Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
An Emmy Award, or simply Emmy, recognizes excellence in the television industry, and corresponds to the Academy Award, the Tony Award, and the Grammy Award. Because Emmy Awards are given in various sectors of the American television industry, Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced, each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies. The Los Angeles-based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25,1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the very first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, in 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, and help to supervise the Emmys.
The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming, the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. Originally there was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States, in 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to specifically honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed, the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and initially aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, in 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark. With the rise of television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988.
The ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013, the Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model. The TV Academy rejected a total of forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus design in 1948. The statuette has become the symbol of the TV Academys goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television, The wings represent the muse of art. When deciding a name for the award, Academy founder Syd Cassyd originally suggested Ike, Ike was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the Academy members wanted something unique. Finally, television engineer and the third president, Harry Lubcke, suggested the name Immy. After Immy was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette
International Emmy Award
The awards are presented at the International Emmy Awards Gala, held each year in November at the Hilton Hotel, New York City, which attracts over 1,200 television professionals. The International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences organizes competitions in several areas, Kids categories, News categories. Organization or individual may submit a program, organizations or individuals who do not hold copyright ownership of a program must obtain consent from the rights owner before presenting a submission. This process is independent from Membership, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences presents International Emmy Awards in 20 categories over four ceremonies. Program—Performance Arts Programming Best Performance by an Actor Best Performance by an Actress Comedy Documentary Drama Series Non-English Language U. S
Spitting Image is a British satirical puppet show, created by Peter Fluck, Roger Law and Martin Lambie-Nairn. The series was produced by Spitting Image Productions for Central Independent Television over 18 series which aired on the ITV network, the series was cancelled in 1996, after viewing figures declined. ITV had plans for a new series in 2006, but these were scrapped after a dispute over Ant & Dec puppets used to host Best Ever Spitting Image, Martin Lambie-Nairn proposed a satirical television show featuring caricature puppets created by Peter Fluck and Roger Law. The idea for the series was rejected by many in the industry, who thought it would only be suitable for children, but the series was finally accepted for development and first broadcast in 1984. English comedy writer and National Lampoon editor Tony Hendra, was brought in as a writer, Hendra brought in John Lloyd, producer of Not The Nine OClock News. They were joined by Jon Blair, a documentary producer and they hired Muppet puppeteer Louise Gold.
Development was funded by Clive Sinclair, the puppets, based on public figures, were designed by Fluck and Law, assisted by caricaturists that included David Stoten, Pablo Bach, Steve Bendelack and Tim Watts. The episodes included musical parodies by Philip Pope and Steve Brown, the first episode of Spitting Image, in 1984, aired with a laugh track, apparently at the insistence of Central Television. This episode was shown to an audience before transmission. In the early years of the show, Spitting Image was filmed in the zone at London Docklands. Impressionist Steve Nallon recalls that they were able to get away with no health and safety, there were no extractor fans, it was quite Dickensian. In series, Spitting Image was recorded at Centrals studios in Nottingham with last minute additions being recorded at the Limehouse Studios at Canary Wharf, London. Before the first episode was broadcast, the parodies of the Royal Family were cut, as a courtesy to the Duke of Edinburgh, the scenes were however all reinstated in episodes.
The series had been scheduled to have 13 episodes but was cut back to 12, rob Grant and Doug Naylor were brought in as head writers to save the show. By 1986, under their supervision, Spitting Image had become popular, however and Naylor subsequently left to create Red Dwarf for BBC2. Spitting Image had a dispute with the Independent Broadcasting Authority in 1985. When Margaret Thatcher resigned in November 1990, her successor was John Major, the producers dressed Major and all, in shades of grey. They invented an affair between him and Virginia Bottomley, the show added animated sketches from 1989 and again from 1994
BBC Cymru Wales
BBC Cymru Wales is a division of the BBC, and the national broadcaster for Wales. Established in 1964, BBC Cymru Wales is based in Cardiff and directly employs some 1,200 people to produce a range of programmes for television, radio, BBC Cymru Wales operates two TV channels and two radio stations. Wales raises some £182 million in licence fee resources, spend on local content by BBC Wales is £151 million, £31 million of which is for BBC-produced television productions. BBC Cymru Wales operates two services, BBC One Wales and BBC Two Wales, which can opt out of the main network feed of BBC One. In addition to two channels, BBC Cymru Wales is required to provide programmes in Welsh, which it supplies to the Welsh channel S4C free of charge using the BBC Cymru brand. These programmes include a Welsh news service Newyddion, covering Welsh, general UK and international news, and a soap opera Pobol y Cwm, BBC Cymru Wales operates two radio stations covering the entire country. BBC Radio Wales is the English language network, broadcasting local programmes for approximately 20 hours a day, while off air, Radio Cymru simulcasts BBC Radio 5 Lives overnight programme.
BBC Cymru Wales operates its own mini-site on BBC Online as well as providing news, in addition, news stories are provided for the BBC Red Button interactive service. BBC Cymru Wales employs an orchestra, the BBC National Orchestra of Wales. The majority of the concerts are recorded for broadcast on BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio Wales. Since January 2009 the administrative base of the NOW has been the BBC Hoddinott Hall, in the Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff. The first broadcast in Wales was on 13 February 1923 from the radio station 5WA, to become part of the BBC Regional Programme, during this time, the region was served from a variety of bases around Wales. During World War II, the services all ceased and broadcast the Home Service from London. The BBCs Bangor base played host to the BBC Variety Department during the war, the first television signals in Wales came on 15 August 1952 from the newly constructed Wenvoe transmitter. The transmitter itself broadcast the national BBC Television service, the launch of BBC Wales on 9 February 1964 provided a specific television service for the country.
The new service was promoted with animated promos using the sound of Welsh choirs to explain about interference from the mountains. Two years in 1966, BBC Cymru Wales new headquarters at Broadcasting House in Cardiff opened, following the end of the Second World War, the BBC Home Service continued its regional opt-outs, including an opt-out service for Wales. This opt-out continued after the change from the Home Service to Radio 4, prior to 1982, BBC Cymru Wales on television provided programmes in both English and Welsh, with the news programme Heddiw and the long-running serial Pobol y Cwm figuring among the key output
Josephine Baker was a French vedette and entertainer, whose career was centered primarily in Europe, mostly in her adoptive country of France. During her early career she was renowned as a dancer, and was among the most celebrated performers to headline the lavish revues of the Folies Bergère in Paris. She was celebrated by artists and intellectuals of the era, who dubbed her the Black Pearl, the Bronze Venus. Born in St. Louis, she renounced her U. S. citizenship, Baker was the first person of African descent to become a world-famous entertainer and to star in a major motion picture, the 1934 Marc Allégret film Zouzou. Baker refused to perform for segregated audiences in the United States and is noted for her contributions to the Civil Rights Movement, in 1968 she was offered unofficial leadership in the movement in the United States by Coretta Scott King, following Martin Luther King Jr. s assassination. After thinking it over, Baker declined the offer out of concern for the welfare of her children and she was known for aiding the French Resistance during World War II.
After the war, she was awarded the Croix de guerre by the French military, Josephine Baker was born as Freda Josephine McDonald in St. Louis, Missouri. Her mother, was adopted in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1886 by Richard and Elvira McDonald, Josephine Bakers estate identifies vaudeville drummer Eddie Carson as her natural father despite evidence to the contrary. Bakers foster son Jean-Claude Baker wrote a biography on her that was published in 1993 titled Josephine, Jean-Claude Baker did an exhaustive amount of research into the life of Josephine Baker, including the identity of her biological father. In the book, he discusses at length the circumstances surrounding Josephine Bakers birth, Carrie McDonald and Eddie Carson had a song-and-dance act, when Josephine was about a year old they began to carry her onstage occasionally during their finale. She was further exposed to business at an early age because her childhood neighborhood was home to many vaudeville theaters that doubled as movie houses.
These venues included the Jazzland, Booker T. Washington, the incident was immortalized that year by songwriter Bill Dooley, in a song called Frankie Killed Allen, which was revamped as the American classic blues ballad Frankie and Johnny. Josephine was always poorly dressed and hungry as a child, and she had little formal education, and attended Lincoln Elementary School only through the fifth grade. Josephines mother married a kind but perpetually unemployed man, Arthur Martin, with whom she had a son and she took in laundry to wash to make ends meet, and at eight years old, Josephine began working as a live-in domestic for white families in St. Louis. One woman abused her, burning Josephines hands when the girl put too much soap in the laundry. At 13, Josephine worked as a waitress at the Old Chauffeurs Club at 3133 Pine Street. She lived as a child in the slums of St. Louis, sleeping in cardboard shelters, scavenging for food in garbage cans. It was at the Old Chauffeurs Club where Josephine met Willie Wells, the marriage lasted less than a year and she left Wells to join a black vaudeville group
Schmertz was born in Yonkers, New York on March 22,1930. He received a Bachelor of Arts from Union College in 1952, Schmertz was first employed by Mobil as manager of the corporate labor relations department in 1966. He first joined the Mobil company board after his promotion in 1969 and was elected to the Mobile Oil company board in 1976. From the initial joining of Mobil in 1966 to his leaving of the company in 1988, Schmertz oversaw a number of advertisements placed into the Op-ed section of the New York Times, beginning in 1970. These were used to explain Mobils position on issues concerning the United States, in 1970, Stan Calderwood of WGBH-TV approached Mobil to see if the company was interested in funding a production of The Forsyte Saga on PBS. Schmertz supported the idea, as it would allow Mobil to buy 39 hours of television on PBS for a far cheaper price than it would otherwise cost. In 1983, former president Ronald Reagan nominated Schmertz to be on the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy for a term lasting until 1985.
In 1986, Schmertz authored Goodbye to the Low Profile, The Art of Creative Confrontation, Schmertz began his own consulting business, Schmertz Co. after leaving his Mobil position in 1988. He worked for Edward Kennedys 1980 presidential campaign as a volunteer, Schmertz currently lives in New York. He has five children, daughters Lexy and Nicole, sons Anthony and Conor
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBCs founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Radio 2, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique and the international radio service Radio Canada International. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC North and Radio-Canada Nord. The radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, since then, its primary radio networks, like the BBC, have been commercial-free. However, in the fall of 2013, CBCs secondary radio networks Radio 2, in 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network.
A major concern was the influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S. -based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC, Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBCs predecessor, the CRBC took over a network of radio stations formerly set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage primarily in central, on November 2,1936, the CRBC was reorganised under its present name. While the CRBC was a company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the BBC. Leonard Brockington was the CBCs first chairman, for the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada.
This was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster and it used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada. It began a separate French-language radio network in 1937 and it introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasnt launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6,1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, the CBCs first privately owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network. The latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, on July 1,1958, CBCs television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBCs own The Forest Rangers in 1963, colour television broadcasts began on July 1,1966, and full-colour service began in 1974
NHK is Japans national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has identified itself to audiences by the English pronunciation of its initials, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers payments of a television license fee. NHK operates two television services, two satellite television services, and three radio networks. NHK provides a broadcasting service, known as NHK World. NHK World is composed of NHK World TV, NHK World Premium, World Radio Japan makes some of its programs available on the Internet. NHK is an independent corporation chartered by the Japanese Broadcasting Act, NHK World broadcasting is funded by the Japanese government. The annual budget of NHK is subject to review and approval by the Diet of Japan, the Diet appoints the 12-member Board of Governors that oversees NHK. NHK is managed on a basis by an Executive Board consisting of a President, Vice President. The Executive Board reports to the Board of Governors, NHK is funded by reception fees, a system analogous to the license fee used in some English-speaking countries.
The Broadcast Law which governs NHK’s funding stipulates any television equipped to receive NHK is required to pay, the fee is standardized, with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a general discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. This incident sparked debate over the fairness of the fee system, in 2006, the NHK opted to take legal action against those most flagrantly in violation of the law. NHK General TV broadcasts a variety of programming, the following are noteworthy, NHK offers local and world news reports. NHK News 7 which airs daily is broadcast bilingually in both Japanese and English audio tracks on NHK General TV and NHKs international channels TV Japan and NHK World Premium. The flagship news program News Watch 9 is bilingual and air on NHK General TV and NHKs international channels TV Japan, World news are aired on NHK BS1 with Catch. Sekai no Jiten in the morning and International News Report at night with the airing on NHK World Premium. News on NHK BS1 are aired at 50 minutes past the hour except during sport events.
NHK offers news for the deaf, regional news and children’s news, newsline is an English newscast designed for foreign viewers and airs on NHK World. After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 NHK was criticised for underplaying the dangers from radioactive contamination, under the Broadcast Act, NHK is under the obligation to broadcast early warning emergency reporting in times of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008, the Times is owned by tronc. The Times was first published on December 4,1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and it was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Unable to pay the bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication, in July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the papers editor. Otis made the Times a financial success, in an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the Times was directed at Republican readers. As was typical of newspapers of the time, the Times would sit on stories for several days, historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment.
Otiss editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles, the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1,1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged, the American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty. Upon Otiss death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios, the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980, Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his familys paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance.
He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nations most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times, believing that the newsroom was the heartbeat of the business, Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with the Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for news organizations. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined, eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, thats the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family. The papers early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big and it has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.
In 2000, the Tribune Company acquired the Times, placing the paper in co-ownership with then-WB -affiliated KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985