The Soviet Army is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not abolished until 25 December 1993. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the Red Army, established by decree on 15 January 1918 "to protect the population, territorial integrity and civil liberties in the territory of the Soviet state." The Strategic Missile Troops, Air Defense Forces and Air Forces were part of the Soviet Army in addition to the Ground Forces. At the end of World War II the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and about a tenth that number of tank formations, their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that the infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the late war period were converted to tank divisions, from 1957 the rifle divisions were converted to motor rifle divisions. MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a tank regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions.
The Land Forces Chief Command was created for the first time in March 1946. Four years it was disbanded, only to be formed again in 1955. In March 1964 the Chief Command was again disbanded but recreated in November 1967. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov became Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces in March 1946, but was succeeded by Ivan Konev in July, who remained as such until 1950, when the position of Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces was abolished for five years, an organisational gap that "probably was associated in some manner with the Korean War". From 1945 to 1948, the Soviet Armed Forces were reduced from about 11.3 million to about 2.8 million men, a demobilisation controlled first, by increasing the number of military districts to 33 reduced to 21 in 1946. The personnel strength of the Ground Forces was reduced from 9.8 million to 2.4 million. To establish and secure the USSR's eastern European geopolitical interests, Red Army troops who liberated eastern Europe from Nazi rule, in 1945 remained in place to secure pro-Soviet régimes in Eastern Europe and to protect against attack from Europe.
Elsewhere, they may have assisted the NKVD in suppressing anti-Soviet resistance in Western Ukraine and the Baltic states. Soviet troops, including the 39th Army, remained at Port Arthur and Dalian on the northeast Chinese coast until 1955. Control was handed over to the new Chinese communist government. Soviet Army forces on USSR territory were apportioned among military districts. There were 32 of them in 1945. Sixteen districts remained from the mid-1970s to the end of the USSR. Yet, the greatest Soviet Army concentration was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which suppressed the anti-Soviet Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East European Groups of Forces were the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, which put down the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. In 1958, Soviet troops were withdrawn from Romania; the Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia was established after Warsaw Pact intervention against the Prague Spring of 1968. In 1969, at the east end of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Soviet border conflict, prompted establishment of a 16th military district, the Central Asian Military District, at Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan.
In 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan, to support its Communist government, provoking a 10-year Afghan mujahideen guerrilla resistance. Throughout the Cold War, Western intelligence estimates calculated that the Soviet strength remained ca. 2.8 million to ca. 5.3 million men. To maintain said strength range, Soviet law minimally required a three-year military service obligation from every able man of military age, until 1967, when the Ground Forces reduced it to a two-year draft obligation. By the middle of the 1980s, the Ground Forces contained about 210 divisions. About three-quarters were the remainder tank divisions. There were a large number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations, other combat support formations. However, only few formations were war ready. Three readiness categories, A, B, V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force; the Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were equipped. B and V divisions were 50 -- 75 % and 10 -- 33 % respectively.
The internal military districts contained only one or two A divisions, with the remainder B and V series formations. Soviet planning for most of the Cold War period would have seen Armies of four to five divisions operating in Fronts made up of around four armies. In February 1979, the first of the new High Commands in the Strategic Directions were created at Ulan-Ude; these new headquarters controlled multiple Fronts, a Soviet Navy Fleet. In September 1984, three more were established to control multi-Front operations in Europe and at Baku to handle southern operations. In 1955, the Soviet Union signed the Warsaw Pact with its East European socialist allies, establishing military coordination between Soviet forces and their socialist counterparts; the Soviet Army created and directed the Eastern European armies in its image for the remainder of the Cold War, shaping them for a potential confrontation with the North Atlant
Afrikanda (air base)
Afrikanda is a military air base in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is located just north of the village of the same name. Though it is built for fighter operations with 30 revetments, it has served the interceptor aircraft role. Western intelligence services reported jet fighters operating from Afrikanda as early as 1953. From 1953, the 431st Fighter Aviation Regiment was stationed at the base, which became the 431 Regiment PVO in 1960. From 1960 the regiment was part of the 21st Air Defence Corps, it served through the whole Cold War. In September 1993 it was merged with the 641 Guards IAP and became the 470th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment; the regiment operated a number of Su-27 aircraft. The 470 Guards IAP disbanded on 30 November 2000. On June 26, 1941, the first known air victory was won over the airfield 147th Fighter Aviation Regiment in World War II: senior lieutenant L. I. Ivanov, piloting I-15bis, shot down a German bomber in an air battle near the Afrikanod airfield, He-111. In the future, the airfield was used by combat aircraft Karelian Front.
From June 1 to July 1, 1942, the 835th Fighter Aviation Regiment was based at the airfield on Hawker Hurricane fighters. At the aerodrome from 1941 to November 10, 1943, 609th Fighter Aviation Regiment was based on the Hurricane and LaGG-3 fighter jets. In 1943, the 137th short-range aviation regiment was based at the airfield from 258th mixed aviation division on airplanes Boston-3, for exemplary performance of command assignments renamed 114th Guards Middle Bomb Aviation Regiment. In March 1944, units of the operational group 8th long-range air corps were based on the airfield: operational group 36th long-range aviation division actions and 455th long-range air regiment 48th long-range aviation division on aircraft IL-4. From April to June 1944, the 668th Assault Aviation Regiment was based at IL-2 at the airfield. From August 1945 to July 1946, the 668th cap continued to be based on IL-2 aircraft at the aerodrome. In the period from October 1953 to September 1993, 431st Fighter Aviation Regiment was based on the airfield, Armaments MiG-15, MiG-17, MiG-19 and Su-15TM.
From 1954 to 1960, a bomber aviation regiment, one of the regiments 184th bomber aviation division was based at this airfield 22nd Air Army. The regiment was armed with a front-line jet bomber IL-28. In 1993 from the airfield Rogachevo was translated 641st Guards Vilna Order Kutuzov Fighter Aviation Regiment. Both regiments were merged into one, which in September 1993 received the name of the 470th Guards Vilna Order of Kutuzov Fighter Aviation Regiment. In service with the 470th Guards. Iap consisted fighter Su-27. September 1, 2001 and the 470th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment was disbanded
The Chukchi Peninsula, at about 66° N 172° W, is the easternmost peninsula of Asia. Its eastern end is at Cape Dezhnev near the village of Uelen, it is bordered by the Chukchi Sea to the north, the Bering Sea to the south, the Bering Strait to the east. The peninsula is part of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of Russia; the peninsula is traditionally the home of tribes of the indigenous peoples of Siberia as well as some Russian settlers. The peninsula lies along the Northern Sea Route, or Northeast passage, it was said to be the location of the prison camp/lead mine where Cornelius Rost claimed to have been imprisoned, as described in the book "As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me," by Josef Martin Bauer. However, the existence of such a camp at that time has been refuted. Industries on the peninsula are mining and trapping, reindeer raising, fishing. Providence Bay, Siberia Aĭnana, L. and Richard L. Bland. Umiak the traditional skin boat of the coast dwellers of the Chukchi Peninsula: compiled in the communities of Provideniya and Sireniki, Chukotka Autonomous Region, Russia 1997-2000.
Anchorage: U. S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, 2003. Dinesman, Lev Georgievich. Secular dynamics of coastal zone ecosystems of the northeastern Chukchi Peninsula Chukotka: cultural layers and natural depositions from the last millennia. Tübingen: Mo Vince, 1999. ISBN 3-934400-03-5 Dikov, Nikolaĭ Nikolaevich. Asia at the Juncture with America in Antiquity The Stone Age of the Chukchi Peninsula. St. Petersburg: "Nauka", 1993. Frazier, Travels in Siberia, Farrar and Giroux, 2010. Travelogue in Siberia. Portenko, L. A. and Douglas Siegel-Causey. Birds of the Chukchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island = Ptitsy Chukotskogo Poluostrova I Ostrova Vrangelya. New Delhi: Published for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C. by Amerind, 1981
Neiden is a village area in the Sápmi area along the Finland–Norway border with about 250 inhabitants. Neiden, situated along the Neiden River consists of two villages separated by the border of Norway and Finland. One side is in Sør-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark county and the other side is in Inari Municipality in Lapland, Finland. Neiden is the official name in Näätämö in Finland; the European route E06 highway runs through the Norwegian village of Neiden. In Finnish view Neiden/Näätämö extends into Finland, there is a small village in Finland near the border called Näätämö, with border shops, around 12 km from Neiden village centre. Neiden became the main settlement of the westernmost Njauddâm sijdd of the Skolts and has remained unchanged, leaving numerous traces of earlier use of the area intact. Neiden was governmentally divided in 1852; the reason for that separation was the remarcation treaty between the Kingdom of Sweden-Norway and the Grand Duchy of Finland, which prohibited nomadic reindeer herding and moving of fishermen over the border.
That caused much harm to reindeer husbandry for a long time. On 26 and 27 October 1944 around two hundred soldiers were killed. Most inhabitants of Neiden are Sami and Norwegians; the Skolts form a minority group among the Sami and are distinct from other groups in a number of ways. The Russian culture has had a strong influence on the Skolts, who adopted Christianity in its Eastern Orthodox form in the 16th century; the Skolt Sami language is endangered and not spoken in Neiden today. All speakers live in Finland; the Ä'vv Skolt Sami Museum, situated in Neiden opened in June 2016. A Skolt Sami tradition maintained until today is the so-called Käpälä-fishing of salmon with a cast net; the protected area in Skoltebyen includes a number of different monuments, some of which are old enough to be automatically protected under the Cultural Heritage Act. These include a Russian Orthodox graveyard, the ruins of a smoke sauna, sixteen sites of traditional turf huts known as gammer and a tiny Russian Orthodox chapel, St. Georg's Chapel, build 1565 by Tryphon of Pechenga.
In addition, many of the natural features of the area have been and are being used in religious ceremonies, such as baptism. The formal protection of the settlement was carried out in order to safeguard its historical and religious importance as well as the integrity of the landscape; this is the most important cultural heritage site for the Skolts and their surviving culture in Norway. The protection order was issued to prevent the area from being developed in a way that would reduce its significance and cultural value, while at the same time encouraging use that will communicate and develop the Skolt culture; the protection order does not affect the commercial salmon fishing in the Neiden River nor other commercial activities in the area. The oldest church in Neiden is St. Georg's Russian Orthodox chapel, mentioned above. There is the Lutheran Neiden Chapel, built in 1902 in the classical style of a Norwegian stave church, it was built as part of a deliberate policy of Norwegianization of Eastern Finnmark in the face of fear of Russian encroachment.
Nazi concentration camps in Norway Official Website Skoltsami museum in Neiden Neiden Skolt Sámi Culture Across borders Neiden Blog Neidenfossen
14th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 14th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army, formed twice. Formed in Moscow in 1922, the division spent most of the interwar period at Vladimir. After moving to the Kola Peninsula during the Winter War, the division fought on that front during the Continuation War. After the end of the Continuation War it became the 101st Guards Rifle Division; the division reformed in 1955 from the 180th Rifle Division but became the 88th Motor Rifle Division in 1957. It was formed in Moscow on 1 July 1922; the division headquarters and the 40th Rifle Regiment were stationed at Vladimir. The 41st Rifle Regiment was in the 42nd Rifle Regiment at Kovrov; the division transferred to the Leningrad Military District in Vologda during the late 1930s. Its regiments were deployed in Vologda and Cherepovets. In September 1939, the regiments were each expanded to division strength, resulting in the formation of the 88th Rifle Division and 168th Rifle Division. On 11 September 1939, its headquarters moved to Murmansk.
During the Winter War, it covered the Soviet border on the northern and northeastern coast of the Kola Peninsula as part of the Murmansk Group. It saw World War II operational service from 22 June 1941 to 14 Nov 1944. On 22 Jun 1941, the division was stationed on the part of the front length of 300 kilometers along the coast of the Kola Peninsula from Cape Saint Nose to the island Kildin, it appears to have been part of the 14th Army. On the night of 22 Jun 1941, the two regiments of the division and a reconnaissance battalion were deployed to the border with Finland, occupied the area from the Barents Sea to Ukhta. On 25 June 1941 the division was reinforced by two regiments of the 52nd Rifle Division. On 29 Jun 1941, parts of Mountain Corps Norway after an artillery preparation and with bomber support launched an attack on the division; the main forces struck at the 95th Rifle Regiment, unable to hold strike, more - in retreat, if not escape to the village Tytivka, dragging approached the position of 325th Rifle Regiment of the same division.
The enemy was stopped by the divisional together with parts of the 23rd Fortified Region and supported by the Northern Fleet and the approaching 52nd Rifle Division at the Turn of River West Face. On 14 Jul 1941, the 325th Rifle Regiment landed from Northern Fleet ships in the amphibious landing on the north - west coast of the Great Western People Bay, where it fought heroically until 2 August 1941. On this day, the regiment was evacuated from the beachhead and moved by ship to the main forces of division in the southern part of the Great Western People Bay; the 135th Rifle Regiment, separated from the main force of the division, was converted to the 254th Separate Marine Rifle Brigade. The German troops were unable to penetrate the border in their positions. On 8 Sep 1941, the division was forced to retreat further, releasing a small bridgehead on the eastern bank of the River. By October 1941 the front line was stabilized at the bend of the Zapadnaya Litsa River. On 22 Oct 1941 Wehrmacht on the orders passed on the defensive.
Enemy at the division site has moved only about 30-60 kilometers, a record minimum advancement and satellites of Germany for all time the Second World War. Until October 1944 the front line remained unchanged; the division fought in small-scale battles. During late April and May 1942, the division participated in the unsuccessful Murmansk Offensive with other units. On 7 Oct 1944 the division took part in the Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation, advanced on the main line of attack, taking part in the liberation of the cities Pechenga Tarnet, Kirkenes, it was awarded the honorific "Pechenga". After the operation the division was put in reserve. On 1 November 1944 it was part of 131st Rifle Corps as part of Karelian Front. On 30 December 1944 it was transformed into the 101st Guards Rifle Division. In 1955, the 180th Rifle Division was renamed the 14th Rifle Division in Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy, part of the 10th Guards Rifle Corps. On 17 May 1957, the 88th Motor Rifle Division was formed in Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy, Odessa Oblast, from the 14th Rifle Division.
It became the 180th Motor Rifle Division in 1965. The division's first formation included the following units. 95th Rifle Regiment 325th Rifle Regiment 135th Rifle Regiment 155th Rifle Regiment 143rd Light Artillery Regiment 241st Howitzer Artillery Regiment 149th Separate Anti-Tank Battalion 364th Separate Mortar Battalion 35th Reconnaissance Company 14th Engineer Battalion 112th Separate Communications Battalion 75th Medical Battalion 139th Motor Company 285th Field Bakery 203rd Divisional Veterinary Hospital 669th Field Post Office 185th Field Cash Office of the State Bank Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306
Nausta is a river in Naustdal Municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. It runs through the Naustdal valley to the southwest before emptying into Førde Fjord at the village of Naustdal below Kletten Hill; the 36-kilometre long river drains a watershed area of about 276 square kilometres. The river begins at the lake Inste Langevatnet, which sits high up in the mountains at an elevation of 1,390 metres above sea level; the Nausta is a medium-sized salmon river. From the old bridge across the Naustdalsfossen waterfall salmon may be observed climbing the falls. Fishing permits may be purchased from local landowners. In 2005, the river Nausta was ranked as the best in Sogn og Fjordane county and number 19th nationally with a total catch of 4,698 kilograms. Salmon travel 12 kilometres upstream from the river mouth; the stretch from the fjord to the Hovefoss waterfall is good for sea trout fishing. The small Redal water system contains small salmon, sea trout and char. Small salmon and sea trout are best caught during floods.
The salmon and sea trout season runs from 1 June until 31 August each year. The landowners have set a limit of catching one salmon under 2.5 kilograms per day. The record for the largest fish caught in the river Nausta was set in 1946, when a salmon weighing 23.6 kilograms was caught. Netfish.no