The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
1490s in architecture
St Edmund's Church, Southwold in England is completed. Church of St. Valentin, Kiedrich in Hesse is completed. 1490 Bara Gumbad in Delhi is built. Probable completion of rebuilding of Sherborne Abbey choir, with a Perpendicular style fan vault by William Smyth. All Saints' Church, designed by Conrad Pflüger, begun. Former Nea Ekklesia church in Constantinople destroyed by a lightning strike. 1493 – Tomb of Bibi Jawindi at Uch in the Punjab region is built. 1495 – Monastery of Jesus of Setúbal in Portugal, designed by Diogo de Boitaca, is completed. 1497 – Rebuilding of Holy Trinity Church, Long Melford in England is completed. 1498 – Church of St Martin, Bavaria is completed by Hans von Burghausen. 1499 Garden loggia and external spiral staircase at Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo in Venice designed by Giorgio Spavento, completed. Start of construction of Abbaye de la Trinité, Vendôme. C. 1495 – Diego Siloe, Spanish Renaissance architect and sculptor 1490 – William Smyth, English architect c. 1493 – Enna Swarviski 1494 – Luca Fancelli, Italian architect and sculptor
Henry VII of England
Henry VII was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor. Henry attained the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses, he was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war, his supportive stance of the British Isles' wool industry and his standoff with the Low Countries had long-lasting benefits to all of the British economy. However, the capriciousness and lack of due process that indebted many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VII's death, after a commission revealed widespread abuses. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years.
Henry can be credited with a number of administrative and diplomatic initiatives. He paid close attention to detail, instead of spending lavishly he concentrated on raising new revenues and after a reign of nearly 24 years, he was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII; the new taxes were unpopular and two days after his coronation, Henry VIII arrested his father's two most unpopular ministers, Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley. They were charged with high treason and were executed in 1510. Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457 to Countess of Richmond, his father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, died three months before his birth. Henry's paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V, he rose to become one of the "Squires to the Body to the King" after military service at the Battle of Agincourt. Owen is said to have secretly married the widow of Catherine of Valois. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII.
Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, "formally declared legitimate by Parliament". Henry's main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort. Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III, his third wife Katherine Swynford. Katherine was Gaunt's mistress for about 25 years, thus Henry's claim was somewhat tenuous: it was from a woman, by illegitimate descent. In theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile. Gaunt's nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunt's children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397. In 1407, Henry IV, Gaunt's son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings, but declaring them ineligible for the throne. Henry IV's action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henry's claim.
Nonetheless, by 1483 Henry was the senior male Lancastrian claimant remaining, after the deaths in battle or by murder or execution of Henry VI, his son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, the other Beaufort line of descent through Lady Margaret's uncle, the 2nd Duke of Somerset. Henry made some political capital out of his Welsh ancestry, for example in attracting military support and safeguarding his army's passage through Wales on its way to the Battle of Bosworth, he came from an old, established Anglesey family that claimed descent from Cadwaladr, on occasion Henry displayed the red dragon of Cadwaladr. He took it, as well as the standard of St George, on his procession through London after the victory at Bosworth. A contemporary writer and Henry's biographer, Bernard André made much of Henry's Welsh descent. In reality, his hereditary connections to Welsh aristocracy were not strong, he was descended by the paternal line, through several generations, from Ednyfed Fychan, the seneschal of Gwynedd and through this seneschal's wife from Rhys ap Tewdwr, the King of Deheubarth in South Wales.
His more immediate ancestor, Tudur ap Goronwy, had aristocratic land rights, but his sons, who were first cousins to Owain Glyndŵr, sided with Owain in his revolt. One son was executed and the family land was forfeited. Another son, Henry's great-grandfather, became a butler to the Bishop of Bangor. Owen Tudor, the son of the butler, like the children of other rebels, was provided for by Henry V, a circumstance that precipitated his access to Queen Catherine of Valois. Notwithstanding this lineage, to the bards of Wales, Henry was a candidate for Y Mab Darogan – "The Son of Prophecy" who would free the Welsh from oppression. In 1456, Henry's father Edmund Tudor was captured while fighting for Henry VI in South Wales against the Yorkists, he died in three months before Henry was born. Henry's uncle Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke and Edmund's younger brother, undertook to protect the young widow, 13 years old when she gave birth to Henry; when Edward IV became King in 1461, Jasper Tudor went into exile abroad.
Pembroke Castle, the Earldom of Pembroke, were granted to the Yorkist William Herbert, who assumed the guardianship of Margaret Beaufort and the young Henry. Henry lived in the Herbert household
Kali Yuga in Hinduism is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of a'cycle of yugas' described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga. Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali; the "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention". According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE; this is considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. This information is placed at the temple of the place of this incident. According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE, he finished his book "Aryabhattiya" in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23; as it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to 3102 BCE.
According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an rare planetary alignment, depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is off; the actual date for this alignment is 7 February of 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30 % of; the common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the Yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga. This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhatta recalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year"; this was a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. However, both the Mahabharata and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the Yuga cycle.
Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millennia matches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar. The length of the transitional periods between each Yuga is unclear, can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years. Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswar in his book The Holy Science, as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, believe that the Kali Yuga has ended, that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga; this calculation is supported by modern day spiritual masters such as Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga, referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism symbolically represents morality as an Indian bull. Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure and materialism, unrestricted egotism and maladies of mind and body.
In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg; the Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the "Yuga-Sandhi", the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Sage Narada to have momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga. In relation to rulers, it lists: Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world. People will start seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.
"At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says: Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur. People will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life. Sin will increase exponentially, while virtue will cease to flourish. People will become addicted to intoxicating drugs. Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt
1490s in art
The decade of the 1490s in art involved some significant events. The Renaissance is in full swing during the 1490s, Leonardo da Vinci is painting in realistic, chiaroscuro style. In music, many new musical styles are being created, including the motet and madrigal, replacing an emphasis on chanting with polyphony and homophony. Christopher Columbus's explorations of the New World captivates the artistic imagination of both artists and the public. 1490 – July 13: John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church, Hrastovlje. 1495: Donatello's bronze Judith and Holofernes is moved from the Palazzo Medici Riccardi to the Piazza della Signoria, beside the main door of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. 1496: Juan de Flandes joins the court of Isabella I of Castile. 1494: Tilman Riemenschneider carves the Seated Bishop 1496: The bronze equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni designed by Andrea del Verrocchio and completed by Alessandro Leopardi is unveiled in Venice 1498–1499: Michelangelo carves his Pietà for St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, in Carrara marble c.
1486–1490: Domenico Ghirlandaio paints the fresco Birth of St. Mary in the Tornabuoni Chapel of the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella in Florence 1490: Leonardo da Vinci completes painting the portrait Lady with an Ermine and paints Portrait of a Musician c. 1490: Giovanni Bellini paints two Sacred Conversations and a presumed portrait of Bartolomeo d'Alviano c. 1490–1497: Leonardo da Vinci or one of his school paints La belle ferronnière c. 1490–1498 c. 1495: Gerard David paints Triptych of the Sedano family c. 1490–1500: Giovanni Bellini paints the Holy Allegory and Portrait of a Gentleman c. 1490–1504: Giovanni Bellini paints four Allegories 1492: Andrea Mantegna paints Descent Into Limbo a depiction of Christ descending into limbo to liberate the souls of the righteous 1493: Albrecht Dürer paints Portrait of the Artist Holding a Thistle, a self-portrait at the age of 22 c. 1494: Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād paints The Caliph Harun al-Rashid Visits the Turkish Bath, from a copy of the 12th century Khamsa of Nizami Ganjavi, Afghanistan 1495: Giovanni Donato da Montorfano paints The Crucifixion 1495: Sandro Botticelli paints Calumny of Apelles 1495: Vittore Carpaccio paints The Dream of St. Ursula c. 1495: Pedro Berruguete paints Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe c. 1495: Jan Provoost paints a Crucifixion c.
1495–1496: Leonardo da Vinci draws the Portrait of a Young Fiancée for the Sforziada c. 1495 and beyond: followers of Martin Schongauer paint the colossal Buhl Altarpiece c. 1496: Vittore Carpaccio paints Miracle of the Relic of the Cross at the Ponte di Rialto as one of the commissions for the grand hall of the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista in Venice. C. 1496: Juan de Flandes paints Portrait of an Infanta and Herodia's Revenge c. 1496–1497: Sandro Botticelli paints Michael Tarchaniota Marullus 1497: Albrecht Dürer paints Portrait of Dürer's Father at 70 1497: Andrea Mantegna paints Parnassus and the Trivulzio Madonna 1497: Pietro Perugino paints the Fano Altarpiece c. 1497–1498: Fra Bartolomeo paints Portrait of Girolamo Savonarola 1498: Gerard David paints the diptych The Judgement of Cambyses 1498: Albrecht Dürer paints a Self-Portrait at the age of 26 and the Haller Madonna 1498: Leonardo da Vinci completes painting The Last Supper 1499: Giovanni di Niccolò Mansueti paints The Arrest of Saint Mark in the Synagogue 1494: Albrecht Dürer - illustrations to Ship of Fools c. 1495: Albrecht Dürer - The Holy Family with the Dragonfly 1497: Albrecht Dürer - The Four Witches c. 1498: Albrecht Dürer Apocalypse Saint Michael Fighting the Dragon The Temptation of the Idler or The Dream of the Doctor c.
1498–1500: Albrecht Dürer - The Sea Monster 1490: Giovanni Cariani - Italian painter of the high-Renaissance 1490: Peter Dell the Elder – German sculptor 1490: Agostino Veneziano – Italian engraver 1490: Giovanni Maria Francesco Rondani – Italian painter of the Parmesan school of painting 1490: Gregório Lopes – Renaissance painter from Portugal 1490: Hans Dürer – German Renaissance painter and engraver 1490: Peter Flötner - German designer and printmaker 1490: Lucas Gassel, Flemish painter 1490: Adriaen Isenbrandt – Flemish painter 1490: Battista Dossi – Italian painter who belonged to the Ferrara School of Painting 1490: Dosso Dossi – Italian Renaissance painter who belonged to the Ferrara School of Painting 1490: Vincenzo Pagani - Italian painter 1490: Valentin Bousch - French master glass artist and a glass painter 1490: Fra Paolo da Pistoia – Italian painter and Dominican friar 1490: Diego Siloe – Spanish Renaissance architect and sculptor 1490: Hans Springinklee - German wood-engraver 1490: Marinus van Reymerswaele – Dutch Renaissance painter 1490: Stanisław Samostrzelnik – Polish Renaissance painter and Cisterian monk 1490/1491: Altobello Melone – Italian painter of the Renaissance 1490/1495: Lucas Horenbout – Flemish artist and court miniaturist 1491: Francesco Melzi – Italian painter and pupil of Leonardo da Vinci 1492: Simone Mosca - Italian sculptor 1492: Domenico Puligo - painter from Florence 1492: Michelangelo Anselmi – Italian Renaissance-Mannerism painter active in Parma 1492/1495: Polidoro da Caravaggio – Italian early Renaissance painter 1493: Bartolommeo Bandinelli - Florentine sculptor 1493: Barthel Bruyn
The 1500s ran from January 1, 1500, to December 31, 1509. January 5 – Duke Ludovico Sforza recaptures Milan, but is soon driven out again by the French. January 26 – Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón reaches the northern coast of Brazil. February 17 – Battle of Hemmingstedt: The Danish army fails to conquer the peasants' republic of Dithmarschen. April 22 – Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil, claims the land for the Kingdom of Portugal, he has 13 vessels with him. July 14 – The Muscovites defeat the Lithuanians and the Poles in the Battle of Vedrosha. August –: The Turkish fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians in the Second Battle of Lepanto; the Turks proceed to capture Modon and Coron, the "two eyes of the Republic". August 10 – Diogo Dias discovers an island which he names St Lawrence to be known as Madagascar. November 11 – Treaty of Granada: Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon agree to divide the Kingdom of Naples between them. November 16 – Emperor Go-Kashiwabara accedes to the throne of Meiō era Japan.
December 24 – The Siege of the Castle of St. George ends, the island of Cephalonia is captured by a joint Venetian–Spanish fleet. December 31 – The last of the incunabula are published. Europe's population is estimated at 56.7 million people. Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa is admitted to baccalaureate. Saxony's mint at Annaberg begins producing guldengroschens. Although other reports exist, it is thought that the last wolf in England was killed this year, making the species extinct in that country; the wolf is thought to have been killed in Cumbria. However, reports of wolf sightings and laws concerning wolf bounties existed in rural areas of the north until the 18th century. January 17 – Cesare Borgia returns triumphantly to Rome, from Romagna. March 25 – Portuguese navigator João da Nova discovers Ascension Island, it is sighted and named on May 20, 1503 by Afonso de Albuquerque. April – The Rebellion of the Alpujarras ends with the surrender of the last Muslim insurgents in the Alpujarra Mountains, who are given the choice of expulsion or conversion to Christianity.
May 15 – Harmonice Musices Odhecaton, the first printed collection of polyphonic music, is published by Ottaviano Petrucci in Venice. July – Ismail I is enthroned as Shah of Azerbaijan, choosing Tabriz as his capital, founding the Safavid Dynasty in northern Iran, he declares Shi'ism compulsory religion, under penalty of death. July 21 – Portuguese explorer Pedro Cabral returns to Lisbon, from his expedition to Calicut. July 27 – Copernicus is formally installed, as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral. August John, King of Denmark and Sweden is deposed from the Swedish throne. Florentine political theorist and writer Niccolò Machiavelli marries Marietta Corsini, who will bear him six children. August 27 – Battle of the Siritsa River: The Livonian Order, supporting the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War, commanded by Wolter von Plettenberg, defeats an army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Pskov Republic. October 13 – Treaty of Trente: Maximilian of Austria and Louis XII of France sign the treaty, with Austria recognizing all French conquests in the northern territories of Italy.
October 30 – The Banquet of Chestnuts is purportedly held by Cesare Borgia, in the Papal Palace of Rome. November 1 – Amerigo Vespucci discovers and names Baía de Todos os Santos, in Brazil. November 4 Battle of Mstislavl: Grand Prince Ivan's Southern Muscovite army defeats the forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Philip and Joanna of Castile leave for Spain. November 12 – Sten Sture the Elder is elected Regent of Sweden for the second time. November 14 – Arthur, Prince of Wales, marries the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon. November 24 – A large army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow overruns Livonia during the Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War. December 12 – Alexander Jagiellon becomes King of Poland; the Swiss cantons of Basel and Schaffhausen join the Old Swiss Confederacy. Gaspar Corte-Real, Portuguese navigator, makes the first documented European landing in North America since c. 1000 A. D. Rodrigo de Bastidas, sailing westward from Venezuela in search of gold, becomes the first European to explore the Isthmus of Panama.
Amerigo Vespucci maps the two stars Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri, as well as the stars of the constellation Crux, which are below the horizon in Europe. Michelangelo returns to his native Florence. Italic type is first used by Aldus Manutius at the Aldine Press in an edition of Virgil. Martin Luther enters the University of Erfurt. January 1 – Portuguese explorers, led by Gonçalo Coelho, sail into Guanabara Bay, mistaking it for the mouth of a river, which they name Rio de Janeiro. February 12 – Isabella I issued an edict outlawing Islam in the Crown of Castile, forcing all her Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity. May 3 – Portuguese navigator João da Nova discovers the uninhabited island of Saint Helena. May 11 – Christopher Columbus leaves Cadiz, Spain for his fourth and final trip to the New World, he explores Central America, discovers St. Lucia, the Isthmus of Panama and Costa Rica. July – Ismail I becomes Shah of Persia. August 14 – Christopher Columbus lands at Trujillo, names the country'Honduras'.
September – A Greek and Italian parallel text edition of Herodotus' Histories, done for Count Matteo Maria Boiardo, is published in Venice by Aldus Manutius