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1517

Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. January 22 – Battle of Ridaniya: The Ottoman forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt, under Tuman bay II. February 3 – Cairo is captured by the Ottoman Empire, the Mamluk Sultanate falls. March 16 – The Fifth Council of the Lateran ends. August 15 – Portuguese merchant Fernão Pires de Andrade meets Ming Dynasty Chinese officials through an interpreter, at the Pearl River estuary and lands, at what is now in the jurisdiction of Hong Kong. Although the first European trade expeditions to China took place in 1513 and 1516 by Jorge Álvares and Rafael Perestrello Andrade's mission is the first official diplomatic mission of a European power to China, commissioned by a ruler of Europe. October 31 – Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses. Grand Prince Vasili III of Muscovy conquers Ryazan. A third outbreak of the sweating sickness in England hits Oxford and Cambridge. Since the reestabliment of the Abbasid Caliphate of Cairo in 1261, the caliphate fall to the Ottomans.

January 17 Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English duke Antonio Scandello, Italian composer January 30 – Joannes Aurifaber Vratislaviensis, German theologian February 2 – Gotthard Kettler, Duke of Courland and Semigallia February 12 – Luigi Cornaro, Italian Catholic cardinal March 22 – Gioseffo Zarlino, Italian composer March 29 – Carlo Carafa, Italian Catholic cardinal May 1 – Svante Stensson Sture, Swedish count June 18 – Emperor Ōgimachi, Japanese emperor June 29 – Rembert Dodoens, Flemish botanist July 10 – Odet de Coligny, French cardinal and Protestant July 16 – Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk, English duchess July 20 – Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands August 20 – Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, French Catholic cardinal August 23 – Francis I, Duke of Lorraine September 6 – Francisco de Holanda, Portuguese artist October 17 – Amalia of Cleves, German princess and writer October 18 – Manuel da Nóbrega, Spanish Catholic priest December 15 – Giacomo Gaggini, Italian artist date unknown Jacques Pelletier du Mans, French mathematician Hayashi Narinaga, Japanese samurai Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, English aristocrat January 5 – Francesco Raibolini, Italian painter January 9 – Joanna of Aragon, Queen of Naples January 22 – Hadım Sinan Pasha, Ottoman grand vizier March 7 – Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal March 26 – Heinrich Isaac, Flemish composer April 15 – Tuman bay II, last Mamluk sultan of Egypt September 21 – Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, mistress of Christian II of Denmark September 24 – Frederick IV of Baden, Dutch bishop October 31 – Fra Bartolomeo, Italian artist November 6 – Wiguleus Fröschl of Marzoll, Bishop of Passau November 8 – Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, Spanish Catholic cardinal and statesman date unknown Badi' al-Zaman, Timurid ruler of Herat Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, Spanish conquistador Marcus Musurus, Greek scholar and philosopher probable Luca Pacioli, Italian mathematician Gaspar van Weerbeke, Dutch composer

O.k. (film)

O.k. is a 1970 West German anti-war film directed by Michael Verhoeven. It was chosen as West Germany's official submission to the 43rd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, but did not manage to receive a nomination; the film was entered into the 20th Berlin International Film Festival. However, the competition was cancelled and no prizes were awarded, over controversy surrounding the film. A four-man US fireteam on patrol seizes a passing young Vietnamese girl and continue to torture and kill her. Only one soldier refuses to take part in it and reports this incident to his superior, who dismisses it as simple wartime incident; as a consequence for his report, the soldier has to fear for his life. The perpetrators are convicted, although subsequent appeals reduce their sentences significantly; the plot takes place in a Bavarian forest and reenacts the 1966 Incident on Hill 192 during the Vietnam War. The soldiers wear US uniforms, have authentic names but speak with a pronounced Bavarian accent—a conscious directing decision known as Brechtian distancing effect.

Gustl Bayrhammer - Captain Vorst Hartmut Becker - Ralph Clarke Senta Berger - Herself Hanna Burgwitz - Josefine Rolf Castell - Reilly Wolfgang Fischer - Rafe Eva Mattes - Phan Ti Mao Ewald Precht - Soldier Diaz Vera Rheingold Peter van Anft Michael Verhoeven - Sven Friedrich von Thun - Sergeant Tony Meserve Rolf Zacher - Rowan During the 1970 Berlin Film Festival, the jury, headed by American film director George Stevens, decided after a 7-2 vote to remove the film from the competittion justifying their decision by citing a FIAPF guideline that said: "All film festivals should contribute to better understanding between nations". This accusation was based on the fact that the film depicted four American soldiers kidnapping, raping and shooting a Vietnamese girl named Mao until she dies. A fifth soldier on the patrol refuses to take part in the attack on the girl and his report to his commander is buried in the files. Stevens, who had served during the Second World War, claimed. One jury member, Dušan Makavejev, protested against this measure, stood up for the film and supported director Michael Verhoeven and producer Rob Houwer.

Verhoeven defended his film by stating in these terms: "I have not made an anti-American film. If I were an American, I would say my film is pro‐American; the biggest part of the American people today is against the war in Vietnam". Other directors that were taking part in the festival withdrew their films in protest; the jury was accused of censorship and disbanded, therefore no prizes were awarded and the competition was suspended. This scandal had such a big impact that it was unclear if the festival could continue to take place the next year's edition. Casualties of War depicting the Incident on Hill 192 List of submissions to the 43rd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of German submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film O. K. on IMDb o.k. at filmportal.de/en

Magicians Association of Korea

The Magicians Association of Korea is the national magicians' association of North Korea. Though Kim Jong-Il had made efforts to develop magic on a Juche basis in 1971, it was not until 2001 that a dedicated nationwide magicians' society was established; the Magicians Association of Korea was founded on 24 October of that year, with headquarters in Pyongyang and ten branches across Korea. Its goal is to contribute to the development of performance magic in the DPRK, to foster cooperation with magicians and magicians' organizations abroad. In 2002, the association was making arrangements to join the International Jugglers' Association, it was admitted to the Fédération Internationale des Sociétés Magiques in 2012; the association has developed magic acts for performance in the DPRK and abroad. These have included Kim Chol's series of large-scale performances at Pyongyang's May Day Stadium in April 2011, a touring performance in China in August 2011. Kim Thaek Song Kim Chol

Fort Nativity (Fuerte de Nacimiento)

Fort Nativity is a fort founded by Governor Alonso de Ribera on 24 December 1603 at Nacimiento, Chile 550 km south of Santiago in what is now the central part of Chile. It was constructed on the western side of the Vergara River directly to the south of the Vergara's confluence with the Bío Bío, at what was the country's southern frontier with the Araucano territories. Most of the fort's present structure dates from the middle of the eighteenth century, it has been a designated national monument since 1954 and is undergoing significant restoration following earthquake damage in 2010. The fort was named “Fuerte del Nacimiento de Nuestro Señor”, appropriate, given its foundation on a Christmas Eve. Over the years the shorter name "Fuerte de Nacimiento" has become more popular, however. Following the Disaster of Curalaba the King of Spain found himself obliged to appoint a replacement governor of Chile, in 1599 he chose the distinguished soldier Alonso de Ribera de Pareja for the post. De Ribera left Seville in April 1600.

A priority for the new governor was to secure the southern frontier of. Nacimiento was one of several frontier forts now constructed in the frontier region; the location was the site of a former Mapuche stronghold. It enjoyed superb views in all directions; the seventeenth century saw further conflict involving the Mapuche people to the south. The Mapuche Toqui led an attack on the fort on 3 February 1628, against which the Spanish captain, Pedro Junco, held out with a force of just 40 men until reinforcements arrived on the morning of 6 February; when the attackers retreated they took with muskets and two canon. After this the frequency and intensity of attacks intensified. In 1655 the defenders had to flee, they were killed by the Mapuche. The fort was rebuilt in 1662, the work being completed in 1665, but attacks continued and the site was abandoned and the colonists transferred their settlement and the fortifications to the north bank of the Bío Bío River, it was only in 1752. The Fuerte de Nacimiento is an important tourist attraction, surrounded by the settlement of some 30,000 people that has grown up around it, focused on the timber and wood pulp industries.

A major restoration was undertaken in 2008, although there was some controversy over the extent to which this involved replacing original features, plans to open up recreational and park space within the fortress walls were never implemented. The fort suffered serious earthquake damage on 27 February 2010, following which further restoration is in hand; the structure is being used for cultural and artistic events, with the hope that this may help to integrate it once more into the daily lives of the townsfolk

F.C. Be'er Sheva Haim Levy

Not to be confused with F. C. Be'er Sheva. F. C. Be'er Sheva Haim Levy, Moadon Kaduregel Be'er Sheva Haim Levy, lit. Football Club Be'er Sheva Haim Levy is an Israeli football club based in Be'er Sheva; the club is in Liga Gimel South division and play their home matches at the Reisser Synthetic Ground, which they share with youth teams of Hapoel Be'er Sheva. The club is named after Haim Levy, a fan of Hapoel Be'er Sheva, who died after battling cancer at age of 34; the club was founded in 2013 by group of Hapoel Be'er Sheva fans, which played football on Saturdays for several years, decided to form their own team and to register it in the Israel Football Association. The club consists only of Hapoel Be'er Sheva fans; the club finished their debut season in the seventh place of Liga Gimel South division. Football Club Be'er Sheva Haim Levy The Israel Football Association

Silver Lake, Staten Island

Silver Lake is the name of both a reservoir and an adjacent neighborhood in the New York City borough of Staten Island. Silver Lake Park, located on Staten Island's north shore, is bounded by Forest Avenue, Victory Boulevard and Clove Road; the original Silver Lake was a spring-fed body of water formed at the end of the ice age, now makes up the south basin of the reservoir at this site. Silver Lake was once known as Fresh Pond, but maps show that by the middle of the nineteenth century, the name Silver Lake had come into use and the two were used interchangeably until about 1860. Silver Lake was named after Mark Silver, who founded the a philanthropic organization today known as the Hebrew Free Burial Association. Mark Silver Americanized his name from Marks Silva; the Association purchased land which became the Silver Lake Cemetery and was used for charitable burials, many of the victims of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire are buried there. Silver Lake has a long history of both commercial uses.

During the 19th century, a casino and saloon existed on the lakeshore and several companies harvested its ice. Staten Islanders used the lake for boating and ice skating in that era, in February 1897, Silver Lake hosted the National Skating Amateur Championship races. By the end of the 19th century, the population of Staten Island was growing and residents were calling for land to be set aside for parks. Noting that it was prohibitively expensive and time-consuming for families to visit Manhattan's Central Park or Brooklyn's Prospect Park, prominent Staten Island writer and resident John De Morgan appealed in February 1900 to the State Assembly Committee on Cities to appropriate funds to establish Silver Lake Park. “The people of the community have a right to recreation and pleasure grounds,” he addressed Assembly members in Albany, “Where... their children kept from the contaminating influence of the saloon.” De Morgan's plea to the State Assembly worked. The original parcels for Silver Lake Park around the perimeter of the lake were condemned and purchased in 1901, 1902, 1904, at which point Staten Island parks officials began to convert the area to its current state.

As modern refrigeration replaced ice harvesting, in 1913 the lake was drained and converted to a working reservoir by the Board of Water Supply. The Board was created by the state legislature in 1905 to build the Catskill water supply system. Silver Lake Reservoir in its current form was created in 1917 when water was piped in to fill it from the Ashokan Reservoir in Ulster County, New York, 119 miles away; the water started arriving on October 25, the reservoir would become the largest body of fresh water on Staten Island. The park's underbrush began to be removed in 1921 and the natural oaks, tulip trees and sassafras were supplemented with shrubs and pine trees, flowerbeds. A January 1921 letter to the editor in the Staten Island Advance lamented the loss: “Nature encouraged rather than operated on who are so anxious to improve upon nature.” Although the park's scenery is dominated by the reservoir, other parts of the park are notable. Land from Marine Cemetery, a nineteenth-century burial site for the Marine Hospital Quarantine in Tompkinsville, was added to the park in 1924.

In 1928 the land was converted to a golf course, in 1994 researchers discovered documentation linking the site to its past use as a cemetery. Today it is thought that several thousand immigrants, including many Irish escaping Ireland's Potato Famine, who died from contagious diseases after landing in the United States are buried under the 18th fairway of the golf course; the golf course itself was completed in 1929 and tennis, biking and playground facilities were added as Silver Lake Park became a recreational hub for the developing borough. “You can visit Silver Lake Park in your Sunday suit and come away untarnished,” a 1954 Staten Island Advance piece on the borough's parks claimed. The reservoir was used for potable water until 1971 when an underground storage tank system was completed, the largest of its kind in the world. Today the reservoir is used as part of the drainage system for the tanks. In 1988, Staten Island Borough President Ralph J. Lamberti provided $1.4 million for a new administration building and children's play area.

Again in 1997, Borough President Molinari allocated $700,000 to repave walkways and to add new plants, fences, play equipment, handball courts. Silver Lake Park has many attractions, such as tennis courts, an 18-hole public golf course, a baseball field, play area, dog run; the neighborhood to the east and south features several large owned apartment buildings and three cemeteries along Victory Boulevard. Included in the neighborhood, on the other side of the adjacent Silver Lake golf course, is a series of dead-end streets located above Forest Avenue and Hart Boulevard; the dead end streets are Park Court, Edstone Drive, Rose Court and Silver Court. They comprise eighty-eight homes and are part of the Silver Lake Park Association. At the top of Hart Boulevard are the Silver Lake Tennis Courts. Adjacent to the tennis courts is a baseball field. To the west of this neighborhood are Grymes Hill, Wagner College and Sunnyside, where the Mid-Island region is said to begin. Silver Lake is served by the S48, S61, S62, S66, S91, S92 and S98 local/limited buses and the SIM30 express bus.

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