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Radical Party (France)

The Radical-Socialist and Radical Republican Party was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France. It was often referred to as the Radical Party, or to prevent confusion with other French Radical parties as the Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad, PR, or PRV. Founded in 1901, it was the oldest active political party in France at the time of its dissolution. Coming from the Radical Republican tradition, the Radical Party upheld the principles of private property, social justice and secularism; the Radicals were a left-wing group, but with the emergence of the French Section of the Workers' International in 1905 they shifted towards the political centre. In 1926, its right wing split off to form the Unionist Radicals. In 1972, the left wing of the party split off to form the centre-left Radical Party of the Left; the Radical Party affiliated with the centre-right, becoming one of the founder parties of the Union for French Democracy in 1978. In 2002, the party split from the UDF and became an associate party of the Union for a Popular Movement and were represented on the Liaison Committee for the Presidential Majority prior to launching The Alliance in 2011 and the Union of Democrats and Independents in 2012.

After the 2017 presidential and legislative elections, negotiations to merge the PR and the PRG began. The refounding congress to reunite the parties into the Radical Movement was held on 9 and 10 December 2017. However, a minority of the PRG refused to unite with PR and founded a new party, joined by some left-wing members of the Radical Movement a year when the movement decided to ally Emmanuel Macron's La République En Marche! for the 2019 European Parliament election. After the collapse of Napoleon's empire in 1815, a reactionary Bourbon Restoration took place; the left-wing opposition was constituted by the broad family of Republicans, but these differed over whether and how far to cooperate with liberal-constitutional monarchists in pursuit of their common adversary. In contrast to the Republicans' right-wing, who were more inclined to accept a socially-conservative constitutional monarchy as the first stage to a republic, the Republicans' left-wing took a hard line in advocating progressive reforms such as universal manhood suffrage, civil liberties and the immediate installation of a republican constitution.

From their root-and-branch demands, they came to be termed Radical Republicans from the Latin radix, meaning "root". After the installation of the constitutional July Monarchy, the term Republican was outlawed and the regime's remaining Republican opponents adopted the term Radical for themselves. Following the monarchy's conservative turn, Alexandre Ledru-Rollin and Louis Blanc formulated a Radical doctrine. At this time, radicalism was distinct from and to the left of the July Monarchy's doctrinal liberalism. Radicals defended traditional peasant farmers and small craftsmen against the new rival economic projects of the 19th century, socialist collectivism and capitalist big business alike; the Radicals took a major part in the 1848 Revolution and the foundation of the Second Republic, sitting in parliament as the Montagne legislative group. Fifty years the Radical-Socialist Party would consider this group its direct forefather. For a few months, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin was Interior Minister in the provisional government.

However, the conservatives won the 1848 legislative election, the first election by universal suffrage. The repression of the June 1848 workers' demonstrations disappointed the left-wing supporters of the new regime. Ledru-Rollin obtained only 5% of votes at the December 1848 presidential election, won by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who launched a coup, ending parliamentary democracy in favour of a Second Empire. From opposition, Radicals criticized Bonaparte's autocratic rule and attacks on civil liberties. At the end of the 1860s, they advocated with the Belleville Programme the election of civil servants and mayors, the proclamation of the so-called "great liberties", free public teaching and the separation of church and state. After the collapse of the Second French Empire following the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, the Third Republic was proclaimed in September 1870; the first elections in February 1871 returned a majority of monarchists belonging to two dinstinct factions, conservative-liberal Orléanists and Catholic-traditionalist Legitimists, but these were too divided to reach an agreement over the type of monarchy they wanted to restore.

Their division allowed time for the Republicans to win the 1876 elections, leading to the firm establishment of a Republican republic. Like the monarchists, the Republicans were divided into two main factions, namely a centre-left formed of socially-conservative yet liberal and secular'Opportunist Republicans and a far-left of uncompromising anticlerical Radicals. Georges Clemenceau was the leader of the Radical parliamentary group, who criticized colonial policy as a form of diversion from "revenge" against Prussia and due to his ability was a protagonist of the collapse of many governments. In the 1890s, competition from the growing labour movement and concern for the plight of industrial workers prompted Léon Bourgeois to update the fifty-year-old Radical doctrine to encompass social reforms such as the progressive income tax and social insurance schemes, hence the term Radical-Socialist, a social-democratic synthesis of reformist social

Hamid Algadri

Hamid Algadri or Hamid Al-Gadri was a pioneer of freedom for Indonesian independence, meritorious in Linggadjati Agreement, Renville Agreement, Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference and one of the members of parliament in the founding days of the Republic of Indonesia. Hamid was born in Pasuruan on July 10, 1912. In the beginning, he had difficulty in securing entry to a Dutch elementary school Europeesche Lagere School due to his non-Caucasian race and age, succeeding only after his father lied about his age to look two years older and persistence of his grandfather by threatening to return his medal of Netherlands if Hamid was not admitted, his father was an Arab Muwallad named Muhammad, his paternal grandfather named Alim Algadri, a Hadhrami descent born in Surat, India who married a local Indian woman and migrated to East Java and was given position as the Kapten Arab in Pasuruan, a position in the colonial system for Arab Indonesians. His grandfather started selling horses before becoming a successful businessman in real-estate.

From this mixed family life, Hamid mastered Indonesian and Urdu, besides Dutch from his formal education. He received his basic education from ELS, which he continued to middle school 1928 - 1933, AMS majoring in Classical Western civilizations from 1933 to 1936. In 1930 Hamid affiliated himself in Jong Islamieten Bond in Surabaya, a youth organization initiated by nationalist activists such as Agus Salim, he moved to Batavia in 1936 and became student in the Recht Hoge School in Batavia, but unable to finish it because the University was closed by Japanese occupation in 1942. After the Indonesian Independence and with the initiative of Prof. Djokosoetono, he was able to earn his master in de rechten in 1952, he was the first Arab-Indonesian. At the university, Hamid was active in youth organizations within or outside campus, such as at Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia, Indonesia Muda, Studenten Islam Studie Club, Unitas Studiosorum Indonesisensis and Baperpi, his youth career was such as vice president of Baperpi.

While still as student, Hamid joined the Arab Union of Indonesia, established in 1934 by AR Baswedan. Hamid Algadri worked in the Secretariat of the Prime Minister. One day he accompanied Sjahrir and his entourage in a special train going from Jakarta to Yogyakarta in the late 1945. Riding in the special train some high-ranking Indonesian officials such as Djokosutono, Tanuwijaya Djojohadikusomo and Didi Kartasasmita, he moved to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as Secretary of the Ministry of Information as well as a member of the Central Indonesian National Committee. When Sjahrir became head of KNIP, Hamid, in Pasuruan was summoned and given the task to work in Jakarta. At that time Soedjatmoko, Soebadio Sastrosatomo were called de jongens van Sjahrir. Hamid Algadri was included in it as became member of the working committee of KNIP. During this period he was high official in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Executive secretary of the Ministry of Information under Minister Mohammad Natsir, editor of Sikap, apolitical magazine of PSI.

At a young age in Jakarta, Hamid lived on 13 Serang street. Hamid was chosen as one of the advisors to the Indonesian delegation in the talks during Renville Agreement and Linggadjati Agreement meetings; when the Dutch military aggression broke out on 21 July 1947, Hamid along with other members of the Republican delegation in Jakarta were arrested, but with the intervention of Willem Schermerhorn, the chairman of the General Commission of the Netherlands, they were released immediately. After the Renville Agreement signed in January 1948, the Dutch began to establish smaller states such as State of East Sumatra, State of Madura, State of Pasundan and State of East Indonesia to oppose the creation of united Indonesian republic. Hamid and Ali Budiardjo co-founded the plebiscite movement for Indonesia to campaign to the west to win supports of western countries; the movement was not successful. He participated in the Indonesian delegation as an adviser to the Round Table Conference in The Hague in 1949.

The RTC produced an agreement for transfer of sovereignty from the Netherlands to Indonesia in late December 1949. At the time Hamid was member of parliament in the Foreign Affairs Commission, so he had frequent official visits to various countries in Asia and Europe, he was member of delegation to the United Nations and Pakistan. In 1952, Habib Bourguiba and Tayeb Salim of Neo Destour Party of Tunisia came to Indonesia to ask for help against the France. In 1956, two young Algerian, Lakhdhar Brahimi and Muhammad Ben Yahya, came asking for similar help. At that time Hamid was the Committee Chairman of the Foreign Affairs in the Indonesian parliament, he was given the responsibility to assist both groups, he became Secretary General of Algeria and Tunisia Aid Committee. Tunisia and Algeria asked for material supports for their struggle from political parties. Indonesia, through Hamid's leadership, helped them by providing offices, a monthly allowance for their representatives in Jakarta, by arranging that