Kochi, known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India by the Arabian Sea and the Laccadive Sea and is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala. It is often called Ernakulam, which refers to the specific district, occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the seat of Portuguese India until 1530, when Goa was chosen instead. The city was occupied by the Dutch and the British. Kochi ranks first in the number of international and domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala. Kochi has been ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine. Kochi is the home to Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy, Kochi is home for Keralas National Law School, The National University of Advanced Legal Studies. Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi in their writings, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochin, the Cochin Jewish community called Cochin as Kogin, which is seen in the seal of the synagogue which is still owned by the community.
The origin of the name Kochi is thought to be from the Malayalam word kochu azhi, yet another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kaci, meaning harbour. The name Cochin implies co-chin, meaning like-China and it looked like China when the Chinese came to the region during the 14th century and installed Chinese nets. Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti, and Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, after the arrival of the Portuguese, and the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation. The city reverted to a closer Anglicization of its original Malayalam name and this change in name was challenged by the city municipal corporation but court has dismissed the plea. Kochi was the centre of Indian spice trade for centuries, and was known to the Yavanas as well as Jews, Arabs. Kochi rose to significance as a trading centre after the port Muziris around Kodungallur was destroyed by flooding of Periyar in 1341. The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng Hes treasure fleet.
There are references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, according to many historians, the precursor state to Kingdom of Kochi came into existence in early 12th century, after the fall of the Chera Kingdom. The reign of the Kingdom was hereditary, and the family ruled over the region was known as the Perumpadappu Swaroopam in the local vernacular. Portuguese navigator, Pedro Álvares Cabral founded the first European settlement in India at Kochi in 1500, from 1503 to 1663, Fort Kochi was ruled by Portugal
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I was Queen of Castile. She was married to Ferdinand II of Aragon and their marriage became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms, Isabella was granted the title Servant of God by the Catholic Church in 1974. Isabella was born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila, to John II of Castile, at the time of her birth, she was second in line to throne after her older half-brother Henry. Henry was 26 at that time and married but childless and her younger brother Alfonso was born two years on 17 November 1453, lowering her position to third in line. When her father died in 1454, her half-brother ascended to the throne as Henry IV, Isabella and Alfonso were left in Henrys care. She, her mother and her brother Alfonso moved to Arévalo and these were times of turmoil for Isabella. Living conditions in their castle in Arévalo were poor, and they suffered from a shortage of money, even though living conditions were lackluster, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in a deep reverence for religion.
Alfonso was placed in the care of a tutor while Isabella became part of the Queens household, some of Isabellas living conditions improved in Segovia. She always had food and clothing and lived in a castle that was adorned with gold, Isabellas basic education consisted of reading, writing, mathematics, chess, embroidery and religious instruction. She and her ladies-in-waiting entertained themselves with art and she lived a relaxed lifestyle, but she rarely left Segovia as Henry forbade this. Her half-brother was keeping her from the political turmoils going on in the kingdom, though Isabella had full knowledge of what was going on, the noblemen, anxious for power, confronted King Henry, demanding that his younger half brother Infante Alfonso be named his successor. They even went so far as to ask Alfonso to seize the throne, the nobles, now in control of Alfonso and claiming that he was the true heir, clashed with Henrys forces at the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467. Henry agreed to recognise Alfonso as heir presumptive, provided that he would marry his daughter, soon after he was named Prince of Asturias, Alfonso died in July 1468, likely of the plague.
The nobles who had supported him suspected poisoning, as she had been named in her brothers will as his successor, the nobles asked Isabella to take his place as champion of the rebellion. However, support for the rebels had begun to wane, the question of Isabellas marriage was not a new one. Indeed, she had made her debut in the market at the tender age of six, with a betrothal to Ferdinand. At that time, the two kings and John, were eager to show their love and confidence
Gopala Bhatta Goswami
Gopala Bhatta Goswami is one of the foremost disciples of the Vaishnava saint, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and a leading historical figure in the Gaudiya Vaishnava school of Hinduism. According to biographies such as the Bhakti Ratnakara Gopal Bhattas first meeting with Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was in 1510 during Mahaprabhus tour of South India, although of a young age he was given the opportunity to meet with Chaitanya and serve him over a number of months. Such was his love for the saint, that when Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was about to leave, Gopala Bhatta became upset, and for Gopala Bhattas sake, Chaitanya agreed to stay a few more days. According to Gaudiya tradition it was during this time that Gopala Bhatta had a vision in which Chaitanya Mahaprabhu revealed Himself as an avatar of Krishna. When Gopala Bhatta awoke from the experience, he wanted to leave for Vrindavan at once, however Chaitanya Mahaprabhu told him to stay, after Chaitanyas departure, Gopal Bhatta took guidance from his uncle Prabhodananda Sarasvati.
Gopal Bhatta took care of his parents into their old age, there he met Rupa and Sanatana who accepted him as a brother. Gopal Bhatta helped Sanatana compile the book Hari Bhakti Vilasa, Gopala Bhatta studied rhetoric, poetry and Sanskrit grammar from his uncle Prabodhananda Sarasvati. After the passing of his parents he went to Vrindavan, where he met both Rupa and Sanatana Goswamis as had purportedly been instructed in his vision. When Lord Chaitanya discovered that Gopala Bhatta was in Vrindavan, he was pleased and sent some of his personal belongings to Gopala Bhatta. Mahaprabhu sent a letter instructing Gopala Bhatta to help Rupa, Gopala Bhatta accepted this instruction as his life and soul, and he also engaged his disciple Srinivasa Acarya in carrying the writings to Bengal. Gopala Bhatta established the Radha Raman Temple in Vrindavan in 1542, Bhakti Yoga Hare Krishna Nityananda Gaudiya Math International Society for Krishna Consciousness Krishnology Narasingha Caitanya Ashram http, //gosai.
com/ Bhakti Ratnakara. Shri Rasabihari Sankhya Tirtha, ed. Bhakti Ratnakar, cS1 maint, Unrecognized language Gopala Bhatta Goswami The History of Sri Radha Raman Temple, Vrindavan
Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin was a late medieval Hindu kingdom and princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India. Once controlling much of the territory between Ponnani and Thottappally, the Cochin kingdom shrank to its minimal extent as a result of invasions by the Zamorin of Calicut. When Portuguese armadas arrived in India, Cochin was in vassalage to Zamorin and was looking for an opportunity to break away, Cochin became a long-time Portuguese protectorate providing assistance against native overlords. After the Portuguese, the Dutch East India Company followed by the English East India Company, even today, the full official designation of the Raja of Cochin is “Perumpadappu Gangadhara Veera Kerala Thrikkovil Adhikarikal”. The Kingdom of Cochin, originally known as Perumpadappu Swarupam, was under the rule of the Later Cheras in the Middle Ages, after the fall of the Mahodayapuram Cheras in the 12th century, along with numerous other provinces Perumpadappu Swarupam became a free political entity.
However, it was only after the arrival of Portuguese colonizers on the Malabar Coast did the Perumpadappu Swarupam acquire any political importance, Perumpadappu rulers had family relationships with the Nambudiri rulers of Edappally. After the transfer of Kochi and Vypin from Edappally rulers to the Perumpadappu rulers, ma Huan, the Muslim voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans, describes the king of Cochin as being a Buddhist. There is no extant written evidence about the emergence of the Kingdom of Cochin or of the Cochin Royal Family, all that is recorded are folk tales and stories, and a somewhat blurred historical picture about the origins of the ruling dynasty. The surviving manuscripts, such as Keralolpathi and Perumpadapu Grandavari, are collections of myths and legends that are less than reliable as conventional historical sources. There is a legend that the last Perumal who ruled the Chera dynasty divided his kingdom between his nephews and his sons, converted to Islam and traveled to Mecca on a hajj.
The Keralolpathi recounts the narrative in the following fashion, The last. He left for Mecca by ship with some Muslims who arrived at Kodungallur port, before leaving for Mecca, he divided his kingdom between his nephews and sons. The Perumpadapu Grandavari contains an account of the dynastic origins. Cheraman Perumal divided the land in half,17 amsa north of Neelaeswaram and 17 amsa south, totaling 34 amsa, thirty-four kingdoms between Kanyakumari and Gokarna were given to the thampuran who was the daughter of the last niece of Cheraman Perumal. Keralolpathi recorded the division of his kingdom in 345 AD, Perumpadapu Grandavari in 385 AD, including Robin Jeffry and Samuel Mateer, are of the opinion that as with all other Kings of Malabar, the Cochin Raja was of Nair origin. Cochin kingdom ruled over a vast area in central Kerala before the Portuguese arrival and their state stretched up to Ponnani and Pukkaitha in the north, Anamalais in the east, and Cochin and Porakkad in the south, with capital at Perumpadappu on the northern border.
Later, Calicut conquered large parts of Perumpadappu Kingdom, and made them a tributary state, Cochin was the scene of the first European settlement in India. In the year 1500, the Portuguese Admiral Pedro Álvares Cabral landed at Cochin after being repelled from Calicut, the king of Cochin welcomed the Portuguese and a treaty of friendship was signed
Diogo Fernandes Pereira
Diogo Fernandes Pereira, sometimes called simply Diogo Fernandes, was a Portuguese 16th-century navigator, originally from Setúbal, Portugal. Diogo Fernandes was the first known European captain to visit the island of Socotra in 1503 and he may have been the first European to sail east of Madagascar island. Diogo Fernandes Pereiras name is given simply as Diogo Fernandes. He is sometimes referred to as Diogo Fernandes de Setúbal, to him from another Indian Ocean adventurer of that period with a similar name. In older chronicles, his name is written as Diogo Fernandes Piteira or Peteira. Diogo Fernandes was a Portuguese seaman of obscure background, according to João de Barros, he was a native of Setúbal, a man much used at sea. In 1503, Diogo Fernandes Pereira was appointed master and captain of a Setúbal ship bound for India, how a master was elevated to captain of an India nau is uncertain. One possible conjecture is that the ship was not a crown ship, in some secondary accounts, it is said that Diogo Fernandess ship was named Setúbal.
If so, that might explain how Diogo Fernandes got to be captain - the merchants of Setúbal just naturally chose to entrust their capital in their most knowledgeable. Diogo Fernandess Setúbal ship was part of the 5th Portuguese India Armada of Afonso de Albuquerque. Fernandes was originally assigned to the squadron of that fleet. But navigational errors led to the separation of the shortly after Cape Verde. Diogo Fernandes was forced to sail on alone and this would make him the first known ship to sail the outer route to the East Indies. Around Cape Guardafui, Diogo Fernandes stumbled on the island of Socotra sometime in late 1503, although the island was long known to eastern merchants, it was unknown to the Portuguese. Diogo Fernandes was surprised to encounter a strong Christian community on the island, Diogo Fernandes spent the winter in Socotra, before crossing the Indian Ocean in early 1504. Diogo Fernandes arrived in India just as the Zamorin of Calicut was launching an invasion of Portuguese-allied Cochin, Diogo Fernandes returned to Portugal in 1505.
His report on Socotra generated much excitement in the Portuguese court, the strategic placement of the island at the mouth of the Red Sea made it an optimal location to station a Portuguese patrol. It could prey on Arab shipping and shut down the spice trade through that route
Socotra, spelled Soqotra, is an island and a small archipelago of four islands in the Arabian Sea. The territory is part of Yemen, and had long been a subdivision of the Aden Governorate, in 2004, it became attached to the Hadhramaut Governorate, which is much closer to the island than Aden. In 2013, the archipelago became its own governorate, the Soqatra Governorate, the island of Socotra constitutes around 95% of the landmass of the archipelago. It lies some 240 kilometres east of the Horn of Africa and 380 kilometres south of the Arabian Peninsula, the island is very isolated and a third of its plant life is found nowhere else on the planet. It has been described as the most alien-looking place on Earth, the island measures 132 kilometres in length and 49.7 kilometres in width. In the notes to his translation of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, huntingford remarks that the name Suqotra is not Greek in origin, but from the Sanskrit dvīpa sukhadhara. Another posited origin of the name is the Arabic suq meaning market, there was initially an Oldowan culture in Socotra.
Oldowan stone tools were found in the area around Hadibo by V. A, zhukov, a member of the Russian Complex Expedition in 2008. Socotra appears as Dioskouridou in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, in 2001 a group of Belgian speleologists of the Socotra Karst Project investigated a cave on the island Socotra. There, they came across a number of inscriptions, drawings. Further investigation showed that these had left by sailors who visited the island between the 1st century BC and the 6th century AD. Most of the texts are written in the Indian Brāhmī script and this corpus of nearly 250 texts and drawings thus constitutes one of the main sources for the investigation of Indian Ocean trade networks in that time period. A local tradition holds that the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by Thomas the Apostle in AD52, in the 10th century, the Arab geographer Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani stated that in his time most of the inhabitants were Christians. They were Nestorians but practised ancient magic rituals despite the warnings of their archbishop and he reported in a letter home that the tribesmen, due to lack of missionaries, had only retained a faint knowledge of Christianity.
In 1507, a Portuguese fleet commanded by Tristão da Cunha with Afonso de Albuquerque landed at the capital of Suq. Their objective was to set a base in a place on the route to India. Tomás Fernandes started to build a fortress at Suq, the Forte de São Miguel de Socotorá, the infertility of the land led to famine and sickness in the garrison. Thus the Portuguese abandoned the island four years later, as it was not advantageous as a base, the islands passed under the control of the Mahra sultans in 1511, and its inhabitants were completely Islamized during their rule
Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity.
The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera.
This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.
The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land
Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa, was a Portuguese general, a great conqueror, a statesman, and an empire builder. Afonso advanced the three-fold Portuguese grand scheme of combating Islam, spreading Christianity, among his achievements, Afonso was the first European of his Renaissance to raid the Persian Gulf, and he led the first voyage by a European fleet into the Red Sea. In the expansion of the Portuguese Empire, Afonso initiated a rivalry that would become known as the Ottoman–Portuguese war, which would endure for many years. Many of the Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts in which he was directly involved took place in the Indian Ocean, in the Persian Gulf regions for control of the trade routes, and on the coasts of India. It was his brilliance in these initial campaigns against the much larger Ottoman Empire. He had a record of engaging and defeating much larger armies, for example, his capture of Ormuz in 1507 against the Persians was accomplished with a fleet of seven ships. Other famous battles and offensives which he led include the conquest of Goa in 1510 and he became admiral of the Indian Ocean, and was appointed head of the fleet of the Arabian and Persian sea in 1506.
During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration and he aided diplomatic relations with Ethiopia using priest envoys João Gomes and João Sanches, and established diplomatic ties with Persia, during the Safavid dynasty. He became known as the Great, the Terrible, the Caesar of the East, the Lion of the Seas, Afonso de Albuquerque was born in 1453 in Alhandra, near Lisbon. He was the son of Gonçalo de Albuquerque, Lord of Vila Verde dos Francos. His father held an important position at court and was connected by remote illegitimate descent with the Portuguese monarchy and he was educated in mathematics and Latin at the court of Afonso V of Portugal, where he befriended Prince John, the future King John II of Portugal. Afonso’s early training is described by Diogo Barbosa Machado, “D and he was educated in the Palace of the King D. Afonso V, in whose palaestra he strove emulously to become the rival of that African Mars”. Afonso served 10 years in North Africa, where he gained experience in fierce campaigns against Muslim powers.
In 1471, under the command of Afonso V of Portugal, he was present at the conquest of Tangier and Arzila in Morocco, in 1476 he accompanied Prince John in wars against Castile, including the Battle of Toro. He participated in the campaign on the Italian peninsula in 1480 to rescue Ferdinand II of Aragon from the Ottoman invasion of Otranto that ended in victory. Afonso made his mark under the stern John II, and won campaigns in Africa. When King Manuel I of Portugal was enthroned, he showed some reticence towards Afonso, a close friend of his dreaded predecessor and seventeen years his senior. Eight years later, on 6 April 1503, after a military career and at a mature age
Battle of Cochin (1504)
The celebrated heroics of the tiny Portuguese garrison, led by Duarte Pacheco Pereira, fended off an invading army several hundred times bigger. It proved a humiliating defeat for the Zamorin of Calicut and he not only failed to conquer Cochin, but his inability to crush the tiny opposition undermined the faith of his vassals and allies. The Zamorin lost much of his authority over the Malabar states of India in the aftermath. The preservation of Cochin secured the presence of the Portuguese in India. Under the Zamorins rule, Calicut grew as a city, emerging as the major entrepot of the Kerala pepper trade. In the opening journey of the Portuguese to India in 1498, Vasco da Gama immediately made his way to Calicut, unimpressed by Gama, the elderly Zamorin allowed the Portuguese to buy spices on Calicuts markets, but refused to accord them any greater privileges. The follow-up expedition of Pedro Álvares Cabral arrived better prepared, the old Zamorin having died in the interim, Cabral negotiated a treaty with the new Zamorin, and a Portuguese factory was opened in Calicut.
But within a couple of months, quarrels erupted between Portuguese agents and established Arab traders in the city, in which the Zamorin refused to intervene, in December,1500, a riot was raised and the factory in Calicut was overrun and numerous Portuguese massacred. Blaming the Zamorin for the event, Cabral demanded that the Zamorin compensate them for their losses, when the Zamorin refused, Cabral bombarded the city of Calicut. Thus began the war between Portugal and Calicut, the Portuguese quickly found local allies among some of the city-states on the Malabar coast which had long grated under Calicuts dominance. Cochin and Quilon opened their ports and invited the Portuguese, the succeeding Portuguese armadas to India took to routinely bombarding Calicut, preying on her ships, and driving commercial traffic away from the city. The Portuguese presence in India consisted only of a handful of commercial agents, the Portuguese had come for spices. That meant trying to force his enemy kingdoms of Cochin, Cannanore, in principle, the Zamorins plan was sound.
The Portuguese had antagonised some of the residents of the Malabar coast and their fleets had left a brutish calling card, made absurd demands upon the rulers, disrupted trade and daily life all along the coast. It should not have been too difficult to prevail upon the Malabari cities to participate in a boycott of Portuguese trade. But the Cochin rejected Zamorins unreasonable demands, the city of Cochin was a growing commercial town perched on the edge of the Vembanad lagoon. The ruling Hindu prince, Unni Goda Varda, the Trimumpara Raja of Cochin, was not secure in his own position, formally, he was a minor prince, subsidiary to senior family members across the lagoon at Edapalli, the official overlords of the lagoon. Indeed, it is quite probable Trimumpara was in the midst of a family quarrel, sentiment among the Cochinese population was largely against the Portuguese