1508 in science
- December 9 – Gemma Frisius, Dutch mathematician and cartographer (died 1555).
- approx. date – William Turner, English naturalist (died 1568).
1. 1515 in science – The year 1515 in science and technology included many events, some of which are listed here. A year in which Earths so-called second moon Cruithne makes a closest approach to earth, the two are in 1,1 orbital resonance. This last happened in about 1903 and will happen in July,2292. May 15 – An Indian rhinoceros arrives in Lisbon, the first to be seen in Europe since Roman times, date – Leonard Digges, English mathematician and surveyor Alonso de Ojeda, Spanish navigator Andreas Stoberl, Austrian astronomer, mathematician and theologian
2. 1500s in architecture – C.1500 - Chateau de Blois largely rebuilt. 1500 - St. Annes Church, Vilnius is completed,1501 Expansion of Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh. Chichester Cross is built in Chichester, England, Construction of the Jerónimos Monastery at Belém in Portugal begins, it will take 100 years to complete. Construction of spire of St James Church, Louth, Lincolnshire, England begins, 1501/2 - Construction of the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa in the Duchy of Braganza begins. 1502 Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, designed by Donato Bramante, is built, Construction of St. Marys Church, Gdańsk, begun in 1379 by Heinrich Ungeradin, is completed with the installation of vaulting by Heinrich Haetzl. Vladislav Hall in Prague Castle, designed by Benedikt Rejt, is completed, Expansion of Great Malvern Priory in England is completed. 1504 - Matsumoto Castle in Japan built,1505 - Archangel Cathedral in Moscow begun. 1505–1508 - Fondaco dei Tedeschi on the Grand Canal rebuilt by Fra Giovanni Giocondo,1506 - Construction of St. Peters Basilica in Rome to the design of Bramante begins. Construction of the church of Santa Maria di Loreto, Rome, rebuilding of Wawel Castle in Kraków begins. 1508 Church of San Rocco, Venice, designed by Bartolomeo Bon, Church of Santa Maria della Consolazione is begun. 1509 Palazzo Loredan on the Grand Canal, begun by Mauro Codussi in 1481, is completed, fugger Chapel of St. Annes Church, Augsburg, Swabia, is begun. 1503, November 1 - Pope Julius II becomes Pope, he will be patron to Bramante, Raphael, 1506/07 - Conrad Pflüger, Swabian architect
3. Science – Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science
4. Technology – Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it. The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts, dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose