over the last 100 years.
For the Old Kingdom, consensus fluctuates by as much as a few centuries, but for the Middle and New Kingdoms, it has been stable to within a few decades. This is illustrated by comparing the chronology as given by two Egyptologists, the first writing in 1906, the second in 2000; the disparities between the two sets of dates result from additional discoveries and refined understanding of the still incomplete source evidence. For example, Breasted adds a ruler in the Twentieth dynasty that further research showed did not exist. Following Manetho, Breasted believed all the dynasties were sequential, whereas it is now known that several existed at the same time; these revisions have resulted in a lowering of the conventional chronology by up to 400 years at the beginning of Dynasty I. Forming the backbone of Egyptian chronology are the regnal years as recorded in Ancient Egyptian king lists. Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text, or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers for a short period of Egyptian history.
The situation is further complicated by occasional conflicting information on the same regnal period from different versions of the same text. Regnal periods have to be pieced together from inscriptions, which will give a date in the form of the regnal year of the ruling pharaoh, yet this only provides a minimum length of that reign and may or may not include any coregencies with a predecessor or successor. In addition, some Egyptian dynasties overlapped, with different pharaohs ruling in different regions at the same time, rather than serially. Not knowing whether monarchies were simultaneous or sequential results in differing chronological interpretations. Where the total number of regnal years for a given ruler is not known, Egyptologists have identified two indicators to deduce that total number: for the Old Kingdom, the number of cattle censuses. A number of Old Kingdom inscriptions allude to a periodic census of cattle, which experts at first believed took place every second year. However, further research has shown that these censuses were sometimes taken in consecutive years, or after two or more years had passed.
The Sed festival was celebrated on the thirtieth anniversary of a pharaoh's ascension, thus rulers who recorded celebrating one could be assumed to have ruled at least 30 years. However, once again, this may not have been standard practice in all cases. In the early days of Egyptology, the compilation of regnal periods was hampered by a profound biblical bias on the part of Egyptologists; this was most pervasive before the mid 19th century, when Manetho's figures were recognized as conflicting with biblical chronology, based on Old Testament references to Egypt. In the 20th century, such biblical bias has been confined to alternative chronologies outside the scholarly mainstream. A useful way to work around these gaps in knowledge is to find chronological synchronisms, which can lead to a precise date. Over the past decades, a number of these have been found, although they are of varying degrees of usefulness and reliability. Seriation, i.e. archeological sequences. This does not fix a person or event to a specific year, but establishing a sequence of events can provide indirect evidence to provide or support a precise date.
For example, some inscribed stone vessels of the rulers of the first two dynasties were collected and deposited in storage galleries beneath and sealed off when the Step Pyramid of Djoser, a Pharaoh of the Third Dynasty, was built. Another example are blocks from the Old Kingdom bearing the names of several kings, which were reused in the construction of Middle Kingdom pyramid-temples at Lisht in the structures of Amenemhat I; the third pylon at Karnak, built by Amenhotep III contained as "fill" material from the kiosk of Sesostris I, along with various stelae of the Second Intermediate Period and the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom. Synchronisms with other chronologies, the most important of these being with the Assyrian and Babylonian chronologies, but synchronisms with the Hittites, ancient Palestine, in the final period with ancient Greece, are used; the earliest such synchronism is in the 18th century
Indian national calendar
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India; the Saka calendar is used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the "Day of Silence", is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. Nepal's Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. Prior to colonization, the Philippines used to apply the Saka calendar as well as suggested by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; the term may ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar. The historic Shalivahana era calendar is still used, it has years. The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac used with the Hindu calendar. Chaitra has 30 days and starts on March 22, except in leap years, when it has 31 days and starts on March 21; the months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.
The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. Years are counted in the Saka era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year – if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar the Saka year is a leap year as well, its structure is just like the Persian calendar. Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Other members of the Committee were: A. C. Banerjee, K. K. Daftari, J. S. Karandikar, Gorakh Prasad, R. V. Vaidya and N. C. Lahiri, it was Saha's effort. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, which could be adopted uniformly throughout India, it was a mammoth task. The Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. There were thirty different calendars.
The task was further complicated by the fact that religion and local sentiments were integral to those calendars. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee, published in 1955, wrote: “They represent past political divisions in the country.... Now that we have attained Independence, it is desirable that there should be a certain uniformity in the calendar for our civic and other purposes, this should be done on a scientific approach to this problem.” Usage started at 1 Chaitra 1879, Saka Era, or 22 March 1957. Report of the Calendar Reform Committee – online link. Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History by E. G. Richards, 1998, pp. 184–185. Calendars and their History Indian Calendars Positional astronomy in India Indian National Calendar abstract
3rd century BC
The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of epoch, or historical period. In the Mediterranean Basin, the first few decades of this century were characterized by a balance of power between the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, the great mercantile power of Carthage in the west; this balance was shattered when conflict arose between the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Republic was first humbled and destroyed by the Romans in the First and Second Punic Wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean. In the eastern Mediterranean, the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Kingdom, successor states to the empire of Alexander the Great, fought a series of Syrian Wars for control over the Levant. In mainland Greece, the short-lived Antipatrid dynasty of Macedon was overthrown and replaced by the Antigonid dynasty in 294 BC, a royal house that would dominate the affairs of Hellenistic Greece for a century until the stalemate of the First Macedonian War against Rome.
Macedon would lose the Cretan War against the Greek city-state of Rhodes and its allies. In India, Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire; the Pandya and Chera dynasties of the classical age flourished in the ancient Tamil country. The Warring States period in China drew to a close, with Qin Shi Huang conquering the six other nation-states and establishing the short-lived Qin dynasty, the first empire of China, followed in the same century by the long-lasting Han dynasty. However, a brief interregnum and civil war existed between the Qin and Han periods known as the Chu-Han contention, lasting until 202 BC with the ultimate victory of Liu Bang over Xiang Yu; the Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula. In the following century the Chinese Han dynasty would conquer the Gojoseon kingdom of northern Korea; the Xiongnu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. They defeated the Han Chinese at the Battle of Baideng in 200 BC, marking the beginning of the forced Heqin tributary agreement and marriage alliance that would last several decades.
299 BC: The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the Third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them. 298 BC: The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, the first battle of the Third Samnite War. 294 BC: Antipater II of Macedon is killed by Lysimachus, allowing Demetrius I to become king of Macedonia, thus ending the Antipatrid dynasty's control over Hellenistic Greece and ushering in a period of rule by the Antigonid dynasty. 293 BC: The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique. Roman armies penetrate into the heart of the Samnite territory and capture the Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena. Agathocles, king of Syracuse, assists the Italian Greeks against the Bruttians. Bindusara succeeds his father Chandragupta Maurya as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
The Epi-Olmec culture forms as a successor civilization to the Olmecs in Mesoamerica. 285 BC: The Pharos of Alexandria is completed. 281 BC: Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire. 281 BC: Achaean League founded in Greece. 280 BC: King Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy in an attempt to subjugate the Romans and bring Italy under a new empire ruled by himself. 280 BC: Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed. 279 BC: Singidunum and Taurunum, today's Belgrade and Zemun, are founded by Scordisci Celts. After failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy. Gallic migration to Macedon and Galatia. During the Gallic invasion of Greece, the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos is killed in battle by the forces of the Celtic ruler Bolgios. However, both he and Brennus are driven out of Macedonian territory by Sosthenes of Macedon. 277 BC: in the Battle of Lysimachia, the invasion by Gauls is defeated by Antigonus II of Macedon.
274 BC: the First Syrian War erupts between Antiochus I Soter of the Seleucid dynasty and Ptolemy II Philadelphus of the Ptolemaic dynasty over control of Syria and southern Anatolia. 273 BC – 232 BC: Ashoka the Great ruled the Maurya Empire. 265 BC: Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka the Great and the kingdom of Kalinga. 264 BC: First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic. 261 BC: Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire. 260 BC: Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China. 260 BC: Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka. 258 BC: An Dương Vương overthrows the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in Viet Nam. 257 BC: Thục Dynasty takes over Vietnam. 246 BC: The death of Antiochus II sparks the Third Syrian War. Expansion of the Achaean League. 241 BC: First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, annexes Sicily and Corsica. 240 BC: On May 15, Chinese mathematicians observed and recorded the passage of the Halley's Comet.
230 BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Han. 230 BC: Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire. 229 BC: The First Illyrian War ends with a Roman victory. 229 BC: Last tyrants on the Peloponnese abdicate, Argos joins the Achaean League, Athens liberated from Macedonian garrison. 227 BC: The attempted assassination of Ying Zheng, king
1st millennium BC
The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC. It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity. World population doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million; the Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization; the Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and the Carthaginians. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire; the early Celts dominate Central Europe. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire; the Scythians dominate Central Asia.
In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period; the Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica. The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism Zoroastrianism in the Near East, Vedic religion and Vedanta and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese; the term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history. World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170–300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World; the population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica.
The population of Oceania was less than one million people. 10th century BC Near East: Neo-Assyrian Empire Near East: Shoshenq I invades Canaan Aegean: Helladic period ends 9th century BC Egypt: 872 BC: Nile floods the Temple of Luxor Egypt: 836 BC: Civil war in Egypt North Africa: 814 BC: Carthage founded China: 841 BCndash. Greece: Archaic Greece, Greek alphabet Greece: Homer 776 BC: Greece: First Olympiad 753 BC: Europe: foundation of Rome 7th century BC 671 BC: Assyrian conquest of Egypt Near East: 631 BC: Death of Ashurbanipal, decline of the Assyrian Empire 6th century BC Egypt: 592 BC: Psamtik II sacks Napata Sudan: Aspelta moves the Kushite capital to Meroe Near East: 539 BC: Achaemenid conquest of Babylon under Cyrus the Great South Asia: Śramaṇa movement and "second urbanisation" South Asia: Early Buddhism Europe: 509 BC: Roman Republic 5th century BC China: 479 BC: death of Confucius China: 476 BC: Warring States period China: 486 BC: Grand Canal construction begins Near East: Second Temple Judaism, redaction of the Hebrew Bible Greece: beginning of the classical period.
Greece: Greco-Persian Wars Greece: 440 BC: Herodotus' Histories Greece: 431 BC: Peloponnesian War Oceania: Austronesian expansion reaches Western Polynesia 4th century BC Greece: 395 BC: Corinthian War Egypt: 343 BC: Achaemenid conquest Greece/Asia/Egypt: 330s BC: conquests of Alexander the Great, end of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonian Empire, beginning of the Hellenistic period South Asia: Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC China: Qin Unified China China: 206 BC: Han Dynasty South Asia: 261 BC: Kalinga war Rome: Roman expansion in Italy Rome/Carthage: Punic Wars 264 BC: First Punic War 218 BC Second Punic War 2nd century BC Rome/Carthage: 149 BC Third Punic War, Roman province of Africa Rome/Greece: 146 BC Battle of Corinth, beginning of the Roman era South Asia: 185 BC: Fall of the Maurya Empire China: Confucianism became the state ideology of China 1st century BC China: 91 BC: Records of the Grand Historian finished Rome/Europe: 58-50 BC Gallic Wars Rome: 32/30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic Rome/Egypt: 31 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt Rome/Europe/West Asia/Africa: 27 BC: Roman Empire Some of the central figures of the Axial Age are legendary or semi-legendary, with no contemporary written records available RulersChina: Dynasties in Chinese history, List of Chinese monarchs Egypt: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Carthage: List of monarchs of Carthage Assyrian Empire: List of Assyrian kings Babylonia: Neo-Babylonian_dynasty Canaan / Biblical Levant: Kings of Israel and Judah Achaemenid Persia: List of monarchs of Persia Kingdom of Kush: List of monarchs of Kush Classical Greece: Monarchs: List of kings of Sparta, Thirty Tyrants Athenian democracy: Pericles Macedon: List of ancient Macedonians, Argead dynasty Hellenistic period: Ptolemaic Dynasty, Antigonid dynasty, Hasmonean dynasty Rome: kings of Rome, List of Roman consuls Parthian Empire: List of Parthian kings India: List of Indian monarchsReligion, p