The Ethiopian calendar or Eritrean calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelicalism. It is a solar calendar which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A gap of 7–8 years between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternative calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has 12 months of 30 days plus 5 or 6 epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month; the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. A 6th epagomenal day is added every 4 years, without exception, on August 29 of the Julian calendar, 6 months before the corresponding Julian leap day.
Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is September 11. However, it falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year. Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian New Year in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Churchs, it occurs on September 11th in the Gregorian Calendar. The Ethiopian Calendar Year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on the Gregorian Calendar Year on September 11th, 2005. However, the Ethiopian Years 1992 and 1996 began on the Gregorian Dates of'September 12th 1999' and'2003' respectively; this date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099. The Ethiopian leap year is every four without exception, while Gregorian centurial years are only leap years when divisible by 400; as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. The start of the Ethiopian year falls on August 30th.
This date corresponds to the Old-Style Julian Calendar. This deviation between the Julian and the Gregorian Calendar will increase with the passing of the time. You can observe the real start date in the future centuries in a Gregorian to Ethiopian Date Converter. To indicate the year and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on March 25, AD 9, as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400. Meanwhile, Europeans adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instead, which placed the Annunciation 8 years earlier than had Annianus; this causes the Ethiopian year number to be 8 years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11 7 years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year. In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum; the most important era – once used by the Eastern Christianity, still used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – was the Era of Martyrs known as the Diocletian Era, or the era of Diocletian and the Martyrs, whose first year began on August 29, 284.
Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Year's Days, 31⁄2 to 4 months the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era to obtain an entire 532 year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 equal to year DXXXI, it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Ethiopian chronologists; the twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD 360, so 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs. Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as 25 March, thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC. In the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B.
C.. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century; the 4 year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named the John-year, followed by the Matthew-year, the Mark-year. The year with the 6th epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the 4 year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar but unlike the Gregorian calendar; these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are still leap year
The 1500s ran from January 1, 1500, to December 31, 1509. January 5 – Duke Ludovico Sforza recaptures Milan, but is soon driven out again by the French. January 26 – Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón reaches the northern coast of Brazil. February 17 – Battle of Hemmingstedt: The Danish army fails to conquer the peasants' republic of Dithmarschen. April 22 – Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil, claims the land for the Kingdom of Portugal, he has 13 vessels with him. July 14 – The Muscovites defeat the Lithuanians and the Poles in the Battle of Vedrosha. August –: The Turkish fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians in the Second Battle of Lepanto; the Turks proceed to capture Modon and Coron, the "two eyes of the Republic". August 10 – Diogo Dias discovers an island which he names St Lawrence to be known as Madagascar. November 11 – Treaty of Granada: Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon agree to divide the Kingdom of Naples between them. November 16 – Emperor Go-Kashiwabara accedes to the throne of Meiō era Japan.
December 24 – The Siege of the Castle of St. George ends, the island of Cephalonia is captured by a joint Venetian–Spanish fleet. December 31 – The last of the incunabula are published. Europe's population is estimated at 56.7 million people. Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa is admitted to baccalaureate. Saxony's mint at Annaberg begins producing guldengroschens. Although other reports exist, it is thought that the last wolf in England was killed this year, making the species extinct in that country; the wolf is thought to have been killed in Cumbria. However, reports of wolf sightings and laws concerning wolf bounties existed in rural areas of the north until the 18th century. January 17 – Cesare Borgia returns triumphantly to Rome, from Romagna. March 25 – Portuguese navigator João da Nova discovers Ascension Island, it is sighted and named on May 20, 1503 by Afonso de Albuquerque. April – The Rebellion of the Alpujarras ends with the surrender of the last Muslim insurgents in the Alpujarra Mountains, who are given the choice of expulsion or conversion to Christianity.
May 15 – Harmonice Musices Odhecaton, the first printed collection of polyphonic music, is published by Ottaviano Petrucci in Venice. July – Ismail I is enthroned as Shah of Azerbaijan, choosing Tabriz as his capital, founding the Safavid Dynasty in northern Iran, he declares Shi'ism compulsory religion, under penalty of death. July 21 – Portuguese explorer Pedro Cabral returns to Lisbon, from his expedition to Calicut. July 27 – Copernicus is formally installed, as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral. August John, King of Denmark and Sweden is deposed from the Swedish throne. Florentine political theorist and writer Niccolò Machiavelli marries Marietta Corsini, who will bear him six children. August 27 – Battle of the Siritsa River: The Livonian Order, supporting the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War, commanded by Wolter von Plettenberg, defeats an army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Pskov Republic. October 13 – Treaty of Trente: Maximilian of Austria and Louis XII of France sign the treaty, with Austria recognizing all French conquests in the northern territories of Italy.
October 30 – The Banquet of Chestnuts is purportedly held by Cesare Borgia, in the Papal Palace of Rome. November 1 – Amerigo Vespucci discovers and names Baía de Todos os Santos, in Brazil. November 4 Battle of Mstislavl: Grand Prince Ivan's Southern Muscovite army defeats the forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Philip and Joanna of Castile leave for Spain. November 12 – Sten Sture the Elder is elected Regent of Sweden for the second time. November 14 – Arthur, Prince of Wales, marries the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon. November 24 – A large army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow overruns Livonia during the Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War. December 12 – Alexander Jagiellon becomes King of Poland; the Swiss cantons of Basel and Schaffhausen join the Old Swiss Confederacy. Gaspar Corte-Real, Portuguese navigator, makes the first documented European landing in North America since c. 1000 A. D. Rodrigo de Bastidas, sailing westward from Venezuela in search of gold, becomes the first European to explore the Isthmus of Panama.
Amerigo Vespucci maps the two stars Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri, as well as the stars of the constellation Crux, which are below the horizon in Europe. Michelangelo returns to his native Florence. Italic type is first used by Aldus Manutius at the Aldine Press in an edition of Virgil. Martin Luther enters the University of Erfurt. January 1 – Portuguese explorers, led by Gonçalo Coelho, sail into Guanabara Bay, mistaking it for the mouth of a river, which they name Rio de Janeiro. February 12 – Isabella I issued an edict outlawing Islam in the Crown of Castile, forcing all her Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity. May 3 – Portuguese navigator João da Nova discovers the uninhabited island of Saint Helena. May 11 – Christopher Columbus leaves Cadiz, Spain for his fourth and final trip to the New World, he explores Central America, discovers St. Lucia, the Isthmus of Panama and Costa Rica. July – Ismail I becomes Shah of Persia. August 14 – Christopher Columbus lands at Trujillo, names the country'Honduras'.
September – A Greek and Italian parallel text edition of Herodotus' Histories, done for Count Matteo Maria Boiardo, is published in Venice by Aldus Manutius
Balinese saka calendar
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the Moon, is the same length as the Gregorian year. Based on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises sasih, of 30 days each. However, because the lunar cycle is shorter than 30 days, the lunar year has a length of 354 or 355 days, the calendar is adjusted to prevent it losing synchronization with the lunar or solar cycles; the months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one solar day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit for "minus one night". To stop the Saka from lagging behind the Gregorian calendar – as happens with the Islamic calendar, an extra month, known as an intercalary month, is added after the 11th month, or after the 12th month; the length of these months is calculated according to the normal 63-day cycle. An intercalary month is added whenever necessary to prevent the final day of the 7th month, known as Tilem Kapitu, from falling in the Gregorian month of December.
The names the twelve months are taken from a mixture of Old Balinese and Sanskrit words for 1 to 12, are as follows: Kasa Karo Katiga Kapat Kalima Kanem Kapitu Kawalu Kasanga Kadasa Jyestha SadhaEach month begins the day after a new moon and has 15 days of waxing moon until the full moon 15 days of waning, ending on the new moon. Both sets of days are numbered 1 to 15; the first day of the year is the day after the first new moon in March. Note, that Nyepi falls on the first day of Kadasa, that the years of the Saka era are counted from that date; the calendar is 78 years behind the Gregorian calendar, is calculated from the beginning of the Saka Era in India. It is used alongside the 210-day Balinese pawukon calendar, Balinese festivals can be calculated according to either year; the Indian saka calendar was used for royal decrees as early as the ninth century CE. The same calendar was used in Java until Sultan Agung replaced it with the Javanese calendar in 1633; the Balinese Hindu festival of Nyepi, the day of silence, marks the start of the Saka year.
Tilem Kepitu, the last day of the 7th month, is known as Siva Ratri, is a night dedicated to the god Shiva. Devotees stay up all meditate. There are another 24 ceremonial days in the Saka year celebrated at Purnama. Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekalia and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion and Art pp 182–185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6 Haer, Debbie Guthrie. ISBN 981 3018 496 Hobart, Angela. ISBN 0 631 17687 X Ricklefs, M. C.
The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600. The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century. During the 16th century and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with Asia; this era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century. In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli published the first work on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer. In England, the Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world. China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period. Elsewhere in Asia, Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the southern lands of the continent.
His rule influenced arts and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, met with strong resistance, Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova; these events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. Polybius' "The Histories" translated into Italian, English and French. Mississippian culture disappears. Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia, is made, it is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum. 1500: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain was born. 1500: Guru Nanak the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest religion in the world Sikhism. 1500: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas. 1500: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal. 1500: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto.
1501: Michelangelo returns to his native Florence to begin work on the statue David. 1501: Safavid dynasty reunified Iran and ruled over it until 1736. Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam. 1502: First reported African slaves in The New World 1503: Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan 1503: Spain defeats France at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. 1503: Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and completes it three years later. 1503: Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21. 1504: A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain. 1504: Death of Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castille became the Queen. 1505: Zhengde Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty. 1505: Martin Luther enters St. Augustine's Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation. 1505: King Sultan Trenggono built the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called Demak, in Indonesia's of a homelessness of a.
Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of unity. 1506: Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. 1506: King Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming Kongo's state religion. 1506: At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon riot, Portugal. 1506: Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain. 1506: Poland is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate. 1507: The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World on the island of Hispaniola. It devastates the native Taíno population. 1507: Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Hormuz and Muscat, among other bases in the Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf. 1508–1512: Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling. 1509: The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade and the Indian Ocean. 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade.
After receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape. The Javanese fleet is destroyed in Malacca.. 1509–10: The'great plague' in various parts of Tudor England. 1511: Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca in present-day Malaysia. 1512: Copernicus writes Commentar
1510s in music
The decade of the 1510s in music involved some significant compositions. 1513: Jacques Champion replaces Noel Bauldeweyn as magister cantorum at St Rombouts, Mechelen. 1517: March – Heinrich Finck sends greetings from Mühldorf, Bavaria, to the humanist Joachim Vadian. April 15 – Juan García de Basurto is hired as a singer by the cathedral chapter of Tarazona, at an annual salary of 1200 sueldos. June – Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego joins the pifferi of the Venetian government as a "contralto". Sixt Dietrich is forced to leave Freiburg because of debts, but in November is appointed informator choralium by the cathedral chapter in Konstanz. 1518: Composer Ludwig Senfl loses a toe in a hunting accident. 1511: Arnolt Schlick – Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten, the first treatise on organ-making in German Sebastian Virdung – Musica getutscht und angezogen, published in Basel, the first European treatise devoted to the subject of musical instruments. 1511: Franciscus Bossinensis – Tenori e contrabassi intabulati col sopran in canto figurato..
Libro secundo. Venice: Ottaviano Petrucci 1512: Arnolt Schlick – Tabulaturen etlicher lobgesang, a collection of organ and lute pieces 1517: Andreas Ornithoparchus – Musicae activae micrologus. Sebastian z Felsztyna – Opusculum musicae compilatum. 1518: The Medici Codex Franchinus Gaffurius – De harmonia musicorum instrumentorum opus. Milan. 1510: Josquin des Prez assembles or composes Missa de Beata Virgine, a musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass, it becomes the most popular of his masses in the 16th century. 1513: Heinrich Isaac – Optime pastor, motet celebrating the meeting in December of Maximilian I's Chancellor, Cardinal Lang, the newly elected Pope Leo X 1514: Costanzo Festa – Quis dabit oculis, funeral ode for Anne of Brittany, Queen of France 1519: Adrian Willaert – Quid non ebrietas designat, setting of Horace's fifth epistle, for four voices Juan Bermudo, Spanish music theorist Antonio de Cabezón, Spanish composer and organist of the Renaissance probable – Loys Bourgeois, French composer, famous for his Protestant hymn tunes probable – Gian Domenico del Giovane da Nola, Neapolitan composer, famous for his villanescas and villanellas in the Neapolitan style date unknown – Nicola Vicentino, Italian music theorist and composer February 14 – Domenico Ferrabosco, Italian composer and singer May 16 – Antonfrancesco Doni, Italian writer and musician probable – Cipriano de Rore, Flemish composer January 17 – Antonio Scandello, Italian composer and instrumentalist January 31 or March 22 – Gioseffo Zarlino, Venetian theorist 1513: January – Hans Folz, German Meistersinger and surgeon 1517: March 26 – Heinrich Isaac, Franco-Flemish composer
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
The 1490s decade ran from January 1, 1490, to December 31, 1499. January 4 – Anne of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the king of France, will be considered as guilty of the crime of Lèse-majesté. March 13 – Charles II becomes Duke of Savoy at age 1. March or April – 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, a presumed meteor shower or air burst over Qingyang in Ming dynasty China, said to have caused casualties. July 13 – John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church, Hrastovlje. November 20 – First edition of the chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch by Joanot Martorell printed in Valencia. December 19 – Anne of Brittany is married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy. Ashikaga Yoshitane becomes shōgun of Japan. Perkin Warbeck claims to be the son of King Edward IV of England, at the court of Burgundy. Traditional date of the Battle of Glendale between the Scottish clans MacLeod. Catholic missionaries arrive in the African Kingdom of Kongo. Pêro da Covilhã arrives in Ethiopia.
Regular postal service connects the Habsburg residences of Mechelen and Innsbruck, the first in Germany. Leonardo da Vinci observes capillary action, in small-bore tubes. Leonardo da Vinci develops an oil lamp: the flame is enclosed in a glass tube, placed inside a water-filled glass globe. All Saints' Church, the Schlosskirche in Wittenberg, is begun. Chinese scholar and printer Hua Sui invents bronze-metal movable type printing in China, although the earlier Wang Zhen had experimented with tin movable type in 1298, the Koreans had separately innovated bronze movable type. Tirant lo Blanch, by Joanot Martorell and Martí Joan de Galba, is published. Aldus Manutius moves to Venice. John Colet receives his M. A. from Magdalen College, Oxford. Johann Reuchlin meets Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. Merchants carry coffee from Yemen to Mecca. May 3 – The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, is baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I. September – Battle of Vrpile Gulch in southern Croatia: Forces of the Ottoman Empire are defeated by those of the Kingdom of Croatia.
November – The pretender Perkin Warbeck begins a campaign to take the English throne, with a landing in Ireland. November 7 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary sign the Peace of Pressburg, formally ending the Austrian–Hungarian War. November 16 – An auto-da-fé held in Brasero de la Dehesa concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia, with the execution of several Jewish and converso suspects. November 25 – Reconquista: The Granada War is brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Granada between the Catholic Monarchs of Spain and the Moorish Emirate of Granada. December 6 – King Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany, forcing her to break her marriage with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. December 21 – The Truce of Coldstream secures a five-year peace, between Scotland and England; the Bread and Cheese Revolt breaks out in North Holland. A major fire breaks out in Dresden.
In the Russian territory of Komi, annexed by Russia in 1478, copper and silver ores are discovered, the territory gains importance as a mining and metallurgical center. Nicolaus Copernicus enters the University of Kraków. January 2 – Fall of Granada: Muhammad XII, the last Emir of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of the Catholic Monarchs after a lengthy siege, ending the ten-year Granada War and the centuries-long Reconquista, bringing an end to 780 years of Muslim control in Al-Andalus. January 6 – Ferdinand and Isabella enter into Granada. January 15 – Christopher Columbus meets Ferdinand and Isabella at the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos in Córdoba and persuades them to support his Atlantic voyage intended to find a new route to the East Indies. January 16 – The first grammar of the Spanish language is presented to Queen Isabella I. January 23 – The Pentateuch is first printed. March 31 – Ferdinand and Isabella sign the Alhambra Decree, expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Roman Catholicism.
April 17 – The Capitulations of Santa Fe are signed between Christopher Columbus and the Crown of Castile, agreeing on arrangements for his forthcoming voyage. 8 June – Death of Elizabeth Woodville, the last living Yorkist queen. July 31 – The Jews are expelled from Spain. Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire, learning of this, dispatches the Ottoman Navy to bring the Jews safely to Ottoman lands to the cities of Thessaloniki and İzmir. August 3 – The Genoese navigator Christopher Columbus sails with three ships from Palos de la Frontera, in the service of the Crown of Castile, on his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, intending to reach Asia. August 11 – Pope Alexander VI succeeds Pope Innocent VIII as the 214th pope, after the 1492 papal conclave, the first held in the Sistine Chapel. September 6 – Christoper Columbus sails from La Gomera in the Canary Islands, his final port of call before crossing the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. October 3 – English army besieges Boulogne. October 11 – Several members of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus witness an unusual light.
October 12 – Christopher Columbus' expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean and lands on Guanahani, but he believes he has reached the East Indies. October 28 – Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba. November 3 – The Peace of Étaples is signed between England and France, ending French support